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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896159/blockade-of-endothelin-1-receptor-type-b-ameliorates-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Jan Polak, Naresh M Punjabi, Larissa A Shimoda
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been observed in OSA patients and in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). We examined whether pharmacological blockade of type A and type B ET-1 receptors (ETA and ETB ) would ameliorate glucose intolerance and IR in mice exposed to IH. Subcutaneously implanted pumps delivered BQ-123 (ETA antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day), BQ-788 (ETB antagonist; 200 nmol/kg/day) or vehicle (saline or propyleneglycol [PG]) for 14 days in C57BL6/J mice (10/group)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892042/sleep-disordered-breathing-circulating-exosomes-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-adipocytes
#2
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, David Gozal, Juan F Masa, José Maria Marin, Zhuanghong Qiao, Jaime Corral, Mónica González, Sergi Marti, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Carlos Egea, M-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Francisco J Gómez de Terreros, F Javier Barca
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB), which is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF), is a prevalent condition that promotes metabolic dysfunction, particularly among patients suffering from obstructive hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Exosomes are generated ubiquitously, are readily present in the circulation, and their cargo may exert substantial functional cellular alterations in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the effects of plasma exosomes on adipocyte metabolism in patients with OHS or in mice subjected to IH or SF mimicking SDB are unclear...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886096/a-new-therapeutic-avenue-for-bronchiectasis-dry-powder-inhaler-of-ciprofloxacin-nanoplex-exhibits-superior-ex-vivo-mucus-permeability-and-antibacterial-efficacy-to-its-native-ciprofloxacin-counterpart
#3
The-Thien Tran, Celine Vidaillac, Hong Yu, Valerie F L Yong, Dan Roizman, Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Albert Y H Lim, Teck Boon Low, Gan Liang Tan, John A Abisheganaden, Mariko Siyue Koh, Jeanette Teo, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Kunn Hadinoto
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) characterized by permanent bronchial dilatation and recurrent infections has been clinically managed by long-term intermittent inhaled antibiotic therapy among other treatments. Herein we investigated dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) nanoplex with mannitol/lactose as the excipient for NCFB therapy. The DPI of CIP nanoplex was evaluated against DPI of native CIP in terms of their (1) dissolution characteristics in artificial sputum medium, (2) ex vivo mucus permeability in sputum from NCFB and healthy individuals, (3) antibacterial efficacy in the presence of sputum against clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (planktonic and biofilm), and (4) cytotoxicity towards human lung epithelial cells...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876427/multivariate-physiological-recordings-in-an-experimental-hemorrhage-model
#4
Farid Yaghouby, Chathuri Daluwatte, Nicole R Marques, Muzna Khan, Michael Salter, Jordan Wolf, Christina Nelson, John Salsbury, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Michael Kinsky, David G Strauss, George C Kramer, Christopher G Scully
In this paper we describe a data set of multivariate physiological measurements recorded from conscious sheep ( N = 8; 37.4 ± 1.1 kg) during hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was experimentally induced in each animal by withdrawing blood from a femoral artery at two different rates (fast: 1.25 mL/kg/min; and slow: 0.25 mL/kg/min). Data, including physiological waveforms and continuous/intermittent measurements, were transformed to digital file formats (European Data Format [EDF] for waveforms and Comma-Separated Values [CSV] for continuous and intermittent measurements) as a comprehensive data set and stored and publicly shared here (Appendix A)...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874567/intermittent-fasting-confers-protection-in-cns-autoimmunity-by-altering-the-gut-microbiota
#5
Francesca Cignarella, Claudia Cantoni, Laura Ghezzi, Amber Salter, Yair Dorsett, Lei Chen, Daniel Phillips, George M Weinstock, Luigi Fontana, Anne H Cross, Yanjiao Zhou, Laura Piccio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative microbial metabolic pathways. IF altered T cells in the gut with a reduction of IL-17 producing T cells and an increase in regulatory T cells...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874566/hallmarks-of-brain-aging-adaptive-and-pathological-modification-by-metabolic-states
#6
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Thiruma V Arumugam
During aging, the cellular milieu of the brain exhibits tell-tale signs of compromised bioenergetics, impaired adaptive neuroplasticity and resilience, aberrant neuronal network activity, dysregulation of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis, the accrual of oxidatively modified molecules and organelles, and inflammation. These alterations render the aging brain vulnerable to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and stroke. Emerging findings are revealing mechanisms by which sedentary overindulgent lifestyles accelerate brain aging, whereas lifestyles that include intermittent bioenergetic challenges (exercise, fasting, and intellectual challenges) foster healthy brain aging...
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872062/intermittent-fasting-uncovers-and-rescues-cognitive-phenotypes-in-pten-neuronal-haploinsufficient-mice
#7
J V Cabral-Costa, D Z Andreotti, N P Mello, C Scavone, S Camandola, E M Kawamoto
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important protein with key modulatory functions in cell growth and survival. PTEN is crucial during embryogenesis and plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), where it directly modulates neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Loss of PTEN signaling function is associated with cognitive deficits and synaptic plasticity impairment. Accordingly, Pten mutations have a strong link with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, neuronal Pten haploinsufficient male mice were subjected to a long-term environmental intervention - intermittent fasting (IF) - and then evaluated for alterations in exploratory, anxiety and learning and memory behaviors...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867224/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-e6201-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumours-including-melanoma-results-of-a-phase-1-study
#8
Raoul Tibes, Mitesh J Borad, Corina E Dutcus, Larisa Reyderman, Kevie Feit, Andrew Eisen, David A Verbel, Daniel D Von Hoff
BACKGROUND: This phase 1 first-in-human study aimed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, and safety of E6201, and to establish recommended dosing in patients with advanced solid tumours, expanded to advanced melanoma. METHODS: Part A (dose escalation): sequential cohorts received E6201 intravenously (IV) over 30 min (once-weekly [qw; days (D)1 + 8 + 15 of a 28-day cycle]), starting at 20 mg/m2 , increasing to 720 mg/m2 or the MTD...
June 5, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867034/effect-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-on-flow-mediated-dilatation-a-measure-of-endothelial-function-a-short-report
#9
Michelle L Headland, Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
Intermittent energy restriction is a popular alternative to daily energy restriction for weight loss; however, it is unknown if endothelial function, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is altered by periods of severe energy restriction. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of two consecutive very low energy intake days, which is the core component of the 5:2 intermittent energy restriction diet strategy, on endothelial function compared to consecutive ad libitum eating days. The secondary objective was to explore the effects of these dietary conditions on fasting glucose concentrations...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851320/-fasting-during-health-and-diseases
#10
Najate Achamrah, Yves M Dupertuis, Claude Pichard
Fasting, intermittent or continuous, religious or therapeutic, is knowing a growing craze. Despite few randomized controlled studies, therapeutic fasting is prescribed in various chronic diseases, as diabetes, hypertension and also cancer. Fasting is applied to lose weight in overweight and obese patients. However, weight loss is often associated with fat-free mass loss. Chronic caloric restriction has been associated with longevity in animal studies, while it has been poorly studied in humans to date. Good quality studies are needed to better understand the effects of fasting on health and diseases...
May 30, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804127/monitoring-responses-to-variation-in-food-supply-for-a-migratory-waterfowl-american-black-duck-anas-rubripes-in-winter
#11
Perry S Barboza, Dennis G Jorde
Wintering Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) concentrate in wetlands along the Atlantic coast where natural and anthropogenic disturbances have increased over the last 50 years, a period in which the population of Black Ducks has declined. We studied the sensitivity of Black Ducks to perturbations in food supply that often result from disturbances by storms, predators, and people. In the paper, we characterize the responses of captive Black Ducks to shifts in food quality and availability during winter and apply those measures to a comparison of wild birds...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795242/interventions-to-promote-cardiometabolic-health-and-slow-cardiovascular-ageing
#12
REVIEW
Luigi Fontana
Cardiovascular ageing and the atherosclerotic process begin very early in life, most likely in utero. They progress over decades of exposure to suboptimal or abnormal metabolic and hormonal risk factors, eventually culminating in very common, costly, and mostly preventable target-organ pathologies, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and vascular dementia. In this Review, we discuss findings from preclinical and clinical studies showing that calorie restriction (CR), intermittent fasting, and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding, with adequate intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients, are powerful interventions not only for the prevention of cardiovascular disease but also for slowing the accumulation of molecular damage leading to cardiometabolic dysfunction...
May 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#13
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780328/contractile-activity-is-necessary-to-trigger-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-induced-fiber-size-and-vascular-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
David Rizo-Roca, Jèssica B Bonet, Büsra Ínal, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan R Torrella
Altitude training has become increasingly popular in recent decades. Its central and peripheral effects are well-described; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) alone on skeletal muscle morphofunctionality. Here, we studied the effects of IHH on different myofiber morphofunctional parameters, investigating whether contractile activity is required to elicit hypoxia-induced adaptations in trained rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 1 month and then divided into three groups: (1) rats in normobaria (trained normobaric inactive, TNI); (2) rats subjected daily to a 4-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia equivalent to 4,000 m (trained hypobaric inactive, THI); and (3) rats subjected daily to a 4-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia just before performing light exercise (trained hypobaric active, THA)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779947/intermittent-pili-mediated-forces-fluidize-neisseria-meningitidis-aggregates-promoting-vascular-colonization
#15
Daria Bonazzi, Valentina Lo Schiavo, Silke Machata, Ilyas Djafer-Cherif, Pierre Nivoit, Valeria Manriquez, Hirokazu Tanimoto, Julien Husson, Nelly Henry, Hugues Chaté, Raphael Voituriez, Guillaume Duménil
Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium responsible for meningitis and septicemia, proliferates and eventually fills the lumen of blood capillaries with multicellular aggregates. The impact of this aggregation process and its specific properties are unknown. We first show that aggregative properties are necessary for efficient infection and study their underlying physical mechanisms. Micropipette aspiration and single-cell tracking unravel unique features of an atypical fluidized phase, with single-cell diffusion exceeding that of isolated cells...
May 15, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779873/short-term-intermittent-fasting-induces-long-lasting-gut-health-and-tor-independent-lifespan-extension
#16
James H Catterson, Mobina Khericha, Miranda C Dyson, Alec J Vincent, Rebecca Callard, Steven M Haveron, Arjunan Rajasingam, Mumtaz Ahmad, Linda Partridge
Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF...
May 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778565/effect-of-intermittent-versus-continuous-energy-restriction-on-weight-loss-maintenance-and-cardiometabolic-risk-a-randomized-1-year-trial
#17
T M Sundfør, M Svendsen, S Tonstad
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. METHODS & RESULTS: In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m2 (mean 35...
March 29, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772330/translation-and-validation-of-the-brazilian-portuguese-short-version-of-vascular-quality-of-life-questionnaire-in-peripheral-artery-disease-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-symptoms
#18
Marilia de Almeida Correia, Aluísio Andrade-Lima, Paulo Longano Mesquita de Oliveira, Rômulo Martins Domiciano, Wagner Jorge Ribeiro Domingues, Nelson Wolosker, Pedro Puench-Leão, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato
BACKGROUND: The vascular quality of life questionnaire (VascuQoL-6) was proposed to evaluate specific quality of life in peripheral arterial disease patients (PAD). However, there is no Brazilian-Portuguese version available, blunting its use in Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of a translated Brazilian-Portuguese version of VascuQoL-6 in Brazilian patients with PAD with intermittent claudication symptoms. METHODS: One hundred and eleven patients with PAD participated in the study...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765510/correlation-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-sleep-apnea
#19
REVIEW
Alejandro Castaneda, Edgar Jauregui-Maldonado, Iqbal Ratnani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani
The so-called "metabolic syndrome" (MS), constitutes a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, including fasting glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and waist circumference that arise from insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, involving cessation or significant decreased airflow, with intermittent hypoxemia, frequent arousals from sleep and recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations that interfere with normal sleep patterns generating difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep and loud snoring...
April 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762016/rapid-2-ms-interrogation-of-electrochemical-aptamer-based-sensor-response-using-intermittent-pulse-amperometry
#20
Mirelis Santos-Cancel, Robert Alexander Lazenby, Ryan J White
In this manuscript, we employ the technique intermittent pulse amperometry (IPA) to interrogate equilibrium and kinetic target binding to the surface of electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors, achieving as fast as 2 ms time resolution. E-AB sensors comprise an electrode surface modified with a flexible nucleic acid aptamer tethered at the 3'-terminus with a redox-active molecule. The introduction of a target changes the conformation and flexibility of the nucleic acid which alters the charge transfer rate of the appended redox molecule...
May 15, 2018: ACS Sensors
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