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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817100/modulatory-effects-of-exogenously-applied-polyamines-on-postharvest-physiology-antioxidant-system-and-shelf-life-of-fruits-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Sunil Sharma, Sunil Pareek, Narashans Alok Sagar, Daniel Valero, Maria Serrano
Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816619/a-survey-of-the-pyrabactin-resistance-like-abscisic-acid-receptor-gene-family-in-poplar
#2
Jingling Yu, Hejuan Li, Yajing Peng, Lei Yang, Fugeng Zhao, Sheng Luan, Wenzhi Lan
The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use in order to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#3
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816051/lipid-stabilized-water-oil-interfaces-studied-by-micro-focusing-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#4
Emanuela Di Cola, Kristian Torbensen, Ilaria Clemente, Federico Rossi, Sandra Ristori, Ali Abou-Hassan
Water in oil (w/o) simple emulsions are dispersed micro-confined systems which find applications in many areas of advanced materials and biotechnology, such as food industry, drug delivery and cosmetics, to name but a few. In these systems, the structural and chemical properties of the boundary layer at the w/o interface are of paramount importance to determine functionality and stability. Recently, microfluidic methods have emerged as a valuable tool to fabricate monodisperse emulsion droplets. Due to the intrinsic flexibility of microfluidics, different interfaces can be obtained, and general principles governing the interfacial stability are needed to guide the experimental approach...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815907/t7-rna-polymerase-driven-inducible-cell-lysis-for-dna-transfer-from-escherichia-coli-to-bacillus-subtilis
#5
Mario Juhas, James W Ajioka
The majority of the good DNA editing techniques have been developed in Escherichia coli; however, Bacillus subtilis is better host for a plethora of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications. Reliable and efficient systems for the transfer of synthetic DNA between E. coli and B. subtilis are therefore of the highest importance. Using synthetic biology approaches, such as streamlined lambda Red recombineering and Gibson Isothermal Assembly, we integrated genetic circuits pT7L123, Repr-ts-1 and pLT7pol encoding the lysis genes of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and lambda, the thermosensitive repressor and the T7 RNA polymerase into the E...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815759/prediction-of-reduction-potentials-of-copper-proteins-with-continuum-electrostatics-and-density-functional-theory
#6
Nicholas J Fowler, Christopher F Blanford, Jim Warwicker, Samuel de Visser
Blue copper proteins, such as azurin, show dramatic changes in Cu2+/Cu+ reduction potential upon mutation over the full physiological range. Hence they have important functions in electron transfer and oxidation chemistry and may have potential in biotechnology. The details of what determines these reduction potential changes upon mutation are still unclear. Moreover, it has been difficult to model and predict the reduction potential of azurin mutants and currently no unique procedure or workflow pattern exists...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815751/flow-cytometry-in-spermatology-a-bright-future-ahead
#7
REVIEW
C Ortega-Ferrusola, M C Gil, H Rodríguez-Martínez, L Anel, F J Peña, P Martín-Muñoz
Techniques such as mass spectrometry have led to unprecedented knowledge of the proteins that are present in the spermatozoa of humans and other mammals. However, in spite of their high-throughput and fractioning techniques, most of the techniques in use only offer average values for the entire sperm population. Yet, ejaculate is very heterogeneous, and average values may mask relevant biological information.The application of flow cytometry may overcome this disadvantage, allowing proteomic analysis at the single-cell level...
August 15, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815469/metagenome-analysis-a-powerful-tool-for-enzyme-bioprospecting
#8
Aravind Madhavan, Raveendran Sindhu, Binod Parameswaran, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Ashok Pandey
Microorganisms are found throughout every corner of nature, and vast number of microorganisms is difficult to cultivate by classical microbiological techniques. The advent of metagenomics has revolutionized the field of microbial biotechnology. Metagenomics allow the recovery of genetic material directly from environmental niches without any cultivation techniques. Currently, metagenomic tools are widely employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the uncultivable component of microbial communities...
August 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814973/photoautotrophic-production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-a-synthetic-mixed-culture-of-synechococcus-elongatus-cscb-and-pseudomonas-putida-cscab
#9
Hannes Löwe, Karina Hobmeier, Manuel Moos, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814242/antimicrobial-peptides-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-in-tackling-antimicrobial-resistance
#10
Ramya Nuti, Sridhar Goud, A Prasanth Saraswati, Ravi Alvala, Mallika Alvala
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812235/patent-ethics-the-misalignment-of-views-between-the-patent-system-and-the-wider-society
#11
Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Anders Braarud Hanssen, Hanne Marie Nielsen, Ingrid Olesen
Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811463/a-light-regulated-host-guest-based-nanochannel-system-inspired-by-channelrhodopsins-protein
#12
Yue Sun, Junkai Ma, Fan Zhang, Fei Zhu, Yuxiao Mei, Lu Liu, Demei Tian, Haibing Li
The light-controlled gating of ion transport across membranes is central to nature (e.g., in protein channels). Herein, inspired by channelrhodopsins, we introduce a facile non-covalent approach towards light-responsive biomimetic channelrhodopsin nanochannels using host-guest interactions between a negative pillararene host and a positive azobenzene guest. By switching between threading and dethreading states with alternating visible and UV light irradiation, the functional channels can be flexible to regulate the inner surface charge of the channels, which in turn was exploited to achieve different forms of ion transport, for instance, cation-selective transport and anion-selective transport...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810516/lectin-from-inflorescences-of-ornamental-crop-alpinia-purpurata-acts-on-immune-cells-to-promote-th1-and-th17-responses-nitric-oxide-release-and-lymphocyte-activation
#13
Jéssica de Santana Brito, Gustavo Ramos Salles Ferreira, Emeline Klimczak, Liliya Gryshuk, Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos, Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota, Leyllane Rafael Moreira, Ana Karine Araújo Soares, Bruno Rafael Barboza, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de Melo, Marília Cavalcanti Coriolano, Thiago Henrique Napoleão
Alpinia purpurata is an ornamental crop known as a source of bioactive molecules. This is the first study to report isolation of a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) from A. purpurata inflorescences (ApuL). The immunomodulatory potential of ApuL was evaluated by investigating its effects on the production of cytokines and release of nitric oxide by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, the differentiation and activation of lymphocytes treated with ApuL was evaluated by immunophenotyping assays...
August 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809958/a-cre1-regulated-cluster-is-responsible-for-light-dependent-production-of-dihydrotrichotetronin-in-trichoderma-reesei
#14
Alberto Alonso Monroy, Eva Stappler, Andre Schuster, Michael Sulyok, Monika Schmoll
Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809451/roads-to-advanced-vaccines-influenza-case-study
#15
Peggy Riese, Carlos A Guzmán
Vaccines represent a cornerstone to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. However, there are many diseases for which vaccines are not available, are relatively ineffective or need to be adapted periodically. Advances in microbial biotechnology will contribute to overcoming these roadblocks by laying the groundwork for improving and creating new approaches for developing better vaccines, as illustrated here in the case of influenza.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809103/a-chiral-pedot-based-enantioselective-electrode-modification-material-for-chiral-electrochemical-sensing-mechanism-and-model-of-chiral-recognition
#16
Liqi Dong, Youshan Zhang, Xuemin Duan, Xiaofei Zhu, Hui Sun, Jingkun Xu
The development of electrochemical methods for enantioselective recognition is a focus of research in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. In this study, a pair of water-soluble chiral 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) derivatives-(R)-2'-hydroxymethyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene ((R)-EDTM) and (S)-2'-hydroxymethyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene ((S)-EDTM)-were synthesized and electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via current-time (I-t) polymerization in an aqueous LiClO4 electrolyte. These chiral PEDOT polymers were used to fabricate chiral sensors and to investigate the enantioselective recognition of D-/L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-/L-tryptophan and (R)-/(S)-propranolol enantiomers, respectively...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808380/identification-and-analysis-of-jasmonate-pathway-genes-in-coffea-canephora-robusta-coffee-by-in-silico-approach
#17
Kosaraju Bharathi, H L Sreenath
BACKGROUND: Coffea canephora is the commonly cultivated coffee species in the world along with Coffea arabica. Different pests and pathogens affect the production and quality of the coffee. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in plants growth, development, and defense mechanisms, particularly against insect pests. The key enzymes involved in the production of JA are lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic reductase...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808315/modular-serial-flow-through-device-for-pulsed-electric-field-treatment-of-the-liquid-samples
#18
Maša Kandušer, Aleš Belič, Selma Čorović, Igor Škrjanc
In biotechnology, medicine, and food processing, simple and reliable methods for cell membrane permeabilization are required for drug/gene delivery into the cells or for the inactivation of undesired microorganisms. Pulsed electric field treatment is among the most promising methods enabling both aims. The drawback in current technology is controllable large volume operation. To address this challenge, we have developed an experimental setup for flow through electroporation with online regulation of the flow rate with feedback control...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807232/ovarian-cancer-novel-molecular-aspects-for-clinical-assessment
#19
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Erica Silvestris, Stella D'Oronzo, Angela Cardascia, Franco Silvestris
Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806130/existential-risk-and-cost-effective-biosecurity
#20
Piers Millett, Andrew Snyder-Beattie
In the decades to come, advanced bioweapons could threaten human existence. Although the probability of human extinction from bioweapons may be low, the expected value of reducing the risk could still be large, since such risks jeopardize the existence of all future generations. We provide an overview of biotechnological extinction risk, make some rough initial estimates for how severe the risks might be, and compare the cost-effectiveness of reducing these extinction-level risks with existing biosecurity work...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
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