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braf thyroid

Lihua Huang, Xuming Wang, Xuan Huang, Huawei Gui, Yan Li, Qiongxia Chen, Dongling Liu, Lijiang Liu
The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of BRAF mutation and the expression profiles of CK19, galectin-3, CD56, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and Ki67 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma (PTMC). A total of 246 cases of thyroid disease were collected, including PTC, PTMC, nodular goiter (NG) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The results revealed that CK19 expression was 116/120 in PTC, 61/64 in PTMC, 2/34 in NG and 1/28 in HT. Galectin-3 positive expression was 115/120 in PTC, 60/64 in PTMC, 6/34 in NG and 4/28 in HT...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Sann Y Mon, Gregory Riedlinger, Collette E Abbott, Raja Seethala, N Paul Ohori, Marina N Nikiforova, Yuri E Nikiforov, Steven P Hodak
BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. METHODS: To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing...
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Thomas C Beadnell, Kelsey W Nassar, Madison M Rose, Erin G Clark, Brian P Danysh, Marie-Claude Hofmann, Nikita Pozdeyev, Rebecca E Schweppe
Advanced stages of papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer continue to be plagued by a dismal prognosis, which is a result of limited effective therapies for these cancers. Due to the high proportion of thyroid cancers harboring mutations in the MAPK pathway, the MAPK pathway has become a focal point for therapeutic intervention in thyroid cancer. Unfortunately, unlike melanoma, a similar responsiveness to MAPK pathway inhibition has yet to be observed in thyroid cancer patients. To address this issue, we have focused on targeting the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, and we and others have demonstrated that targeting Src results in inhibition of growth, invasion, and migration both in vitro and in vivo, which can be enhanced through the combined inhibition of Src and the MAPK pathway...
February 28, 2018: Oncogenesis
Ewelina Perdas, Robert Stawski, Dariusz Nowak, Maria Zubrzycka
Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive detection method for molecular biomarkers such as miRNA and cell free DNA in body fluids. Deregulations of miRNA are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), one the most common endocrine malignancy. The most widespread common mutations detected in papillary thyroid cancers are BRAF mutations. Many studies indicate that the BRAF mutation is related to deregulation of miRNA. p53 has an important role in cell cycle control, DNA repair and apoptosis. Moreover, the p53 can regulate the expression of miRNAs and thus participate in thyroid oncogenesis...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung, Zhiyan Liu, Kennichi Kakudo
The introduction of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was initiated and promoted by pathologists. Recent Asian studies added new knowledge to the existing literature to aid a better understanding of NIFTP. Our original data and the results of a meta-analysis suggest that the initial rate of NIFTP has been overestimated, averaging 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-12.7%) of all papillary thyroid cancers worldwide. The incidence of NIFTP in the Asian population (1...
February 23, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Claudio Bellevicine, Roberta Sgariglia, Ilaria Migliatico, Elena Vigliar, Melania D'Anna, Maria Antonia Nacchio, Nicola Serra, Umberto Malapelle, Massimo Bongiovanni, Giancarlo Troncone
BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) includes fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that cannot straightforwardly be classified as benign or malignant. To determine whether morphological subcategorization based on atypia qualifiers and molecular testing could improve malignancy risk stratification of AUS/FLUS patients, this study assessed the correlation between these qualifiers and the molecular alterations commonly harbored by thyroid neoplasms...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Emira Ayroldi, Maria Grazia Petrillo, Maria Cristina Marchetti, Lorenza Cannarile, Simona Ronchetti, Erika Ricci, Luigi Cari, Nicola Avenia, Sonia Moretti, Efisio Puxeddu, Carlo Riccardi
Long glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (L-GILZ) has recently been implicated in cancer cell proliferation. Here, we investigated its role in human thyroid cancer cells. L-GILZ protein was highly expressed in well-differentiated cancer cells from thyroid cancer patients and differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines, but poorly expressed in anaplastic tumors. A fusion protein containing L-GILZ, when overexpressed in an L-GILZ-deficient 8505C cell line derived from undifferentiated human thyroid cancer tissue, inhibited cellular proliferation in vitro...
February 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Serena Trubini, Alessandro Ubiali, Carlo Terenzio Paties, Luigi Cavanna
In melanoma, a number of specific genetic and genomic aberrations have been identified to be important in tumorigenesis. In particular, the mutant B-Raf proto-oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase (BRAF) gene is the target of tailored therapy with kinase inhibitor molecules. Identification of the array of mutations in patients with melanoma will be useful in determining a genetic profile of the tumor with potential implications for treatment decisions. A rare aminoacidic insertion in codon 599 of the BRAF gene (c...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Hironao Yasuoka, Yasushi Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Toshiro Shimo, Masayuki Tori, Yuuki Matsui, Yasushi Sakamaki, Masahiko Tsujimoto
A rare case of a metastatic ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of the lung that transformed into a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that resembles pulmonary SCC is reported. A subcutaneous ectopic PTC in the left anterior neck area, together with a normal thyroid gland, were excised. The ectopic PTC showed thyroglobulin, TTF-1 and PAX-8 immunoreactivity and a BRAF V600E mutation. During the post-operative follow-up period, a rapidly growing 2 cm nodular lesion in the lower left lobe of the lung was detected...
February 16, 2018: Pathology International
Mijin Kim, MinJi Jeon, Hye-Seon Oh, Suyeon Park, Tae Yong Kim, YoungKee Shong, Won Bae Kim, Kyunggon Kim, Won Gu Kim, Dong Eun Song
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor previously known as non-invasive subtype of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). The absence of <i>BRAF<sup>V600E</sup></i> mutations has been considered characteristic of NIFTPs. However, a recent study from Korea found that 28.6% of NIFTPs harbored a <i>BRAF</i> mutation. In this study, we evaluated <i>BRAF</i> and <i>RAS</i> mutations in NIFTPs and invasive subtype of EFVPTCs...
February 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Alessia Parascandolo, Mikko O Laukkanen, Nancy De Rosa, Clara Ugolini, Maria Carmela Cantisani, Anna Maria Cirafici, Fulvio Basolo, Massimo Santoro, Maria Domenica Castellone
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway regulates embryonic development of different organs including the thyroid gland. The aberrant activation of Shh signaling has been found in several types of cancer and according to recent evidences it represents an important regulator of tumor-stroma interaction. In this study, we have analyzed expression, activation and molecular mechanisms regulating the Shh pathway and its involvement in the modulation of tumor stroma interaction in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. Our results suggest that Shh signaling undergoes a dual mechanism of induction in ATC cells: 1) a basal non-canonical Smo-dependent activation of Gli transcription factor that is partly caused by interaction with the RAS/BRAF/MEK oncogenic pathway and is characterized by the absence of Shh ligand expression in thyroid cancer cells and 2) a paracrine response of cancer cells to Shh ligand secreted by tumor stroma (fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs) inducing cancer cell migration and in vitro tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Andrea Cacciato Insilla, Agnese Proietti, Nicla Borrelli, Elisabetta Macerola, Cristina Niccoli, Paolo Vitti, Paolo Miccoli, Fulvio Basolo
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and accounts for ~80% of thyroid carcinomas in adults and 90% in children. Risk stratification is important for identifying patients at higher risk and, for this reason, recent advances in molecular genetics of thyroid cancer can be applied to provide novel biomarkers useful in understanding tumor behavior. B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) and rat sarcoma (RAS) mutations have been widely studied and appear to have an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Ryota Otsubo, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Yuko Akazawa, Ayako Sato, Katsuya Matsuda, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Michiko Matsuse, Norisato Mitsutake, Takao Ando, Daisuke Niino, Takeshi Nagayasu, Masahiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: There have been great concerns about pediatric thyroid cancers after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 7-year-old Japanese girl with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) harboring an ETV6/NTRK3 rearrangement. The patient presented with tumors in both lobes and underwent thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation. Histopathology showed a classic type of PTC with cervical lymph node metastasis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Christelle de la Fouchardière, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci, Julien Berthiller, Françoise Descotes, Jonathan Lopez, Jean-Christophe Lifante, Jean-Louis Peix, Anne-Laure Giraudet, Armelle Delahaye, Sandrine Masson, Claire Bournaud-Salinas, Françoise Borson Chazot
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) is heterogeneous though generally poor. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical and molecular factors of poor prognosis. METHODS: One hundred four consecutive patients treated for a PDTC between 01/01/2000 and 31/12/2010 were included in this study. A pathological review was done for all cases (blinded to clinical data and outcome). RESULTS: All patients underwent thyroidectomy...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Livia Lamartina, Giorgio Grani, Cosimo Durante, Sebastiano Filetti
The main clinical challenge in the management of thyroid cancer is to avoid over-treatment and over-diagnosis in patients with lower-risk disease while promptly identifying those patients with more advanced or high-risk disease requiring aggressive treatment. In recent years, novel clinical and molecular data have emerged, allowing the development of new staging systems, predictive and prognostic tools, and treatment approaches. There has been a notable shift toward more conservative management of low- and intermediate-risk patients, characterized by less extensive surgery, more selective use of radioisotopes (for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes), and less intensive follow-up...
2018: F1000Research
Kyle C Strickland, Markus Eszlinger, Ralf Paschke, Trevor E Angell, Erik K Alexander, Ellen Marqusee, Matthew A Nehs, Vickie Y Jo, Alarice Lowe, Marina Vivero, Monica Hollowell, Xiaohua Qian, Tad Wieczorek, Christopher A French, Lisa A Teot, Edmund S Cibas, Neal I Lindeman, Jeffrey F Krane, Justine A Barletta
Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Zhou-Ci Zheng, Qing-Xuan Wang, Wei Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Du-Ping Huang
Background: In contrast to the excellent prognosis for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the high incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) markedly increases the risk of recurrence and secondary surgery. Thus, novel biomarkers must be urgently identified to assess LNM for patients with PTC. NCOA5 is deeply involved in the progression of human cancer; however, its role in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Patients and methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted to investigate the expression of NCOA5 in PTC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hye Seon Oh, Hyemi Kwon, Suyeon Park, Mijin Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim, Jene Choi, Won Gu Kim, Dong Eun Song
BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most common genetic alteration identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Because of its costs effectiveness and sensitivity, direct Sanger sequencing has several limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an alternative method to detect the BRAF(V600E) mutation in preoperative and postoperative tissue samples. METHODS: We evaluated 71 patients who underwent thyroid surgery with the result of direct sequencing of the BRAF(V600E) mutation...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aiwen Ma, Hongfeng Liu
RATIONALE: Ectopic thyroid is commonly found in the neck region. Intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in the pancreatic region. Very few reports have described detailed imaging findings of intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old woman with aggravated recurrent right upper quadrant pain was found to have a retroperitoneal mass at the head of pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined, high attenuated (56HU) mass measured of 60 × 50 mm in diameter, that exhibited heterogeneous contrast enhancement throughout the 3 phases...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carrie Cunningham Lubitz, Tiannan Zhan, Viswanath Gunda, Salma Amin, Benjamin J Gigliotti, Abbey L Fingeret, Tammy Holm, Heather Wachtel, Peter M Sadow, Lori Wirth, Ryan J Sullivan, D Panka, Sareh Parangi
BACKGROUND: BRAFV600E is the most common mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and can be associated with aggressive disease. We previously reported a highly sensitive blood RNA-based BRAFV600E assay. Our objective was to assess the correlation of BRAFV600E circulating tumor RNA levels with surgical and medical treatment. METHODS: We assessed circulating BRAFV600E levels in 1) a murine model of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (ATC) with known BRAFV600E mutation undergoing BRAFV600E-inhibitor (BRAFi) treatment and 2) in 111 patients enrolled prior to thyroidectomy (n=86) or treatment of advanced recurrent or metastatic PTC (n=25)...
January 29, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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