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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159351/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-supercontraction-induced-molecular-disorientation-of-major-ampullate-spider-silk
#1
J Dionne, T Lefèvre, P Bilodeau, M Lamarre, M Auger
Spider silks exhibit remarkable properties, among which the so-called supercontraction, a physical phenomenon by which fibers undergo a longitudinal shrinkage and a radial swelling when exposed to water. The process is marked by a significant decrease in chain orientation resulting from plasticisation of the amorphous phase. Despite several studies that determined the Hermans orientation function, more quantitative data are required to be able to describe theoretically the macroscopic water-induced shrinkage from molecular reorganization...
November 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157784/deriving-muscle-fiber-diameter-from-recorded-single-fiber-potential
#2
Ewa Zalewska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. METHODS: Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. RESULTS: Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle...
November 17, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156614/a-loop-all-fiber-current-sensor-based-on-single-polarization-single-mode-couplers
#3
Hao Zhang, Junzhen Jiang, Yu Zhang, Huaixi Chen, Na Zhao, Lingyan Lin, Yishen Qiu
Low current sensitivity and insufficient system stability are two key problems in all-fiber current sensor (AFCS) studies. In order to solve the two problems, a novel AFCS combining single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) couplers and a loop structure is presented in this paper with a design that incorporates the advantages of both SPSM couplers and a loop structure. SPSM couplers are shown to simplify the AFCS system and reduce the risk of interference, and the loop structure can enhance the current sensitivity...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155550/carbon-fiber-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-analytes-in-vapor-liquid-and-solid-phases
#4
Min-Li Wu, Te-Yu Chen, Yen-Chun Chen, Yu-Chie Chen
Various ionization methods in mass spectrometry (MS) are available for the analysis of analytes with different properties. Nonetheless, using a single ionization method to analyze mixtures containing analytes with different polarities and volatiles in different phases at atmospheric pressure remains a challenge. Exploring an ionization method that can ionize small organics and large biomolecules with different properties for MS analysis is advantageous. Carbon fiber ionization mass spectrometry (CFI-MS) that uses a carbon fiber bundle as the ion source is useful for the analysis of small organics with low polarities...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153746/degree-of-conversion-of-resin-cement-with-varying-methacrylate-compositions-used-to-cement-fiber-dowels-a-raman-spectroscopy-study
#5
Abdulelah M BinMahfooz, Osama A Qutub, Thamer Y Marghalani, Mohammed F Ayad, Abdulhamaid A Maghrabi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Studies on the degree of conversion of dental cement in relation to the number of methacrylate components are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of conversion of single- and multicomponent methacrylate-containing dental cements around opaque and translucent fiber dowels at varying depths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were prepared for standard endodontic therapy, and a dowel space was created...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153717/biomass-derived-porous-carbon-modified-glass-fiber-separator-as-polysulfide-reservoir-for-li-s-batteries
#6
Ramakrishnan Kalai Selvan, Pei Zhu, Chaoi Yan, Jiadeng Zhu, Mahmut Dirican, A Shanmugavani, Yun Sung Lee, Xiangwu Zhang
Biomass-derived porous carbon has been considered as a promising sulfur host material for lithium-sulfur batteries because of its high conductive nature and large porosity. The present study explored biomass-derived porous carbon as polysulfide reservoir to modify the surface of glass fiber (GF) separator. Two different carbons were prepared from Oak Tree fruit shells by carbonization with and without KOH activation. The KOH activated porous carbon (AC) provides a much higher surface area (796 m(2) g(-1)) than pyrolized carbon (PC) (334 m(2) g(-1))...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151107/repeated-micro-trauma-of-the-penile-tunica-albuginea-a-new-animal-model-of-peyronie-s-disease
#7
Hesong Jiang, Qingqiang Gao, Xiaoyan Che, Leilei Zhu, Zheng Zhang, Yun Chen, Yutian Dai
OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of repairing injured tunica albuginea (PTA) of rat penis by single or repeated local injections of chlorhexidine ethanol (ChE) into the PTA and to establish a new animal model of Peyronie's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two rats were divided into 7 groups. Rats either served as the normal control group with 1-5 injections of 0.9% saline or they received a single injection, 2, 3, 4, or 5 injections of ChE (0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate plus 15% ethanol dissolved in saline); rats in the positive control group were injected with TGF-β1...
November 18, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150767/cell-migration-in-1d-and-2d-nanofiber-microenvironments
#8
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150079/mechanism-hypotheses-for-the-electrophysiological-manifestations-of-two-cases-of-endplate-acetylcholinesterase-deficiency-related-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#9
Qingyun Ding, Dongchao Shen, Yi Dai, Youfang Hu, Yuzhou Guan, Mingsheng Liu, Liying Cui
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the electrophysiological characteristics of two cases of endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (EAD) related congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by COLQ mutation and to discuss the possible mechanism of these electrophysiological phenomena. METHODS: Electrophysiological examinations were conducted including nerve conduction studies, routine electromyography (EMG), repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149722/effects-of-middle-ear-quasi-static-stiffness-on-sound-transmission-quantified-by-a-novel-3-axis-optical-force-sensor
#10
Ivo Dobrev, Jae Hoon Sim, Baktash Aqtashi, Alexander M Huber, Thomas Linder, Christof Röösli
BACKGROUND: Intra-operative quantification of the ossicle mobility could provide valuable feedback for the current status of the patient's conductive hearing. However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles. This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a) using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b) by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear...
November 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149285/draft-genome-analysis-provides-insights-into-the-fiber-yield-crude-protein-biosynthesis-and-vegetative-growth-of-domesticated-ramie-boehmeria-nivea-l-gaud
#11
Chan Liu, Liangbin Zeng, Siyuan Zhu, Lingqing Wu, Yanzhou Wang, Shouwei Tang, Hongwu Wang, Xia Zheng, Jian Zhao, Xiaorong Chen, Qiuzhong Dai, Touming Liu
Plentiful bast fiber, a high crude protein content, and vigorous vegetative growth make ramie a popular fiber and forage crop. Here, we report the draft genome of ramie, along with a genomic comparison and evolutionary analysis. The draft genome contained a sequence of approximately 335.6 Mb with 42,463 predicted genes. A high-density genetic map with 4,338 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed and used to anchor the genome sequence, thus, creating an integrated genetic and physical map containing a 58...
November 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149054/a-dual-polymer-fiber-fizeau-interferometer-for-simultaneous-measurement-of-relative-humidity-and-temperature
#12
Chao-Tsung Ma, Yu-Wei Chang, Yuan-Jie Yang, Cheng-Ling Lee
This paper presents a novel design method in which a dual-polymer fiber Fizeau interferometer (DPFFI) is proposed for simultaneously measuring relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T). Since the polymer is intrinsically highly sensitive to both RH and T, the polymer fiber Fizeau interferometer (PFFI) exhibits cross-sensitivity of RH and T. In general, it is difficult to demodulate the optical responses from both variations of RH and T using a single PFFI. If two PFFIs with different structures are combined, they will individually exhibit distinct sensitivity responses with respect to RH and T, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148118/role-of-the-combination-of-fa-and-t2-parameters-as-a-new-diagnostic-method-in-therapeutic-evaluation-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Yuan Fang, Tao Zheng, Lanxiang Liu, Dawei Gao, Qinglei Shi, Yanchao Dong, Dan Du
BACKGROUND: Simple diffusion delivery (SDD) has attained good effects with only tiny amounts of drugs. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and relaxation time T2* that indicate the integrity of fiber tracts and iron concentration within brain tissue were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SDD. PURPOSE: To evaluate therapeutic effect of SDD in the Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model with FA and T2* parameters. STUDY TYPE: Prospective case-control animal study...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145649/single-molecule-compaction-of-megabase-long-chromatin-molecules-by-multivalent-cations
#14
Anatoly Zinchenko, Nikolay V Berezhnoy, Sai Wang, William M Rosencrans, Nikolay Korolev, Johan R C van der Maarel, Lars Nordenskiöld
To gain insight into the conformational properties and compaction of megabase-long chromatin molecules, we reconstituted chromatin from T4 phage DNA (165 kb) and recombinant human histone octamers (HO). The unimolecular compaction, induced by divalent Mg2+ or tetravalent spermine4+ cations, studied by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (FM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques, resulted in the formation of 250-400 nm chromatin condensates. The compaction on this scale of DNA size is comparable to that of chromatin topologically associated domains (TAD) in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#15
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144730/cancer-protrusions-on-a-tightrope-nanofiber-curvature-contrast-quantitates-single-protrusion-dynamics
#16
Brian Koons, Puja Sharma, Zhou Ye, Apratim Mukherjee, Meng Horng Lee, Denis Wirtz, Bahareh Behkam, Amrinder Singh Nain
Cell migration is studied with the traditional focus on protrusion driven cell body displacement, while less is known on morphodynamics of individual protrusions themselves, especially in fibrous environments mimicking extracellular matrix. Here, using suspended fibers, we report integrative and multiscale abilities to study protrusive behavior independent of cell body migration. By manipulating the diameter of fibers in orthogonal directions, we constrain cell migration along large diameter (2 µm) base fibers, while solely allowing cells to sense, initiate, and mature protrusions on orthogonally deposited high curvature-low diameter (~100, 200 and 600 nm) protrusive fibers and low-curvature (~300 and 600 nm width) protrusive flat ribbons...
November 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143476/differences-in-innervated-neurons-of-the-internal-anal-sphincter-based-on-age-and-sex-a-histological-study
#17
Tomoaki Kaneko, Tetsuo Nemoto, Kimihiko Funahashi, Junichi Koike, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Hironori Kaneko
AIM: Previous studies have shown sex and age differences in anal sphincter function, but few morphological studies have focused on the quality and quantity of the nerves that control the sphincter muscles. The present study aimed to determine whether there are morphological and quantitative sex and age differences in the nerves in the conjoined longitudinal muscle. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study using surgical specimens from 44 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection between 2003 and 2012...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141672/a-novel-git2-braf-fusion-in-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#18
Jeffrey Helgager, Hart G Lidov, Navin R Mahadevan, Mark W Kieran, Keith L Ligon, Sanda Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is the most common genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and leads to activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Fusions of BRAF with other partner genes, as well as other genetic alterations not involving BRAF but also leading to MAPK pathway activation have been described rarely. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a new fusion partner in the low-grade glioma of a 10-year-old male, who presented with headaches and recent episodes of seizures...
November 15, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140361/self-referenced-octave-wide-subharmonic-gap-optical-parametric-oscillator-centered-at-3%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-and-pumped-by-an-er-fiber-laser
#19
Qitian Ru, Zachary E Loparo, XiaoSheng Zhang, Sean Crystal, Subith Vasu, Peter G Schunemann, Konstantin L Vodopyanov
We report an octave-wide mid-IR spectrum (2.3-4.8 μm) obtained from a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a newly developed nonlinear crystal, orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP), which was synchronously pumped by a femtosecond 1560 nm fiber laser. We proved that the octave-wide output is in the form of a single frequency comb. The observed f-to-2f frequency beats, originating directly from the OPO, can be used for self-referencing and phase locking of the pump laser comb with no need for supercontinuum generation...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140350/performance-optimization-of-hollow-core-fiber-photothermal-gas-sensors
#20
Yuechuan Lin, Wei Jin, Fan Yang, Yanzhen Tan, Hoi Lut Ho
We report performance optimization of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) photothermal (PT) gas sensors. The PT phase modulation efficiency of a C2H2 filled HC-PBF (HC-1550-02) is found independent of the pump modulation frequency for up to ∼330  kHz, but starts to drop quickly to 10% of the maximum value at a couple of megahertz. With a 1.1 m long HC-PBF gas cell with angle-cleaved single-mode fiber/HC-PBF joints to reduce reflection and a modified 3×3 Sagnac interferometer with balanced detection for phase demodulation, a noise equivalent concentration of ∼67  ppbC2H2 is achieved with a 1 s time constant, and it goes down to ∼18  ppb with 145 s integration time...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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