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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430255/widely-tunable-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-continuous-wave-and-mode-locked-fiber-laser
#1
Wanzhuo Ma, Tianshu Wang, Yan Zhang, Peng Liu, Yuwei Su, Qingsong Jia, Mingzhe Bi, Peng Zhang, Huilin Jiang
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a widely tunable mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser. The laser can operate at both continuous-wave and mode-locked states at different pump power levels. A classic nonlinear polarization rotation structure is employed to obtain the passive mode-locked laser. A birefringence Lyot filter as a fiber comb filter is used to expand the tuning range. Thanks to the filtering component, the tuning range of the continuous-wave laser can reach 127 nm (1823-1950 nm). The tuning ranges of the single-wavelength and dual-wavelength mode-locked lasers are 94 nm (1835-1929 nm) and 87 nm (1831-1918 nm), respectively, with a 3...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430252/measuring-spatiotemporal-ultrafast-field-structures-of-pulses-from-multimode-optical-fibers
#2
Zhe Guang, Michelle Rhodes, Rick Trebino
Ultrashort pulses emerging from multimode optical fibers are spatiotemporally complex, because inside these fibers the modes have different spatial intensity patterns and experience different propagation velocities and dispersions. To determine the spatiotemporal field from multimode fibers, we applied a technique for the complete measurement of the output pulses called a spatially and temporally resolved intensity and phase evaluation device: full information from a single hologram. It yields the complete electric field over space and time from multiple digital holograms, simultaneously recorded at different frequencies on a single camera frame...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430245/operation-of-ho-yag-ultrafast-laser-inscribed-waveguide-lasers
#3
Sean McDaniel, Fiona Thorburn, Adam Lancaster, Ronald Stites, Gary Cook, Ajoy Kar
We report fabrication and operation of multi-watt level waveguide lasers utilizing holmium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG). The waveguides were fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription, which relies on a chirped pulse ytterbium fiber laser to create depressed cladding structures inside the material. A variety of waveguides were created inside the Ho:YAG samples. We demonstrate output powers of ∼2  W from both a single-mode 50 μm waveguide laser and a multimode 80 μm waveguide laser. In addition, laser action from a co-doped Yb:Ho:YAG sample under in-band pumping conditions was demonstrated...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430226/stable-nanosecond-passively-q-switched-all-fiber-erbium-doped-laser-with-a-45%C3%A2-tilted-fiber-grating
#4
Tianxing Wang, Zhijun Yan, Chengbo Mou, Kaiming Zhou, Lin Zhang
Nanosecond passive Q-switching generation from an all-fiber erbium-doped laser with a UV inscribed 45° tilted fiber grating (TFG) is systematically demonstrated. The 45° TFG is employed as a polarizer together with two polarization controllers (PCs) to realize nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR). Because of the NPR effect, stable Q-switched pulses with an average output power of 17.5 mW, a single pulse energy of 72.7 nJ, a repetition rate of 241 kHz, a pulse width of 466 ns, and a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 58...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430216/ultrahigh-birefringence-ultralow-material-loss-porous-core-single-mode-fiber-for-terahertz-wave-guidance
#5
Kawsar Ahmed, Sawrab Chowdhury, Bikash Kumar Paul, Md Shadidul Islam, Shuvo Sen, Md Ibadul Islam, Sayed Asaduzzaman
In this paper, a novel polarization-maintaining single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been suggested for terahertz (THz) transmission applications. The reported PCF has five layers of hexagonal cladding with two layers of porous core. The cladding and core territory of the PCF are constituted by circular and elliptical air cavities, accordingly acting as a dielectric medium. Different geometrical parameters of the proposed PCF including pitches and diameters of circular air holes with the major and minor axes of elliptical air cavities being varied with the optimized structure...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429515/a-device-to-measure-secretion-of-individual-sweat-glands-for-diagnosis-of-peripheral-neuropathy
#6
Adam J Loavenbruck, James S Hodges, Vincenzo Provitera, Maria Nolano, Gwen Wendelshafer-Crabb, William R Kennedy
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for quantitative, precise assessment of small fiber peripheral nerve function. We tested a customized camera device and protocol designed to quantify secretions of individual sweat glands (SGs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testing was performed on 178 healthy controls and 20 neuropathy subjects. Sweating was stimulated on a 2.25 cm(2) skin area by iontophoresis of pilocarpine. The camera imaged sweat from 50-400 sweat ducts. We calculated secretion rate of individual SGs, total sweat volume, and number of secreting SGs at four body sites...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428928/origin-branching-and-communications-of-the-intercostobrachial-nerve-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-mastectomy-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-in-breast-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Brandon Michael Henry, Matthew J Graves, Jakub R Pękala, Beatrice Sanna, Wan Chin Hsieh, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), which usually originates from the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, innervates areas of the axilla, lateral chest, and medial arm. It is at risk for injury during operative procedures that are often used in the management of breast cancer and such injury has been associated with postoperative sensory loss and neuropathic pain, decreasing the quality of life. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), and Web of Science were searched comprehensively...
March 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428630/hinge-deleted-igg4-blocker-therapy-for-acetylcholine-receptor-myasthenia-gravis-in-rhesus-monkeys
#8
Mario Losen, Aran F Labrijn, Vivianne H van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Maarten L Janmaat, Krista G Haanstra, Frank J Beurskens, Tom Vink, Margreet Jonker, Bert A 't Hart, Marina Mané-Damas, Peter C Molenaar, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eline van der Esch, Janine Schuurman, Marc H de Baets, Paul W H I Parren
Autoantibodies against ion channels are the cause of numerous neurologic autoimmune disorders. Frequently, such pathogenic autoantibodies have a restricted epitope-specificity. In such cases, competing antibody formats devoid of pathogenic effector functions (blocker antibodies) have the potential to treat disease by displacing autoantibodies from their target. Here, we have used a model of the neuromuscular autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to test the therapeutic potential of a new blocker antibody: MG was induced by passive transfer of pathogenic acetylcholine receptor-specific monoclonal antibody IgG1-637...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#9
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424631/mechanisms-underlying-the-emergence-of-post-acidosis-arrhythmia-at-the-tissue-level-a-theoretical-study
#10
Jieyun Bai, Renli Yin, Kuanquan Wang, Henggui Zhang
Acidosis has complex electrophysiological effects, which are associated with a high recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Through multi-scale cardiac computer modeling, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the emergence of post-acidosis arrhythmia at the tissue level. In simulations, ten Tusscher-Panfilov ventricular model was modified to incorporate various data on acidosis-induced alterations of cellular electrophysiology and intercellular electrical coupling. The single cell models were incorporated into multicellular one-dimensional (1D) fiber and 2D sheet tissue models...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422485/fabrication-of-a-highly-sensitive-single-aligned-tio2-and-gold-nano-particle-embedded-tio2-nano-fiber-gas-sensor
#11
Alireza Nikfarjam, Seyedsina Hosseini, Nahideh Salehifar
In this research, a single-aligned nanofiber of pure TiO2 and Gold nano-particle (GNP)-TiO2 was fabricated using a novel electro-spinning procedure equipped with secondary electrostatic fields on highly sharp triangular and rectangular electrodes provided for gas sensing applications. The Sol used for spinning nanofiber consisted of Titanium Tetraisopropoxide (C12H28O4Ti), Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Ethanol (C2H5OH) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and gold nanoparticle solution. FE-SEM, TEM, and XRD were used to characterize the single nanofiber...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420958/electrical-stimulation-of-afferent-pathways-for-the-suppression-of-pathological-tremor
#12
Jakob L Dideriksen, Christopher M Laine, Strahinja Dosen, Silvia Muceli, Eduardo Rocon, José L Pons, Julian Benito-Leon, Dario Farina
Pathological tremors are involuntary oscillatory movements which cannot be fully attenuated using conventional treatments. For this reason, several studies have investigated the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for tremor suppression. In a recent study, however, we found that electrical stimulation below the motor threshold also suppressed tremor, indicating involvement of afferent pathways. In this study, we further explored this possibility by systematically investigating how tremor suppression by afferent stimulation depends on the stimulation settings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420083/a-theoretical-study-and-numerical-simulation-of-a-quasi-distributed-sensor-based-on-the-low-finesse-fabry-perot-interferometer-frequency-division-multiplexing
#13
José Trinidad Guillen Bonilla, Alex Guillen Bonilla, Verónica M Rodríguez Betancourtt, Héctor Guillen Bonilla, Antonio Casillas Zamora
The application of the sensor optical fibers in the areas of scientific instrumentation and industrial instrumentation is very attractive due to its numerous advantages. In the industry of civil engineering for example, quasi-distributed sensors made with optical fiber are used for reliable strain and temperature measurements. Here, a quasi-distributed sensor in the frequency domain is discussed. The sensor consists of a series of low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers where each Fabry-Perot interferometer acts as a local sensor...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417148/relationship-between-nutritional-factors-and-hip-bone-density-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#14
Samuel K Y Li, Mabel M P Wan, Frankie P L Siu, Susan Chung, Marco Y C Pang
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary habits and hip bone health in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. The usual dietary intake of 94 individuals with chronic stroke (30 women, mean age: 59.0 years) was assessed by a 3-day food record within a single week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at both hips. The results showed that low hip bone mass was found in 59 and 50 of the participants on the affected and unaffected side, respectively...
April 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415441/stress-stiffened-silicon-nitride-micro-bridges-array-as-substrate-with-tunable-stiffness-for-cell-culture
#15
Jianfeng Chen, Guangli Liu, Chengfu Ma, Gang Zhao, Wenqiang Du, Wulin Zhu, Jiaru Chu
Recently, interactions between one-dimensional structural stiffness of physical micro environments and cell biological process have been widely studied. However in previous studies, the influence of structural stiffness on biological process was coupled with the influence of micro fiber curvature. Therefore decoupling the influences of fiber curvature and structural stiffness on cell biological process is of prime importance. In this study, we proposed a novel cell culture substrate comprised of silicon nitride bridges whose structure stiffness can be regulated by altering the axial residual stress without changing material and geometry properties...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415139/primary-nocturnal-enuresis-a-review-of-assessment-and-treatment-in-a-single-referral-centre3
#16
Salvatore Arena, Mario Patricolo
INTRODUCTION: Aim was to investigate the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic noctural enuresis (PMNE and PNMNE) and associated factors in a major referral centre for NE in Abu Dhabi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children referred to a Paediatric Continence Clinic, between 2014 and 2016, for PNE were included. Exclusion criteria were neuropathic bladder, abnormality of the bladder and bowel, urethral stenosis, children with neurological and psychiatric problems, patients that did not complete the diagnostic protocol, patients with follow-up less than six months...
April 17, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414368/tunable-femtosecond-near-ir-source-by-pumping-an-opa-directly-with-a-90%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mhz-yb-fiber-source
#17
J Mundry, J Lohrenz, M Betz
Up to 400 mW of near-IR (1370-1500 nm) femtosecond pulses are generated from an optical parametric amplifier directly driven by a Yb:fiber oscillator delivering 100 fs pulses at 1036 nm. The process is seeded by a stable supercontinuum obtained from a photonic crystal fiber. We use a single pass through a 3 mm, magnesium oxide-doped, periodically poled LiNbO<sub>3</sub> downconversion crystal to produce a near-IR pulse train with a remarkable power stability of 1.4% (RMS) during one hour. Tuning is achieved by the temperature and the poling period of the nonlinear crystal...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414352/infrared-absorption-spectrometer-for-the-determination-of-temperature-and-species-profiles-in-an-entrained-flow-gasifier
#18
Patrick Nau, Peter Kutne, Georg Eckel, Wolfgang Meier, Christian Hotz, Sabine Fleck
An absorption spectrometer utilizing a tunable distributed feedback diode laser at 2.3 μm and an interband cascade laser at 3.1 μm has been developed to measure temperature and concentrations of CO, CH<sub>4</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>2</sub>, and H<sub>2</sub>O under gasification conditions. A wavelength division multiplexing approach using a single ZrF<sub>4</sub>-fiber was used to measure both wavelength regions simultaneously. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested in laminar flat flames and a heated cell and then applied for measurements at an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier (REGA)...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410751/mizagliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt1-inhibitor-exhibits-potential-in-the-amelioration-of-chronic-constipation
#19
Toshihiro Inoue, Masaaki Takemura, Nobuhiko Fushimi, Yoshikazu Fujimori, Tomoya Onozato, Takao Kurooka, Tetsuya Asari, Hiroo Takeda, Mamoru Kobayashi, Hironori Nishibe, Masayuki Isaji
Chronic constipation is a highly common functional gastrointestinal disorder that adversely affects patient quality of life. At present, limited therapeutic options are available for the treatment of chronic constipation, which indicates the need for new therapeutic agents. Herein, we report the potential of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor, for the amelioration of chronic constipation. Mizagliflozin's inhibitory activity against SGLTs was evaluated by an in vitro assay of cells transiently expressing SGLTs...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409795/low-index-contrast-imaging-fibers
#20
J M Stone, H A C Wood, K Harrington, T A Birks
We present high-resolution imaging fibers made from low-cost commercially available fiber preforms manufactured for the telecommunications industry. Our fabrication method involves multi-stacking arrays of different sized cores in order to suppress core-to-core crosstalk whilst building up a large array of cores. One of the fibers, based on a square array of cores, has comparable imaging performance to commercial imaging fibers but without the need for exceptionally high refractive index contrasts, and will enable the development of economically viable single-use disposable imaging fibers...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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