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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#1
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213499/geometry-and-network-connectivity-govern-the-mechanics-of-stress-fibers
#2
Elena Kassianidou, Christoph A Brand, Ulrich S Schwarz, Sanjay Kumar
Actomyosin stress fibers (SFs) play key roles in driving polarized motility and generating traction forces, yet little is known about how tension borne by an individual SF is governed by SF geometry and its connectivity to other cytoskeletal elements. We now address this question by combining single-cell micropatterning with subcellular laser ablation to probe the mechanics of single, geometrically defined SFs. The retraction length of geometrically isolated SFs after cutting depends strongly on SF length, demonstrating that longer SFs dissipate more energy upon incision...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213155/high-frequency-stimulation-of-afferent-fibers-generates-asynchronous-firing-in-the-downstream-neurons-in-hippocampus-through-partial-block-of-axonal-conduction
#3
Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou, Ziyan Cai, Dominique M Durand
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200 Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212978/a-systematic-review-of-the-survival-and-complication-rates-of-inlay-retained-fixed-dental-prostheses
#4
REVIEW
Junyu Chen, He Cai, Lai Suo, Yiyuan Xue, Jian Wang, Qianbing Wan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the survival and complication rates of inlay-retainer fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs). DATA/SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in English and time filters (articles published from 1960) were used. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trails (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and prospective cohort studies on IRFDPs with a mean follow-up period of at least 2 years were included...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#5
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211745/superdense-coding-over-optical-fiber-links-with-complete-bell-state-measurements
#6
Brian P Williams, Ronald J Sadlier, Travis S Humble
Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665±0.018, and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210970/a-suspended-carbon-fiber-culture-to-model-myelination-by-human-schwann-cells
#7
Antonio Merolli, Yong Mao, Joachim Kohn
Understanding of myelination/remyelination process is essential to guide tissue engineering for nerve regeneration. In vitro models currently used are limited to cell population studies and cannot easily identify individual cell contribution to the process. We established a novel model to study the contribution of human Schwann cells to the myelination process. The model avoids the presence of neurons in culture; Schwann cells respond solely to the biophysical properties of an artificial axon. The model uses a single carbon fiber suspended in culture media far from the floor of the well...
April 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#8
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208243/direct-determination-of-ascorbic-acid-in-a-grapefruit-paving-the-way-for-in-vivo-spectroelectrochemistry
#9
Jesus Garoz-Ruiz, Aranzazu Heras, Alvaro Colina
The study of real samples is more complicated than the study of other systems. However, the inherent advantages of UV-vis absorption spectroelectrochemistry should overcome some difficulties related to direct measurements in complex matrices. For this reason, a singular spectroelectrochemistry device has been fabricated and validated. The novel cell is based on single-walled carbon nanotubes, which are filtered and subsequently press-transferred on a polyethylene terephthalate support using a stencil with a custom design...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208177/feasibility-and-associated-limitations-of-office-based-laryngeal-surgery-using-carbon-dioxide-lasers
#10
Hao-Chun Hu, Shu-Yi Lin, Yi-Ting Hung, Shyue-Yih Chang
Importance: There are few reports evaluating awake, office-based carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery for laryngeal lesions. To date, this study was the largest reported case series of office-based laryngeal surgery by fiber delivery CO2 laser. Office-based laryngeal surgical procedures have become increasingly popular. Technical problems and treatment outcomes associated with the use of a CO2 laser for office-based laryngeal surgery have yet to be fully addressed. Objectives: To discuss a single institution's clinical experience with office-based CO2 laser laryngeal surgery and the feasibility and limitations associated with this procedure...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199794/the-cellular-stress-response-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-following-lengthening-contractions
#11
Evan Pollock-Tahiri, Marius Locke
The cellular stress response (CSR) of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was investigated following 20, 40 or 60 lengthening contractions (LCs) using an in-vivo model of electrical stimulation. Muscles were removed at 0, 1, 3, or 24 hours after LCs and assessed for HSF activation, HSP content and/or morphological evidence of muscle fibre damage. When compared to the first muscle contraction, peak muscle torque was reduced by 26% (p<0.05) after 20 LCs and further reduced to 56% and 60% (p<0.001) after 40 and 60 LCs, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198970/is-the-bonding-of-self-adhesive-cement-sensitive-to-root-region-and-curing-mode
#12
Thaynara Faelly Boing, Giovana Mongruel Gomes, João Carlos Gomes, Alessandra Reis, Osnara Maria Mongruel Gomes
Objectives: To evaluate the influence of two curing techniques on the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements and on bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in different regions of root dentin. Material and Methods: Twenty single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post spaces were prepared. The roots were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the activation mode of the resin cement RelyX™ U200 (3M ESPE Saint Paul, MN, USA): conventional (continuous activation mode) and soft-start activation mode (Ramp)...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198889/single-lane-180%C3%A2-%C3%A2-gb-s-db-pam-4-signal-transmission-over-an-80%C3%A2-%C3%A2-km-dcf-free-ssmf-link
#13
Qiang Zhang, Nebojsa Stojanovic, Jinlong Wei, Changsong Xie
We experimentally demonstrate the generation and successful transmission of a single-lane 180 Gb/s (90 GBd) duo-binary four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (DB-PAM-4) signal over an 80 km standard single-mode fiber with a net data-rate of 150 Gb/s, enabled by a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator-aided dispersion pre-compensation. A net data rate of 168 Gb/s is also achievable, for ranges up to 40 km. To mitigate bandwidth limitations and error spreading, pre-coded DB-PAM-4 is used; the pre-coding provides a gain of approximately 1 dB...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198884/characterization-of-a-liquid-filled-nodeless-anti-resonant-fiber-for-biochemical-sensing
#14
Xiao-Lu Liu, Wei Ding, Ying-Ying Wang, Shou-Fei Gao, Ling Cao, Xian Feng, Pu Wang
We theoretically and experimentally characterize a liquid-filled nodeless anti-resonant fiber (LARF) that could find versatile applications in biochemical sensing. When a hollow-core nodeless anti-resonant fiber (HARF) is filled with a low refractive index liquid such as water or aqueous solutions in the whole hollow area, it preserves its anti-resonant reflection waveguiding mechanism with attributes encompassing the broad transmission bandwidth in UV, visible, and near IR; the neglectable confinement loss; and the acceptable single-mode quality...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198853/linearly-polarized-low-noise-brillouin-random-fiber-laser
#15
Liang Zhang, Yanping Xu, Song Gao, Bhavaye Saxena, Liang Chen, Xiaoyi Bao
A linearly polarized Brillouin random fiber laser (LP-BRFL) with distributed feedback along 2 km polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs) is demonstrated. The laser was built up using a bidirectional pumping mechanism in an all-PMF configuration, yielding a radiation with 8% power efficiency and more than 25 dB polarization extinction ratio. A high lasing efficiency is achieved due to the polarization-matched Brillouin amplification and distributed feedback along kilometer long PMFs. The relative intensity noise and the thermal-induced frequency noise of this random laser have also been measured and compared to that of a custom single-mode-fiber-based random laser and a conventional phase-locked laser...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198849/free-space-active-polarimetric-imager-operating-at-1-55%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-by-orthogonality-breaking-sensing
#16
Francois Parnet, Julien Fade, Noé Ortega-Quijano, Goulc'hen Loas, Ludovic Frein, Mehdi Alouini
We report the design and optimization of an active polarimetric imaging demonstrator operating at 1.55 μm that is based on the orthogonality breaking technique. It relies on the use of a fibered dual-frequency dual-polarization source raster scanned over the scene. A dedicated opto-electronic detection chain is developed to demodulate the optical signal backscattered at each location of the scene in real time, providing multivariate polarimetric image data in one single scan with limited acquisition time. We experimentally show on a homemade scene that contrast maps can be built to reveal hidden dichroic objects over a depolarizing background, as well as their orientation...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198844/positive-and-negative-curvatures-nested-in-an-antiresonant-hollow-core-fiber
#17
Md Imran Hasan, Nail Akhmediev, Wonkeun Chang
We propose a negative curvature hollow-core fiber that has a nested elliptical element in the antiresonant tubes. The additional elliptical element effectively adds two curvatures, namely, a positive and a negative curvature. Our numerical study shows that it enhances the confinement of the light in the core. Moreover, the nested elements provided an extra degree of freedom that can be exploited to suppress higher-order modes through the change of the ellipticity. The resulting low confinement loss and single-mode guidance properties of the proposed fiber make it a suitable candidate for applications in ultrashort pulse delivery and gas-based nonlinear systems...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198838/1-55%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-band-low-threshold-continuous-wave-lasing-from-inas-inalgaas-quantum-dot-microdisks
#18
Si Zhu, Bei Shi, Yating Wan, Evelyn L Hu, Kei May Lau
InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dot active layers within microcavity resonators offer the potential of ultra-low-threshold lasing in the 1.55 μm telecom window. Here, we demonstrate the first quantum dot microdisk laser with single-mode emission around 1.55 μm under continuous-wave optical pumping up to 170 K. The extracted threshold is as low as 32 μW at 77 K. This result lays the foundation of an alternative to quantum-well microlasers for low-threshold and highly compact monolithically integratable light emitting sources in fiber communication...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198836/716%C3%A2-%C3%A2-nm-deep-red-passively-q-switched-pr-zblan-all-fiber-laser-using-a-carbon-nanotube-saturable-absorber
#19
Wensong Li, Tuanjie Du, Jinglong Lan, Changlei Guo, Yongjie Cheng, Huiying Xu, Chunhui Zhu, Fengqiu Wang, Zhengqian Luo, Zhiping Cai
We experimentally demonstrated a compact single-wall carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based deep-red passively Q-switched Pr<sup>3+</sup>-doped ZBLAN all-fiber laser operating at 716 nm. A free-standing SWNT/polyvinyl alcohol composite film embedded between a pair of fiber connectors was employed as a saturable absorber (SA). The deep-red Q-switched operation is attributed to the combination of implementing a pair of fiber end-facet mirrors to achieve the linear laser resonator and incorporating a SWNT-SA into the cavity as a Q-switcher...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196732/peripapillary-and-macular-vessel-density-in-patients-with-glaucoma-and-single-hemifield-visual-field-defect
#20
Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Linda M Zangwill, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Luke J Saunders, Min Hee Suh, Zhichao Wu, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Tadamichi Akagi, Felipe A Medeiros, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To compare hemifield differences in the vessel density of the peripapillary and macula in open-angle glaucoma eyes with visual field (VF) defect confined to one hemifield using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 58 eyes of 58 patients with glaucoma with VF loss confined to a single hemifield and 28 healthy eyes. METHODS: Retinal vasculature information was summarized as circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) and perifoveal vessel density (pfVD)...
February 10, 2017: Ophthalmology
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