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Zhanfeng Si, Hui Liu, Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Qiong Wang, Lei Fang, Fengkai Gao, Yue Tian, Yali Chen, Lijing Chang, Bingliang Liu, Zegang Han, Baoliang Zhou, Yan Hu, Xianzhong Huang, Tianzhen Zhang
In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the Gossypium barbadense axillary flowering (GbAF) mutation gene, which causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem, and of the G. hirsutum clustered boll (cl1) mutation gene. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus of the corresponding species, and therefore we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sandrina Nunes, Dalila Alves, Patrícia Barreto, Miguel Raimundo, Maria da Luz Cachulo, Cláudia Farinha, Inês Laíns, João Rodrigues, Carlos Almeida, Luísa Ribeiro, João Figueira, Lelita Santos, Rufino Silva
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the association of lifestyle and nutritional risk profiles with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in two subpopulations with differing AMD prevalence. METHODS: This case-control study (n = 1992) included 768 patients with AMD and 1224 age- and sex-matched participants without AMD with a single visit at a primary health care unit. Enrolled participants completed a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition
Y J Son, H S Kim, W Mao, J B Park, D Lee, H Lee, H S Yoo
A two-step strategy for coaxial electrospinning and postelectrospinning is an effective method for fabricating superfine nanofibers composed of highly swellable hydrogels. Alginate and poly(ε-caprolactone) [PCL] were coelectrospun via fibrous meshes with a coaxial nozzle; alginate at the core was subsequently cross-linked in calcium chloride solution. The PCL sheath was removed from the meshes by repeated organic-phase washing. The peeling process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and the complete removal of the PCL outer layers was confirmed by the thinning of the fiber volume...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhong-Min Wang, Xiaoyan Leng, María Laura Messi, Seung J Choi, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara Nicklas, Osvaldo Delbono
Background: Previous studies support beneficial effects of both resistance exercise training (RT) and caloric restriction (CR) on skeletal muscle strength and physical performance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of adding CR to RT on single-muscle fiber contractility responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. Methods: We analyzed contractile properties in 1,253 single myofiber from muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, as well as physical performance and thigh muscle volume, in 31 older (65-80 yrs), overweight or obese (body mass index= 27-35 kg/m2) men (n=19) and women (n=12) who were randomly assigned to a standardized, progressive RT intervention with CR (RT+CR; n=15) or without CR (RT; n=16) for 5 months...
March 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell
Background: A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. Objectives: This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Oliver C C Paine, Abigale Koppa, Amanda G Henry, Jennifer N Leichliter, Daryl Codron, Jacqueline Codron, Joanna E Lambert, Matt Sponheimer
Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Pavel Honzatko, Yauhen Baravets, Ashwin Kumar Myakalwar
We present a broadly tunable single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser. Its broadband tunability is made possible by low resonator losses. The wavelength is determined by a grating filter, while the single-frequency regime is achieved by filtering the longitudinal modes in a fiber ring resonance filter. We obtained a tuning range from 1023 nm to 1107 nm. A feedback loop driving a fiber stretcher actuated by a piezo-element prevents mode hopping. Based on the coherent delayed self-heterodyne interferometry, the laser linewidth is estimated to be 600 Hz with feedback open and 11...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Bing Sun, Fang Fang, Zuxing Zhang, Jing Xu, Lin Zhang
A high-sensitivity and low-temperature fiber-optic magnetic field sensor based on a tapered two-mode fiber (TTMF) sandwiched between two single-mode fibers has been proposed and demonstrated. The section of TTMF has a specifically designed transition region as an efficient tool to filter higher-order modes, where the uniform modal interferometer just involved with LP01 and LP11 modes is achieved. The transmission spectral characteristics and the magnetic response of the proposed sensors have been investigated...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Franz Beier, Friedrich Möller, Bettina Sattler, Johannes Nold, Andreas Liem, Christian Hupel, Stefan Kuhn, Sigrun Hein, Nicoletta Haarlammert, Thomas Schreiber, Ramona Eberhardt, Andreas Tünnermann
In this contribution we investigate the transversal mode instability behavior of a ytterbium-doped commercial 20/400 fiber and obtain 2.9 kW of output power after optimizing the influencing parameters. In this context, we evaluate the influence of the bend diameter and the pump wavelength within the scope of the absorption length and the length of the fiber. Furthermore, with a newly developed fiber we report on 4.4 kW of single-mode output power at 40 cm bend diameter.
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Alexandre Brieussel, Konstantin Ott, Maxime Joos, Nicolas Treps, Claude Fabre
In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Daojing Li, Deyuan Shen, Lei Li, Dingyuan Tang, Lei Su, Luming Zhao
Internal polarization dynamics of vector dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) pulses in a mode-locked fiber laser are investigated. By utilizing a wave plate analyzer configuration to analyze the special structure of a DSR pulse, we find that polarization state is not uniform across a resonant dissipative soliton. Specifically, although the central plane wave of the resonant dissipative soliton acquires nearly a single fixed polarization, the dissipative fronts feature polarization states that are different and spatially varying...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Y K Lin, Q H Wu, S Z Wang, A H Wu, L B Su, L H Zheng, J F Chen, Z P Qin, G Q Xie, X D Xu, Q S Song, Q H Yang
The Nd3+ -doped Bi4 Ge3 O12 (BGO) single-crystal fiber (SCF) was successfully grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the resistance heating system. The fluorescence spectrum and transmission spectrum of the Nd:BGO SCF were measured. Excited by a continuous-wave 808-nm laser diode, a fluorescence peak around 1064 nm was observed. At an absorbed pump power of 15.25 W, the Nd:BGO SCF laser delivered a power of 3.37 W with a slope efficiency of 31.2%.
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Yubin Hou, Qian Zhang, Shuxian Qi, Xian Feng, Pu Wang
We demonstrate a polarization-maintaining (PM) dual-wavelength (DW) single-frequency Er-doped distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) fiber laser with 28 GHz stable frequency difference. A homemade PM low-reflectivity superimposed fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) is employed as the output port of the DBR fiber laser. The SFBG has two reflection wavelengths located in the same grating region. The reflectivity of both DWs is around 85%. The achieved linear polarization extinction ratio is more than 20 dB. The DWs of the laser output are located at 1552...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Samuel B Penwell, Lukas Whaley-Mayda, Andrei Tokmakoff
We present the design and characterization of a tunable mid-IR optical parametric amplifier (OPA) with a 1 MHz 1033 nm fiber laser pump source. The OPA generates >10  nJ/pulse tunable from 3-7.5 μm with 85-165  cm-1 bandwidth and 140-540 fs pulse durations. The design utilizes a single stage of collinear, Type I amplification in lithium gallium sulfide (LGS) seeded by the near-IR portion of a super-continuum (SC) generated in yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). The resulting mid-IR idler beam is isolated as the output...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Michael Kolano, Benedict Gräf, Stefan Weber, Daniel Molter, Georg von Freymann
We demonstrate a polarization-multiplexed, single-laser system for terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy without an external delay line. The fiber laser emits two pulse trains with independently adjustable repetition rates, utilizing only one laser-active section and one pump diode. With a standard fiber-coupled THz setup and a polarization-multiplexed optical amplifier, we are able to measure transients with a spectral bandwidth of 1.5 THz and a dynamic range of 50 dB in a measurement time of 1 s. Based on the novel laser architecture, we call this new approach single-laser polarization-controlled optical sampling, or SLAPCOPS...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Mohesh Moothanchery, Renzhe Bi, Jin Young Kim, Seungwan Jeon, Chulhong Kim, Malini Olivo
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a multiscale imaging technique. In optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), a single mode (SM) fiber is normally used as the source of optical excitation to be focused into a diffraction-limited spot. Recent advances in OR-PAM have improved its imaging speed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Here we report for the first time the use of a multimode (MM) fiber as the optical excitation source for high resolution OR-PAM in vivo imaging. A high-speed MEMS scanner based OR-PAM system combined with the mechanical movement to provide wide area imaging was used...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bernadette M Glasheen, Seemanti Ramanath, Monica Patel, Debra Sheppard, Joy T Puthawala, Lauren A Riley, Douglas M Swank
Muscles have evolved to power a wide variety of movements. A protein component critical to varying power generation is the myosin isoform present in the muscle. However, how functional variation in muscle arises from myosin structure is not well understood. We studied the influence of the converter, a myosin structural region at the junction of the lever arm and catalytic domain, using Drosophila because its single myosin heavy chain gene expresses five alternative converter versions (11a-e). We created five transgenic fly lines, each forced to express one of the converter versions in their indirect flight muscle (IFM) fibers...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Jaap D Legemate, Guido M Kamphuis, Jan Erik Freund, Joyce Baard, Stefano P Zanetti, Michele Catellani, Harry W Oussoren, Jean J de la Rosette
BACKGROUND: Flexible ureteroscopy is an established treatment modality for evaluating and treating abnormalities in the upper urinary tract. Reusable ureteroscope (USC) durability is a significant concern. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the durability of the latest generation of digital and fiber optic reusable flexible USCs and the factors affecting it. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Six new flexible USCs from Olympus and Karl Storz were included...
March 10, 2018: European Urology Focus
Vishwesh Nath, Kurt G Schilling, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Justin Blaber, Allison E Hainline, Zhaohua Ding, Adam Anderson, Bennett A Landman
The diffusion tensor model is nonspecific in regions where micrometer structural patterns are inconsistent at the millimeter scale (i.e., brain regions with pathways that cross, bend, branch, fan, etc.). Numerous models have been proposed to represent crossing fibers and complex intravoxel structure from in vivo diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (e.g., high angular resolution diffusion imaging-HARDI). Here, we present an empirical comparison of two HARDI approaches-persistent angular structure MRI (PAS-MRI) and Q-ball-using a newly acquired reproducibility dataset...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
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