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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925719/synthetic-dimensions-and-spin-orbit-coupling-with-an-optical-clock-transition
#1
L F Livi, G Cappellini, M Diem, L Franchi, C Clivati, M Frittelli, F Levi, D Calonico, J Catani, M Inguscio, L Fallani
We demonstrate a novel way of synthesizing spin-orbit interactions in ultracold quantum gases, based on a single-photon optical clock transition coupling two long-lived electronic states of two-electron ^{173}Yb atoms. By mapping the electronic states onto effective sites along a synthetic "electronic" dimension, we have engineered fermionic ladders with synthetic magnetic flux in an experimental configuration that has allowed us to achieve uniform fluxes on a lattice with minimal requirements and unprecedented tunability...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924117/transcriptome-differences-between-fiber-type-and-seed-type-cannabis-sativa-variety-exposed-to-salinity
#2
Jiajia Liu, Qin Qiao, Xia Cheng, Guanghui Du, Gang Deng, Mingzhi Zhao, Feihu Liu
The industrial hemp varieties 'Yunma 5' and 'Bamahuoma,' which demonstrate growth vigor and environmental adaptability, have been primarily cultivated in Yunnan and Guangxi, China, respectively, for fiber and seeds. The results of physiological measurements showed the phenotypic differences between the two varieties in response to salt stress. RNA-Seq analysis was first performed on leaves of both varieties sampled at four time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 days) after treatment with salt (500 mM NaCl) We identified 220 co-up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two varieties, while 26 up-regulated DEGs and 24 down-regulated DEGs were identified exclusively in the single varieties after 2 days of salt stress...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923480/versatile-and-inexpensive-hall-effect-force-sensor-for-mechanical-characterization-of-soft-biological-materials
#3
Daniel E Backman, Bauer L LeSavage, Joyce Y Wong
Mismatch of hierarchical structure and mechanical properties between tissue-engineered implants and native tissue may result in signal cues that negatively impact repair and remodeling. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. However, characterizing microscale mechanical properties is challenging, and current methods do not provide the versatility and sensitivity required to measure these fragile, soft biological materials...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919490/quantitative-visual-tests-after-poorly-recovered-optic-neuritis-due-to-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Erin E Longbrake, Samantha Lancia, Nhial Tutlam, Kathryn Trinkaus, Robert T Naismith
BACKGROUND: Visual dysfunction in MS can be quantified using a variety of tests. Many vision tests have not been formally evaluated among MS patients with existing visual dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate several versions of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity tests, measures of central and peripheral vision, retina structure, electrophysiologic function, and quality of life among MS patients with moderate/severe visual dysfunction. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 46 patients with stable, incompletely recovered optic neuritis...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916933/femtosecond-laser-ablated-fbg-with-composite-microstructure-for-hydrogen-sensor-application
#5
Meng Zou, Yutang Dai, Xian Zhou, Ke Dong, Minghong Yang
A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd-Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed FBG single mode fiber, and acts as hydrogen sensing transducer. The demonstrated experimental outcomes show that a composite structure produced the highest sensitivity of 26.3 pm/%H, nearly sevenfold more sensitive compared with original standard FBG...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915068/effects-of-the-pulsed-ultrasound-therapy-on-sensory-nerve-conduction-parameters-and-the-pain-threshold-perceptions-in-humans
#6
Othmar Schuhfried, Damir Vukanovic, Christian Kollmann, Karin Pieber, Tatjana Paternostro-Sluga
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic ultrasound is a often used clinical modality in the non-surgical treatment of entrapment neuropathies. To date the possible mechanism of action of pulsed ultrasound therapy on the peripheral nerve in the treatment of entrapment neuropathies is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of pulsed ultrasound therapy on peripheral nerve conduction parameters. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single blind, cross-over study...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#7
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#8
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910918/crescent-shaped-fabry-perot-fiber-cavity-for-ultra-sensitive-strain-measurement
#9
Ye Liu, D N Wang, W P Chen
Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910644/development-of-plasma-bolometers-using-fiber-optic-temperature-sensors
#10
M L Reinke, M Han, G Liu, G G van Eden, R Evenblij, M Haverdings, B C Stratton
Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910304/highly-compact-fiber-fabry-perot-interferometer-a-new-instrument-design
#11
B K Nowakowski, D T Smith, S T Smith
This paper presents the design, construction, and characterization of a new optical-fiber-based, low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer with a simple cavity formed by two reflecting surfaces (the end of a cleaved optical fiber and a plane, reflecting counter-surface), for the continuous measurement of displacements of several nanometers to several tens of millimeters. No beam collimation or focusing optics are required, resulting in a displacement sensor that is extremely compact (optical fiber diameter 125 μm), is surprisingly tolerant of misalignment (more than 5°), and can be used over a very wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions, including ultra-high-vacuum...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909706/out-of-plane-integration-of-a-multimode-optical-fiber-for-single-particle-cell-detection-at-multiple-points-on-a-microfluidic-device-with-applications-to-particle-cell-counting-velocimetry-size-discrimination-and-the-analysis-of-single-cell-lysate-injections
#12
Jalal Sadeghi, Damith E W Patabadige, Anne H Culbertson, Hamid Latifi, Christopher T Culbertson
In this paper a single particle/cell-tracking microfluidic device that integrates an out-of-plane multimode optical fiber (OP-MMF) is reported. This OP-MMF is used to generate three excitation light-lines and three detection spots using only one excitation source and one detector. It takes advantage of an optical tunneling mode to create two excitation lines in a microfluidic channel emanating from a single fiber end. This method was used to accurately count particles/cells and perform velocity measurements and size discrimination...
December 2, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909661/the-oblique-mattress-lasso-loop-stitch-for-arthroscopic-capsulolabral-repair
#13
Nata Parnes, Maryellen Blevins, Monica Morman, Paul Carey
Arthroscopic capsulolabral repair during shoulder stabilization surgery requires the use of suture anchors. Several arthroscopic suturing techniques for capsulolabral repair have been described, and each carries very specific advantages and disadvantages with regard to risk, patient satisfaction, and functional outcomes. The purpose of this report is to describe the oblique mattress lasso-loop stitch. This stitch (1) provides strong initial fixation of the labrum, (2) establishes labral height and allows for larger capsular plication if needed, (3) prevents the suture from cutting through the radial fibers of the glenoid labrum, (4) prevents knot migration to the articular side and loosening of the knot, and (5) requires fewer implants and preserves glenoid bone stock by increasing the amount of labrum and capsule that can be reattached to the glenoid with a single-loaded suture anchor...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907826/extent-of-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-patients-with-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-correlates-with-neuronal-cell-loss-and-granule-cell-dispersion
#14
Barbara Schmeiser, Josef Zentner, Marco Prinz, Armin Brandt, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907145/training-to-improve-precision-and-accuracy-in-the-measurement-of-fiber-morphology
#15
Nathan A Hotaling, Jun Jeon, Mary Beth Wade, Derek Luong, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Kapil Bharti, Carl G Simon
An estimated $7.1 billion dollars a year is spent due to irreproducibility in pre-clinical data from errors in data analysis and reporting. Therefore, developing tools to improve measurement comparability is paramount. Recently, an open source tool, DiameterJ, has been deployed for the automated analysis of scanning electron micrographs of fibrous scaffolds designed for tissue engineering applications. DiameterJ performs hundreds to thousands of scaffold fiber diameter measurements from a single micrograph within a few seconds, along with a variety of other scaffold morphological features, which enables a more rigorous and thorough assessment of scaffold properties...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906373/efficient-homogeneous-illumination-and-optical-sectioning-for-quantitative-single-molecule-localization-microscopy
#16
Joran Deschamps, Andreas Rowald, Jonas Ries
Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) relies on the switching of fluorescent molecules between a fluorescent and a dark state to achieve super resolution. This process is inherently dependent on the intensity distribution of the laser light used for both activation from the dark state and excitation of the bright state. Typically, laser light is coupled directly or via a single-mode fiber into the microscope, which leads to a Gaussian intensity profile in total internal reflection (TIR) or epi illumination...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906348/single-frequency-injection-seeded-q-switched-ho-yag-ceramic-laser-pumped-by-a-1-91%C3%AE-m-fiber-coupled-ld
#17
Yixuan Zhang, Chunqing Gao, Qing Wang, Quanxin Na, Meng Zhang, Qing Ye, Mingwei Gao, Jian Zhang
A 2090 nm injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser pumped by a 1.91 μm fiber-coupled LD is demonstrated in this paper. Single-frequency operation of Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser is achieved by injection seeding technique. The maximum output energy of the single-frequency Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser is 14.76 mJ, with a pulse width of 121.6 ns and a repetition rate of 200 Hz. The half-width of the pulse spectrum measured by heterodyne technique is 3.84 MHz. The fluctuation of the center frequency of the pulsed laser is 1...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906345/grating-coupling-based-excitation-of-bloch-surface-waves-for-lab-on-fiber-optrodes
#18
Michele Scaravilli, Giuseppe Castaldi, Andrea Cusano, Vincenzo Galdi
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, after exploring an idealized, proof-of-principle grating-coupling-based scheme for on-tip excitation of BSWs, we focus on an alternative configuration that is more robust with respect to fabrication-related non-idealities. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present a specific design aimed at enhancing the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonance with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906336/in-line-optofluidic-refractive-index-sensing-in-a-side-channel-photonic-crystal-fiber
#19
Nan Zhang, Georges Humbert, Zhifang Wu, Kaiwei Li, Perry Ping Shum, Nancy Meng Ying Zhang, Ying Cui, Jean-Louis Auguste, Xuan Quyen Dinh, Lei Wei
An in-line optofluidic refractive index (RI) sensing platform is constructed by splicing a side-channel photonic crystal fiber (SC-PCF) with side-polished single mode fibers. A long-period grating (LPG) combined with an intermodal interference between LP<sub>01</sub> and LP<sub>11</sub> core modes is used for sensing the RI of the liquid in the side channel. The resonant dip shows a nonlinear wavelength shift with increasing RI over the measured range from 1.3330 to 1.3961. The RI response of this sensing platform for a low RI range of 1...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906332/rapid-k-space-linear-wavelength-scanning-laser-source-based-on-recirculating-frequency-shifter
#20
Minggui Wan, Lin Wang, Feng Li, Yuan Cao, Xudong Wang, Xinhuan Feng, Bai-Ou Guan, P K A Wai
We propose and successfully demonstrate a k-space linear and self-clocked wavelength scanning fiber laser source based on recirculating frequency shifting (RFS). The RFS is realized with a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation. A gated short pulse is injected into an amplified RFS loop to generate the wavelength scanning pulse train. We find that the accumulation of in-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise over multiple scanning periods will saturate the erbium-doped fiber amplifier and impede the amplification to the pulse signal in the RFS loop...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
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