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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683692/the-behavioral-ecology-of-cultural-psychological-variation
#1
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
Recent work has documented a wide range of important psychological differences across societies. Multiple explanations have been offered for why such differences exist, including historical philosophies, subsistence methods, social mobility, social class, climactic stresses, and religion. With the growing body of theory and data, there is an emerging need for an organizing framework. We propose here that a behavioral ecological perspective, particularly the idea of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, can provide an overarching framework for thinking about psychological variation across cultures and societies...
April 23, 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680769/how-is-subjective-well-being-related-to-quality-of-life-do-we-need-two-concepts-and-both-measures
#2
S M Skevington, J R Böhnke
Subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective quality of life (QoL) are key concepts describing experience, capacities, states, behaviours, appraisals, and emotional reactions to circumstances. Used widely in public discourse, policy, and research, their theoretical and empirical relations remain little explored. The present research aimed to develop an integrated model of SWB and QoL through empirically testing its overlapping and exclusive dimensions. Survey data was obtained from N = 2533 in 11 countries...
April 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672152/islamophobia-health-and-public-health-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
Goleen Samari, Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif
BACKGROUND: In 2017, a "Muslim ban" on immigrants to the United States was coupled with a continued rise in Islamophobia and hate crimes toward Muslims. Islamophobia undermines health equity, yet delineating the effects of Islamophobia globally is challenging as it affects a myriad of groups (geographically, racially, and socially). Additionally, stereotypes equate all Muslims with populations from the Middle East and South Asia. To date, health research pays insufficient attention to Islamophobia, Muslims, and those racialized to be Muslim...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649886/cultural-adaptations-to-the-measurement-of-attitudes-to-ageing-psychometric-assessment-of-the-malay-reactions-to-ageing-questionnaire
#4
Farah Nadia M Faudzi, Christopher J Armitage, Christina Bryant, Laura J E Brown
The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the Reactions to Ageing Questionnaire (RAQ) for a non-Western (Malay) population, and explore attitudes to ageing in relation to age, gender, and education. Eight new culturally relevant items were generated by asking Malay-speaking participants about their reactions to ageing. A Malay version of the extended 35-item RAQ was then administered to 911 Malaysian participants aged 18 to 60 years. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors. Three of the factors were similar to those identified in the original RAQ, while "Family and Religion" emerged as a new factor...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643820/the-attribution-of-mental-health-problems-to-jinn-an-explorative-study-in-a-transcultural-psychiatric-outpatient-clinic
#5
Anastasia Lim, Hans W Hoek, Samrad Ghane, Mathijs Deen, Jan Dirk Blom
Background: Among Muslim patients, a common cultural concept of distress is the notion that jinn may be the cause of mental health problems, especially in the presence of hallucinations. Objective: This study examines the frequency with which this attribution style is manifest in a specific psychiatric outpatient population with a Muslim background. Methods: Of all patients registered at an outpatient clinic specialized in transcultural psychiatry, data were collected on folk belief, religion, hallucinations (if present), and medical diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621348/religion-and-perceptions-of-community-based-conservation-in-ghana-west-africa
#6
Grant Murray, Andrew Agyare
Adapting community-based protected areas to local context and evaluating their success across a range of possible socio-economic and ecological outcomes depends, in part, on understanding the perceptions of local actors. This article presents results from a mixed methods study that focuses on how and why religious identity, a prominent aspect of Ghanaian culture, is related to perceptions of the performance of several Community Resource Management Areas (CREMAs). CREMAs are a form of Ghanaian protected area that emphasizes community participation and a range of socio-economic and ecological objectives...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579840/teenagers-in-rural-areas-faced-with-organ-donation-and-transplantation
#7
B Febrero, J Almela, A Ríos, I Ros, B Pérez-Sánchez, L Martínez-Alarcón, P Ruiz-Carreño, D Ferreras, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
INTRODUCTION: In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density <300 inhabitants/km2 )...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576974/searching-the-internet-for-psychiatric-disorders-among-arab-and-jewish-israelis-insights-from-a-comprehensive-infodemiological-survey
#8
Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Mahmud Mahamid, Daniela Amital, Bishara Bisharat, Naim Mahroum, Kassem Sharif, Adi Guy, Amin Adawi, Hussein Mahagna, Arsalan Abu Much, Samaa Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad
Israel represents a complex and pluralistic society comprising two major ethno-national groups, Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, which differ in terms of religious and cultural values as well as social constructs. According to the so-called "diversification hypothesis", within the framework of e-health and in the era of new information and communication technologies, seeking online health information could be a channel to increase health literacy, especially among disadvantaged groups. However, little is known concerning digital seeking behavior and, in particular, digital mental health literacy...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561275/bodies-for-anatomy-education-in-medical-schools-an-overview-of-the-sources-of-cadavers-worldwide
#9
Juri L Habicht, Claudia Kiessling, Andreas Winkelmann
The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) recommended in 2012 that only donated bodies be used for anatomy teaching and research. However, in many countries around the world, anatomists still depend on bodies that do not stem from voluntary donations by the deceased, but rather are "unclaimed." A broad search of the literature was conducted to produce a baseline overview of the sources of cadavers used for anatomy teaching in undergraduate medical curricula on a global scale...
March 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560952/-name-is-a-term-in-clinical-terminology
#10
M A Gorshenina, V V Robustova
The paper addresses cognitive mechanisms of nomination on the examples of using proper nouns in the names of clinical syndromes. The authors explore the names of syndromes in neurology and psychiatry which are underpinned by onomastic metaphors or metonymy. The most frequent sources of the secondary use of proper nouns in clinical terminology are literature, history, mythology, religion and cinematograph. A choice of name for a new syndrome is determined by objective as well as subjective factors. Syndrome names with an onomastic component are based on associative thinking...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510570/organ-transplantation-in-iran-current-state-and-challenges-with-a-view-on-ethical-consideration
#11
REVIEW
Mehrzad Kiani, Mahmoud Abbasi, Mehdi Ahmadi, Bahare Salehi
Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497585/spiritually-integrated-cognitive-processing-therapy-a-new-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-that-targets-moral-injury
#12
Michelle Pearce, Kerry Haynes, Natalia R Rivera, Harold G Koenig
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder, and current treatments leave the majority of patients with unresolved symptoms. Moral injury (MI) may be one of the barriers that interfere with recovery from PTSD, particularly among current or former military service members. Objective: Given the psychological and spiritual aspects of MI, an intervention that addresses MI using spiritual resources in addition to psychological resources may be particularly effective in treating PTSD...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495917/re-situating-abortion-bio-politics-global-health-and-rights-in-neo-liberal-times
#13
Maya Unnithan, Silvia de Zordo
New modes of neoliberal and rights-based reproductive governance are emerging across the world which either paradoxically foreclose access to universal health services or promote legislative reform without providing a continuum of services on the ground. These shifts present new opportunities for the expansion but also the limitation of abortion provision conceptually and 'on-the-ground', both in the Global North and South. The collection of papers in this special issue examine current abortion governance discourse and practice in historical, socio-political contexts to analyse the threat posed to women's sexual and reproductive health and rights globally...
March 2, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488896/-the-relationship-between-forgivingness-mental-health-and-psychotherapy
#14
K T Kioulos, Z H Alexandri, A T Kioulou, I D Bergiannaki
Forgivingness occupies a prominent place in religions as well as in various philosophical systems of ethics and can be defined as the free, personal distancing from feelings of rage and resentment toward a person or persons having committed an injustice. The main psychological function of forgiveness consists in allowing for the replacement of negative emotions by positive ones, such as generosity, goodness, compassion, empathy, or even love toward the offender. It must be emphasized that forgiveness is independent from reconciliation, and it is not simply a form of tolerance, justification, oblivion, underestimation, denial or amnesty...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417215/organ-and-tissue-donation-in-a-regional-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-evaluation-of-practice
#15
Laura Carone, Shrirang Alurkar, Phoebe Kigozi, Harish Vyas
Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409552/dying-for-the-group-towards-a-general-theory-of-extreme-self-sacrifice
#16
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400250/-the-journey-i-have-been-through-the-role-of-religion-and-spirituality-in-aging-well-among-hiv-positive-older-adults
#17
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398727/experiences-and-practices-of-evolution-instructors-at-christian-universities-that-can-inform-culturally-competent-evolution-education
#18
M Elizabeth Barnes, Sara E Brownell
Students' religious beliefs and religious cultures have been shown to be the main factors predicting whether they will accept evolution, yet college biology instructors teaching evolution at public institutions often have religious beliefs and cultures that are different from their religious students. This difference in religious beliefs and cultures may be a barrier to effective evolution education. To explore when evolution instructors have similar religious cultures and beliefs as their students, we interviewed 32 evolution instructors at Christian universities nationwide about their practices and experiences teaching evolution...
January 2018: Science Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385355/whose-moral-community-religiosity-secularity-and-self-rated-health-across-communal-religious-contexts
#19
Samuel Stroope, Joseph O Baker
Scholars have long theorized that religious contexts provide health-promoting social integration and regulation. A growing body of literature has documented associations between individual religiosity and health as well as macro-micro linkages between religious contexts, religious participation, and individual health. Using unique data on individuals and county contexts in the United States, this study offers new insight by using multilevel analysis to examine meso-micro relationships between religion and health...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385187/exploring-unobserved-household-living-conditions-in-multilevel-choice-modeling-an-application-to-contraceptive-adoption-by-indian-women
#20
José G Dias, Isabel Tiago de Oliveira
This research analyzes the effect of the poverty-wealth dimension on contraceptive adoption by Indian women when no direct measures of income/expenditures are available to use as covariates. The index-Household Living Conditions (HLC)-is based on household assets and dwelling characteristics and is computed by an item response model simultaneously with the choice model in a new single-step approach. That is, the HLC indicator is treated as a latent covariate measured by a set of items, it depends on a set of concomitant variables, and explains contraceptive choices in a probit regression...
2018: PloS One
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