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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385112/influence-of-religion-on-later-burden-and-health-of-new-black-and-white-caregivers
#1
Carla R A Fider, Jerry W Lee, Peter C Gleason, Patricia Jones
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between positive aspects of religiosity and reduced stress in caregivers, and negative aspects of religiosity and increased caregiver burden. METHOD: Using data from the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study, we performed multiple linear regression analysis on 584 caregivers. RESULTS: Mental health, but not physical health, was predicted by caregiver burden. Caregivers who viewed God as loving and not controlling and felt a sense of community with their church family had less burden...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350843/high-hiv-prevalence-and-incidence-among-women-in-southern-mozambique-evidence-from-the-mdp-microbicide-feasibility-study
#2
Sibone Mocumbi, Mitzy Gafos, Khatia Munguambe, Ruth Goodall, Sheena McCormack
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP) feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence. METHODS: The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325245/south-east-asia-differing-socioeconomic-factors-differing-access-to-radiotherapy-the-philippines-a-microcosm
#3
REVIEW
Miriam Joy C Calaguas, Johannes A Gubat
The accessibility of radiotherapy in Southeast Asia, a region characterized by diversity in both economy and culture, differ widely among its member countries. In most countries, access is not universal and is generally limited by radiotherapy resources and the health-seeking behavior of patients. This in turn relates to the current health policy in place, the practice of radiation oncology, and cultural factors such as religion and family dynamics. Although it is clear that radiotherapy access parallel economic development, it is also affected by different social factors that work to facilitate or impede its improvement...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281154/using-surplus-embryos-and-research-embryos-in-stem-cell-research-ethical-viewpoints-of-buddhist-hindu-and-catholic-leaders-in-malaysia-on-the-permissibility-of-research
#4
Mathana Amaris Fiona Sivaraman
The sources of embryos for Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) include surplus embryos from infertility treatments, and research embryos which are created solely for an ESCR purpose. The latter raises more ethical concerns. In a multi-religious country like Malaysia, ethical discussions on the permissibility of ESCR with regard to the use surplus and research embryos are diversified. Malaysia has formulated guidelines influenced by the national fatwa ruling which allows the use of surplus embryos in ESCR. Input from other main religions is yet to be documented...
March 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119066/association-of-posterior-eeg-alpha-with-prioritization-of-religion-or-spirituality-a-replication-and-extension-at-20-year-follow-up
#5
Craig E Tenke, Jürgen Kayser, Connie Svob, Lisa Miller, Jorge E Alvarenga, Karen Abraham, Virginia Warner, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna M Weissman, Gerard E Bruder
A prior report (Tenke et al., 2013 Biol. Psychol. 94:426-432) found that participants who rated religion or spirituality (R/S) highly important had greater posterior alpha after 10 years compared to those who did not. Participants who subsequently lowered their rating also had prominent alpha, while those who increased their rating did not. Here we report EEG findings 20 years after initial assessment. Clinical evaluations and R/S ratings were obtained from 73 (52 new) participants in a longitudinal study of family risk for depression...
March 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116351/impending-extinction-crisis-of-the-world-s-primates-why-primates-matter
#6
REVIEW
Alejandro Estrada, Paul A Garber, Anthony B Rylands, Christian Roos, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Anthony Di Fiore, K Anne-Isola Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, Eckhard W Heymann, Joanna E Lambert, Francesco Rovero, Claudia Barelli, Joanna M Setchell, Thomas R Gillespie, Russell A Mittermeier, Luis Verde Arregoitia, Miguel de Guinea, Sidney Gouveia, Ricardo Dobrovolski, Sam Shanee, Noga Shanee, Sarah A Boyle, Agustin Fuentes, Katherine C MacKinnon, Katherine R Amato, Andreas L S Meyer, Serge Wich, Robert W Sussman, Ruliang Pan, Inza Kone, Baoguo Li
Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074706/christians-cut-popular-religion-and-the-global-health-campaign-for-medical-male-circumcision-in-swaziland
#7
Casey Golomski, Sonene Nyawo
Swaziland faces one of the worst HIV epidemics in the world and is a site for the current global health campaign in sub-Saharan Africa to medically circumcise the majority of the male population. Given that Swaziland is also majority Christian, how does the most popular religion influence acceptance, rejection or understandings of medical male circumcision? This article considers interpretive differences by Christians across the Kingdom's three ecumenical organisations, showing how a diverse group people singly glossed as 'Christian' in most public health acceptability studies critically rejected the procedure in unity, but not uniformly...
January 11, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006988/the-use-of-spirituality-and-religiosity-in-coping-with-colorectal-cancer
#8
Nazi Nejat, Lisa Whitehead, Marie Crowe
BACKGROUND: Spirituality and religiosity are reported as important in coping with cancer but rarely explored across cultures. OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare the use of spirituality and religiosity in coping with colorectal cancer in New Zealand and Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative approach involving interviews conducted in New Zealand (n = 20) and Iran (n = 20). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The majority of participants interviewed used religion as a resource in coping with cancer...
February 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966019/fear-of-clowns-in-hospitalized-children-prospective-experience
#9
Noam Meiri, Zeev Schnapp, Amichi Ankri, Itay Nahmias, Amnon Raviv, Omer Sagi, Mohamad Hamad Saied, Muriel Konopnicki, Giora Pillar
Medical clowns (MC) have become an integral part of the pediatric staff of hospital wards. While several studies have demonstrated the huge benefits of MC, there are almost no data regarding fear of clowns, a known phenomenon that means an irrational fear of clowns. In the current study, we sought to examine the prevalence of fear of clowns in pediatrics wards, and to characterize the affected children. The clinical work of three certified MCs was prospectively assessed. Every child with fear of clowns was noted, data were retrieved from the medical records, and the parents/child completed a specific questionnaire with a research assistant...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#10
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905103/subjective-well-being-in-the-new-china-religion-social-capital-and-social-status
#11
Yunsong Chen, Mark Williams
We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational...
December 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
March 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880088/lectio-divina-a-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-chaplaincy-program
#13
Marek S Kopacz, Mary S Adams, Robert F Searle
This participant outcome evaluation serves as a preliminary investigation into the effects of lectio divina, a chaplaincy service representing a form of focused Scripture reading. A sample of n = 19 patients who participated in this service at a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in upstate New York was screened at baseline and 30-days follow-up using the Duke University Religion Index, Berg Spiritual Injury Scale, and a screening question for thoughts of harming self or others. These measures were used to assess the intended outcomes of enhanced religiosity, ameliorated spiritual injury, and decreased thoughts of violence...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876690/-mommy-blogs-and-the-vaccination-exemption-narrative-results-from-a-machine-learning-approach-for-story-aggregation-on-parenting-social-media-sites
#14
Timothy R Tangherlini, Vwani Roychowdhury, Beth Glenn, Catherine M Crespi, Roja Bandari, Akshay Wadia, Misagh Falahi, Ehsan Ebrahimzadeh, Roshan Bastani
BACKGROUND: Social media offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore how people talk about health care at a very large scale. Numerous studies have shown the importance of websites with user forums for people seeking information related to health. Parents turn to some of these sites, colloquially referred to as "mommy blogs," to share concerns about children's health care, including vaccination. Although substantial work has considered the role of social media, particularly Twitter, in discussions of vaccination and other health care-related issues, there has been little work on describing the underlying structure of these discussions and the role of persuasive storytelling, particularly on sites with no limits on post length...
November 22, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#15
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833570/phenotypic-dimensions-of-spirituality-implications-for-mental-health-in-china-india-and-the-united-states
#16
Clayton H McClintock, Elsa Lau, Lisa Miller
While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812844/-for-they-knew-not-what-it-was-rethinking-the-tacit-narrative-history-of-religion-and-health-research
#17
Jeff Levin
Over the past couple of decades, research on religion and health has grown into a thriving field. Misperceptions about the history and scope of this field, however, continue to exist, especially among new investigators and commentators on this research. Contrary to the tacit narrative, published research and writing date to the nineteenth century, programmatic research to the 1950s, and NIH funding to 1990; elite medical journals have embraced this topic for over 100 years; study populations are religiously and sociodemographically diverse; and published findings are mostly positive, consistent with psychosocial theories of health and confirmed by comprehensive reviews and expert panels...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764647/capturing-religious-identity-during-hospital-admission-a-valid-practice-in-our-increasingly-secular-society
#18
David Glenister, Martin Prewer
Objective Most major Victorian hospitals include religious identity in routine admission demographic questions. However, approximately 20% of admissions do not have their religious identity recorded. At the Royal Melbourne Hospital this missing 20% was surveyed throughout 2014-15 for two reasons: (1) to enable patient care; and (2) to provide an insight into the significance of religious identity for patients. There is scarce literature on this subject, so the present mixed-methods study, including a qualitative component, will start to bridge the gap...
October 21, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760206/measuring-cross-cultural-supernatural-beliefs-with-self-and-peer-reports
#19
Matthias Bluemke, Jonathan Jong, Dennis Grevenstein, Igor Mikloušić, Jamin Halberstadt
Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681906/staphylococcus-aureus-in-animals-and-food-methicillin-resistance-prevalence-and-population-structure-a-review-in-the-african-continent
#20
REVIEW
Carmen Lozano, Haythem Gharsa, Karim Ben Slama, Myriam Zarazaga, Carmen Torres
The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys), and in food of animal origin in African countries...
February 4, 2016: Microorganisms
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