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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417215/organ-and-tissue-donation-in-a-regional-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-evaluation-of-practice
#1
Laura Carone, Shrirang Alurkar, Phoebe Kigozi, Harish Vyas
Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409552/dying-for-the-group-towards-a-general-theory-of-extreme-self-sacrifice
#2
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400250/-the-journey-i-have-been-through-the-role-of-religion-and-spirituality-in-aging-well-among-hiv-positive-older-adults
#3
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398727/experiences-and-practices-of-evolution-instructors-at-christian-universities-that-can-inform-culturally-competent-evolution-education
#4
M Elizabeth Barnes, Sara E Brownell
Students' religious beliefs and religious cultures have been shown to be the main factors predicting whether they will accept evolution, yet college biology instructors teaching evolution at public institutions often have religious beliefs and cultures that are different from their religious students. This difference in religious beliefs and cultures may be a barrier to effective evolution education. To explore when evolution instructors have similar religious cultures and beliefs as their students, we interviewed 32 evolution instructors at Christian universities nationwide about their practices and experiences teaching evolution...
January 2018: Science Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385355/whose-moral-community-religiosity-secularity-and-self-rated-health-across-communal-religious-contexts
#5
Samuel Stroope, Joseph O Baker
Scholars have long theorized that religious contexts provide health-promoting social integration and regulation. A growing body of literature has documented associations between individual religiosity and health as well as macro-micro linkages between religious contexts, religious participation, and individual health. Using unique data on individuals and county contexts in the United States, this study offers new insight by using multilevel analysis to examine meso-micro relationships between religion and health...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385187/exploring-unobserved-household-living-conditions-in-multilevel-choice-modeling-an-application-to-contraceptive-adoption-by-indian-women
#6
José G Dias, Isabel Tiago de Oliveira
This research analyzes the effect of the poverty-wealth dimension on contraceptive adoption by Indian women when no direct measures of income/expenditures are available to use as covariates. The index-Household Living Conditions (HLC)-is based on household assets and dwelling characteristics and is computed by an item response model simultaneously with the choice model in a new single-step approach. That is, the HLC indicator is treated as a latent covariate measured by a set of items, it depends on a set of concomitant variables, and explains contraceptive choices in a probit regression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351142/worldwide-end-of-life-practice-for-patients-in-icus
#7
Wai-Tat Wong, Jason Phua, Gavin M Joynt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Published data and practice recommendations on end-of-life (EOL) generally reflect Western practice frameworks. Understanding worldwide practices is important because improving economic conditions are promoting rapid expansion of intensive care services in many previously disadvantaged regions, and increasing migration has promoted a new cultural diversity previously predominantly unicultural societies. This review explores current knowledge of similarities and differences in EOL practice between regions and possible causes and implications of these differences...
January 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322509/identity-fusion-predicts-endorsement-of-pro-group-behaviours-targeting-nationality-religion-or-football-in-brazilian-samples
#8
Tiago Bortolini, Martha Newson, Jean Carlos Natividade, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez
A visceral feeling of oneness with a group - identity fusion - has proven to be a stronger predictor of pro-group behaviours than other measures of group bonding, such as group identification. However, the relationship between identity fusion, other group alignment measures and their different roles in predicting pro-group behaviour is still controversial. Here, we test whether identity fusion is related to, but different from, unidimensional and multidimensional measures of group identification. We also show that identity fusion explains further variance of the endorsement of pro-group behaviour than these alternative measures and examine the structural and discriminant properties of identity fusion and group identification measures in three different contexts: nationality, religion, and football fandom...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283038/humanitarian-quarantine-in-practice-medicine-religion-and-leprosy-in-new-caledonia
#9
Ingrid J Sykes
Medicine and religion worked in close synchronisation during the leprosy outbreak of New Caledonia (1890-1950). Once isolation of leprosy-affected people became mandatory doctors and missionaries came together to promote a particular form of medical practice that tied charitable zeal with cutting-edge medical research, developing a sophisticated set of medical practices that catered for the soul as well as the body. Such practices went hand-in-hand with ideas developed by doctors in the earlier stages of the epidemic about the way in which the disease had entered the Kanak (local Melanesian) population...
December 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282119/improving-prevention-monitoring-and-management-of-diabetes-among-ethnic-minorities-contextualizing-the-six-g-s-approach
#10
Anil Gumber, Leher Gumber
OBJECTIVE: People from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are known to have an increased risk of developing diabetes and face greater barriers to accessing healthcare resources compared to their 'white British' counterparts. The extent of these barriers varies by demographics and different socioeconomic circumstances that people find themselves in. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss a new framework to understand, disentangle and tackle these barriers so that improvements in the effectiveness of diabetes interventions for BAME communities can be achieved...
December 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241363/science-state-and-spirituality-stories-of-four-creationists-in-south-korea
#11
Hyung Wook Park, Kyuhoon Cho
This paper presents an analysis of the birth and growth of scientific creationism in South Korea by focusing on the lives of four major contributors. After creationism arrived in Korea in 1980 through the global campaign of leading American creationists, including Henry Morris and Duane Gish, it steadily grew in the country, reflecting its historical and social conditions, and especially its developmental state with its structured mode of managing science and appropriating religion. We argue that while South Korea's creationism started with the state-centered conservative Christianity under the government that also vigilantly managed scientists, it subsequently constituted some technical experts' efforts to move away from the state and its religion and science through their negotiation of a new identity as Christian intellectuals ( chisigin)...
December 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238116/a-schutzian-analysis-of-prayer-with-perspectives-from-linguistic-philosophy
#12
K Hoshikawa, M Staudigl
In this paper, we propose to analyze the phenomenon of Christian prayer by way of combining two different analytical frameworks. We start by applying Schutz's theories of "intersubjectivity," "inner time," "politheticality," and "multiple realities," and then proceed by drawing on the ideas and insights of linguistic philosophers, notably, Wittgenstein's "language-game," Austin's "speech act," and Evans's "logic of self-involvement". In conjoining these accounts, we wish to demonstrate how their combination sheds new light on understanding the phenomenon of prayer...
2017: Human Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198094/-from-pastoral-care-to-spiritual-care-transforming-the-conception-of-the-role-of-the-spiritual-care-provider
#13
REVIEW
Michael Schultz, Netta Bentur, Ziv Rei Koren, Gil Bar Sela
Spirituality is a difficult concept to define, one that is often understood differently by different cultures and religious communities. Illness constitutes a dramatic change in the ongoing flow and norms of a person's life, raising questions of the value or meaning of life, questions of self-worth, and questions of forgiveness, to ourselves and others. The profession of spiritual care comes to provide support in these areas. Originally focused on religious care, the profession has shifted to providing care for general spiritual well-being, where professionals care for all patients regardless of religion...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167225/a-call-to-use-cultural-competence-when-teaching-evolution-to-religious-college-students-introducing-religious-cultural-competence-in-evolution-education-reccee
#14
M Elizabeth Barnes, Sara E Brownell
Low acceptance of evolution among undergraduate students is common and is best predicted by religious beliefs. Decreasing students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution could increase their acceptance of evolution. However, college biology instructors may struggle with trying to decrease students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution because of differences in the religious cultures and beliefs of instructors and students. Although a large percentage of undergraduate students in evolution courses are religious, most instructors teaching evolution are not...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117244/re-establishing-safer-medical-circumcision-integrated-initiation-ceremonies-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-rural-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-multi-method-acceptability-study
#15
Clement Morris Manineng, David MacLaren, Maggie Baigry, Emil Trowalle, Reinhold Muller, Andrew Vallely, Patrick Gesch, Francis Hombhanje, William John McBride
BACKGROUND: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#16
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
November 6, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055651/miracle-near-34th-street-wartime-penicillin-research-at-st-john-s-university-ny
#17
Gilbert Shama
In the spring of 1944 Sister Marie Immaculate was awarded a Master of Science degree for research on penicillin which she had conducted at St John's University in Brooklyn, New York. She gave her motivation for undertaking research in this topic as wishing to fulfil her patriotic duty by participating in the quest towards making penicillin more readily available to all who needed it. It is possible that contemporary media reports suggesting that the power of penicillin was comparable to a miracle cure contributed to her interest in the subject at the time...
October 18, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022034/mindfulness-a-new-paradigm-of-psychosocial-care-in-the-palliative-care-setting-in-southeast-asia
#18
Seng Beng Tan, David Paul Capelle, Nor Zuraida Zainal, Ee Jane Lim, Ee Chin Loh, Chee Loong Lam
Alleviation of suffering in palliative care needs a combination of good symptom control and psychosocial care. The capacity of mindfulness to promote psychological flexibility opens up possibilities of creating a paradigm shift that can potentially change the landscape of psychosocial care. In this review, we attempt to introduce 4 methods to establish mindfulness based on 'The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness', a core text of Theravada Buddhism, followed by a brief comparison of the concepts and practices of mindfulness in different cultures and religions in Southeast Asia...
September 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960699/the-midwife-woman-relationship-in-a-south-wales-community-experiences-of-midwives-and-migrant-pakistani-women-in-early-pregnancy
#19
Laura Goodwin, Billie Hunter, Aled Jones
BACKGROUND: In 2015, 27.5% of births in England and Wales were to mothers born outside of the UK. Compared to their White British peers, minority ethnic and migrant women are at a significantly higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality, along with lower maternity care satisfaction. Existing literature highlights the importance of midwife-woman relationships in care satisfaction and pregnancy outcomes; however, little research has explored midwife-woman relationships for migrant and minority ethnic women in the UK...
September 29, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956732/attitudes-toward-homosexuality-in-china-exploring-the-effects-of-religion-modernizing-factors-and-traditional-culture
#20
Ying Xie, Minggang Peng
Using the zero-inflated model and nationally representative sample data from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2013, this study systematically explored the effects of religion, modernizing factors, and traditional culture on attitudes toward homosexuality in China. The findings indicate that most Chinese people generally hold conservative attitudes toward homosexuality, as approximately 78.53% of the respondents believed that "same-sex sexual behavior is always wrong." Modernizing factors (i.e., education, exposure to Internet information, and liberal inclinations) predicted greater tolerance for homosexuality, whereas Islamic beliefs negatively influenced respondents' attitudes toward homosexuality...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
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