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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040482/strategies-to-reduce-pulmonary-complications-after-transhiatal-esophagectomy
#1
A M Gillinov, R F Heitmiller
Background: By eliminating a thoracotomy, transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) is purported to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. However, data from many early series do not support this contention, documenting pulmonary complications in up to 50% of patients and pneumonia in 5%-20%. Since 1990, we have implemented a management strategy designed to maximize airway protection in the postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to determine the current incidence of pulmonary complications after transhiatal esophagectomy without thoracotomy...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040316/rising-trends-and-inequalities-in-cesarean-section-rates-in-pakistan-evidence-from-pakistan-demographic-and-health-surveys-1990-2013
#2
Sarwat Mumtaz, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section) in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) conducted during 1990 to 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040269/elevated-blood-pressure-and-risk-of-mitral-regurgitation-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-5-5-million-united-kingdom-adults
#3
Kazem Rahimi, Hamid Mohseni, Catherine M Otto, Nathalie Conrad, Jenny Tran, Milad Nazarzadeh, Mark Woodward, Terence Dwyer, Stephen MacMahon
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2015...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040013/connectome-based-models-predict-separable-components-of-attention-in-novel-individuals
#4
Monica D Rosenberg, Wei-Ting Hsu, Dustin Scheinost, R T Constable, Marvin M Chun
Although we typically talk about attention as a single process, it comprises multiple independent components. But what are these components, and how are they represented in the functional organization of the brain? To investigate whether long-studied components of attention are reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional organization, here we apply connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) to predict the components of Posner and Petersen's [Posner, M. I., & Petersen, S. E. The attention system of the human brain...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037017/preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-versus-postoperative-chemoradiotherapy-for-stage-ii-iii-resectable-rectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Jin Ho Song, Jae Uk Jeong, Jong Hoon Lee, Sung Hwan Kim, Hyeon Min Cho, Jun Won Um, Hong Seok Jang
PURPOSE: Whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is better than postoperative CRT in oncologic outcome and toxicity is contentious in prospective randomized clinical trials. We systematically analyze and compare the treatment result, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate between preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT in stage II-III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2014 for relevant trials...
September 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036994/-trend-analysis-of-the-burden-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-china-1990-to-2015
#6
G S Zhang, C H Yu, L S Luo, Y C Li, X Y Zeng
Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the trend of burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in China between 1990 and 2015. Methods: Data were collected from the results of 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study. We arranged and analyzed the mortality and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for IHD by sexes, ages and provinces (excluding Taiwan, China) in China between 1990 and 2015. The age-standardized rates were determined using the average world population age structure in the period of 2010-2035 as a reference, and the changes of the related indicators were calculated...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036992/-survey-on-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-low-fruit-intake-among-chinese-people-aged-15-years-old-and-above-between-1990-and-2013
#7
J H Li, X Y Zeng, Y C Li, S W Liu, J Y Niu, L J Wang, P Yin, J L You, M G Zhou
Objective: To analyze the burden of disease attributable to low fruit intake among Chinese population aged ≥15 years old between 1990 and 2013. Methods: We used data from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Burden of Disease Study to study the situation in China. The population attributable fraction was calculated to estimate and compare the death and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) attributed to low fruit intake between 1990 and 2013 in China (excluded Taiwan, China). An average world population age structure of the period 2000-2025 was adopted to calculate age-standardized rates...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036485/economic-conditions-during-pregnancy-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-among-singleton-live-births-in-the-united-states-1990-2013
#8
Claire E Margerison-Zilko, Yu Li, Zhehui Luo
We know little about the relationship between the macroeconomy and birth outcomes, in part due to the methodological challenge of distinguishing effects of economic conditions on fetal health from effects of economic conditions on selection into live birth. We examined associations between state-level unemployment rates in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, using natality data on singleton live births in the United States during 1990-2013. We used fixed-effect logistic regression models and accounted for selection by adjusting for state-level unemployment before conception and maternal characteristics associated with both selection and birth outcomes...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036059/modeling-astronomical-adaptive-optics-performance-with-temporally-filtered-wiener-reconstruction-of-slope-data
#9
Carlos M Correia, Charlotte Z Bond, Jean-François Sauvage, Thierry Fusco, Rodolphe Conan, Peter L Wizinowich
We build on a long-standing tradition in astronomical adaptive optics (AO) of specifying performance metrics and error budgets using linear systems modeling in the spatial-frequency domain. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive tool for the calculation of error budgets in terms of residual temporally filtered phase power spectral densities and variances. In addition, the fast simulation of AO-corrected point spread functions (PSFs) provided by this method can be used as inputs for simulations of science observations with next-generation instruments and telescopes, in particular to predict post-coronagraphic contrast improvements for planet finder systems...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034324/a-review-of-epidemiologic-studies-of-the-health-of-gulf-war-women-veterans
#10
Steven S Coughlin, Maxine Krengel, Kimberly Sullivan, Penny F Pierce, Vahé Heboyan, Lt Col Candy Wilson
INTRODUCTION: In the 25 years since the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW), studies have evaluated Gulf War Illness (GWI), sometimes referred to as medically unexplained multi symptom illness, and other medical and neurological conditions in women GW veterans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we review epidemiologic studies of the health of women who served in the 1990-1991 GW based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL with relevant search terms through September 2015...
2017: Journal of Environment and Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033553/a-critical-analysis-of-national-policies-systems-and-structures-of-patient-empowerment-in-england-and-greece
#11
REVIEW
Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Graham Lister
BACKGROUND: Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. METHODS: We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033161/impact-of-a-socio-educational-intervention-to-improve-the-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-fibromyalgia-a-quasi-experimental-design
#12
Susanna Torres Belmonte, Narly Benachi Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a socio-educational intervention to improve the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Out of 132 eligible candidates, 128 patients participated with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (ACR 1990/2010), over 18 years of age, who did not have cognitive problems or mental disorders in acute phase and lived in the catchment area of the participating CAPs. The patients underwent intervention for 5 weeks to strengthen self-management of pain and improve quality of life...
October 13, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032627/complementary-feeding-practices-for-infants-and-young-children-in-south-asia-a-review-of-evidence-for-action-post-2015
#13
Víctor M Aguayo
Some 37% (~64 million) South Asian children under 5 years are stunted. Most stunting occurs during the complementary feeding period (6-23 months). Our objective was to (a) characterize complementary feeding practices in South Asia and (b) review the effectiveness of information, education, and counselling (IEC) interventions aiming to improve complementary feeding in South Asia. We conducted a comprehensive review of (a) the latest nationally representative survey data and (b) peer-reviewed interventions (January 1990 to December 2015) that used IEC as the main strategy to improve complementary feeding...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032451/impact-of-body-mass-index-on-the-oncological-outcomes-of-patients-treated-with-radical-nephroureterectomy-for-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#14
Yohann Dabi, Mohammed El Mrini, Igor Duquesnes, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Mathilde Sibony, Marc Zerbib, Evanguelos Xylinas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and oncological outcomes in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 237 consecutive patients treated with RNU for UTUC at our institution between 1990 and 2012. Univariable and multivariable cox regression models investigated the association of BMI with disease recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and overall mortality...
October 14, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032195/global-causes-of-blindness-and-distance-vision-impairment-1990-2020-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Seth R Flaxman, Rupert R A Bourne, Serge Resnikoff, Peter Ackland, Tasanee Braithwaite, Maria V Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Alex Silvester, Gretchen A Stevens, Nina Tahhan, Tien Y Wong, Hugh R Taylor
BACKGROUND: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014...
October 10, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032061/towards-individualizing-conditioning-regimens-in-reduced-intensity-transplantation
#16
Moussab Damlaj, Mrinal M Patnaik
The advent of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in the 1990's has expanded accessibility to transplant thereby permitting previously ineligible patients to receive such therapy. Consensus guidelines defining dose intensity were subsequently developed (1, 2). Fludarabine combined with intermediate dose busulfan (FB) or intermediate dose melphalan (FM) are the most commonly used RIC regimens. Although these protocols are considered equivalent in terms of myelosuppressive and immunosuppressive properties, there is no prospective comparative data to further guide their use...
October 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031789/trends-and-differences-in-tuberculosis-incidences-and-clustering-among-natives-in-denmark-sweden-and-finland-a-comparison-of-native-incidences-and-molecular-epidemiology-among-three-low-incidence-countries
#17
Mathias Klok Pedersen, Troels Lillebaek, Aase Bengaard Andersen, Hanna Soini, Marjo Haanperä, Ramona Groenheit, Jerker Jonsson, Erik Svensson
OBJECTIVES: To compare the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, by focusing on the native population in order to identify epidemiological differences and thus indirectly possible differences in TB control. METHODS: TB incidence trends from 1990 through 2015 were compared among the countries. Also, for the periodes 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, genotyping data were compared. Genotyping was performed using the 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) method in Denmark and Sweden...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030659/cyclophosphamide-could-be-a-better-choice-than-methotrexate-as-induction-treatment-for-patients-with-more-severe-takayasu-s-arteritis
#18
Ying Sun, Lili Ma, Lingying Ma, Xiufang Kong, Huiyong Chen, Peng Lv, Jiang Lin, Hao Liu, Yan Yan, Zongfei Ji, Chengde Yang, Shengming Dai, Weiguo Wan, Yaohong Zou, Xuejuan Jin, Lindi Jiang
To assess the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide (CYC) versus methotrexate (MTX) for active Takayasu's arteritis (TA). The current study was based on a cohort of TA at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. TA was diagnosed using the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria. Fifty-eight subjects receiving induction treatment with CYC (n = 46) or MTX (N = 12) were included in the analysis. Effectiveness and toxicity were assessed in all 58 cases. Clinical remission was defined as: Kerr score reduction to ≤ 1 and glucocorticoids (GC) treatment at a dose of ≤ 0...
October 13, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030327/the-effectiveness-of-ehealth-technologies-on-weight-management-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Diana Sherifali, Kara A Nerenberg, Shanna Wilson, Kevin Semeniuk, Muhammad Usman Ali, Leanne M Redman, Kristi B Adamo
BACKGROUND: The emergence and utilization of electronic health (eHealth) technologies has increased in a variety of health interventions. Exploiting the real-time advantages offered by mobile technologies during and after pregnancy has the potential to empower women and encourage behaviors that may improve maternal and child health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of eHealth technologies for weight management during pregnancy and the postpartum period and to review the efficacy of eHealth technologies on health behaviors, specifically nutrition and physical activity...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030277/isolated-unilateral-temporalis-muscle-hypertrophy-first-case-in-an-8-year-old-boy-and-review
#20
Narcisse Zwetyenga, Anna Hallier, Marine Girodon, Julie Levasseur, Ludwig Loison-Robert, Vivien Moris
INTRODUCTION: Isolated Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Hypertrophy (IUTMH) was first described in 1990, and few cases have been published since then. This disease occurs mainly in adults. There is no clear etiology of IUTMH, but bruxism is one of the risk factors. Only two cases have been described before the age of 20 years. To our knowledge, no cases have been described in persons younger than 15 years old. We report the first case of IUTMH in an 8-year-old and review the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This section is separated into 3 parts: 1- search for and description of clinical cases of IUTMH in our department; 2- literature search to find similar cases; 3- data analysis of all cases found...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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