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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454010/how-economic-recessions-and-unemployment-affect-illegal-drug-use-a-systematic-realist-literature-review
#1
Gera E Nagelhout, Karin Hummel, Moniek C M de Goeij, Hein de Vries, Eileen Kaner, Paul Lemmens
BACKGROUND: Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453757/incidence-and-phenotype-at-diagnosis-of-very-early-onset-compared-with-later-onset-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-study-1988-2011
#2
E Bequet, H Sarter, M Fumery, F Vasseur, L Armengol-Debeir, B Pariente, D Ley, C Spyckerelle, H Coevoet, J E Laberenne, L Peyrin-Biroulet, G Savoye, D Turck, C Gower-Rousseau
Background and Aims: Very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease [VEO-IBD] is a form of IBD that is distinct from that of children with an older onset. We compared changes over time in the incidence and phenotype at diagnosis between two groups according to age at IBD diagnosis: VEO-IBD diagnosed before the age of 6 years, and early-onset IBD [EO-IBD] diagnosed between 6 and 16 years of age. Methods: Data were obtained from a cohort enrolled in a prospective French population-based registry from 1988 to 2011...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453756/malignancies-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-results-from-20-years-of-follow-up-in-the-ibsen-study
#3
Øistein Hovde, Marte Lie Høivik, Magne Henriksen, Inger Camilla Solberg, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Bjørn A Moum
Background and Aims: Whether patients with inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] have increased risk of developing cancer has been debated. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of intestinal/extraintestinal cancers in an IBD cohort 20 years after diagnosis and to assess whether these patients had an increased cancer-specific risk compared with a matched control population. Methods: Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD] diagnosed 1990-1993 have been prospectively followed up for 20 years...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453713/does-charging-different-user-fees-for-primary-and-secondary-care-affect-first-contacts-with-primary-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#4
Thomas Hone, John Tayu Lee, Azeem Majeed, Lesong Conteh, Christopher Millett
Policy-makers are increasingly considering charging users different fees between primary and secondary care (differential user charges) to encourage utilisation of primary health care in health systems with limited gate keeping. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of introducing differential user charges on service utilisation. We reviewed studies published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, EconLIT, HMIC, and WHO library databases from January 1990 until June 2015. We extracted data from the studies meeting defined eligibility criteria and assessed study quality using an established checklist...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453534/vitamin-and-mineral-status-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Monica L Joustra, Isidor Minovic, Karin A M Janssens, Stephan J L Bakker, Judith G M Rosmalen
BACKGROUND: Many chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (35-68%) use nutritional supplements, while it is unclear whether deficiencies in vitamins and minerals contribute to symptoms in these patients. Objectives were (1) to determine vitamin and mineral status in CFS and FMS patients as compared to healthy controls; (2) to investigate the association between vitamin and mineral status and clinical parameters, including symptom severity and quality of life; and (3) to determine the effect of supplementation on clinical parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449059/marijuana-use-impacts-midlife-cardiovascular-events-in-hiv-infected-men
#6
David R Lorenz, Anupriya Dutta, Shibani S Mukerji, Alex Holman, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
Background.: Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with HIV, but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown. Methods.: A prospective study of 558 HIV-infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1990-2010: 182 HIV seroconverters and 376 with viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Associations between heavy marijuana use and HIV disease markers or white blood cell (WBC) count were examined using mixed-effects and linear regression models...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448905/drug-use-generations-and-patterns-of-injection-drug-use-birth-cohort-differences-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-los-angeles-and-san-francisco-california
#7
Ricky N Bluthenthal, Lynn Wenger, Daniel Chu, Philippe Bourgois, Alex H Kral
OBJECTIVES: A robust literature documents generational trends in drug use. We examined the implications of changing national drug use patterns on drug injection histories of diverse people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Drug use histories were collected from 776 active PWID in 2011-13. Using descriptive statistics, we examine drug use initiation by year and birth cohort (BC) differences in drug first injected. A multivariate linear regression model of time to injection initiation ([TTII] (year of first injection minus year of first illicit drug use) was developed to explore BC differences...
April 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448825/health-policy-in-the-concertaci%C3%A3-n-era-1990-2010-reforms-the-chilean-way
#8
María Soledad Martinez-Gutierrez, Cristóbal Cuadrado
The Chilean health system has experienced important transformations in the last decades with a neoliberal turn to privatization of the health insurance and healthcare market since the Pinochet reforms of the 1980s. During 20 years of center-left political coalition governments several reforms were attempted to regulate and reform such markets. This paper analyzes regulatory policies for the private health insurance and health care delivery market, adopted during the 1990-2010 period. A framework of variation in market types developed by Gingrich is adopted as analytical perspective...
April 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448809/recent-land-use-and-land-cover-changes-and-its-driving-factors-in-a-fire-prone-area-of-southwestern-turkey
#9
Olga Viedma, José M Moreno, Cumhur Güngöroglu, Ufuk Cosgun, Ali Kavgacı
During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448698/characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-suicide-and-deaths-among-college-students-a-23-year-serial-prevalence-study-of-data-from-8-2-million-japanese-college-students
#10
Chiyoko Uchida, Mai Uchida
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a leading cause of death for college students. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of suicide among college students that could improve university services to help prevent college suicide. METHODS: We conducted a 23-year serial prevalence study of the prevalence and characteristics of death and suicide among 8,262,314 Japanese college students. We analyzed rates of suicide from the 1989 to 1990 academic year through the 2011-2012 academic year and characterized suicide among this population, focusing on students' sex and psychiatric and academic backgrounds to identify risk factors for suicide...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447931/time-trends-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-adults
#11
Jonas D Finger, Markus A Busch, Yong Du, Christin Heidemann, Hildtraud Knopf, Ronny Kuhnert, Thomas Lampert, Gert B M Mensink, Hannelore K Neuhauser, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Anja Schienkiewitz, Julia Truthmann, Bärbel-Maria Kurth
BACKGROUND: Data from three representative health examination surveys in Germany were analyzed to examine secular trends in the prevalence and magnitude of cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: The target variables were the following cardiometabolic risk factors: lack of exercise, smoking, obesity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, serum glucose, self-reported high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, and the use of antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs...
October 21, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447816/does-combat-exposure-affect-well-being-in-later-life-the-va-normative-aging-study
#12
Hyunyup Lee, Carolyn M Aldwin, Soyoung Choun, Avron Spiro
OBJECTIVE: Combat exposure can have long-term negative effects in later life; although aspects of service may be appraised positively, the long-term positive effects of combat on well-being in later life is largely unknown. METHOD: The sample included 1,006 male veterans from the VA Normative Aging Study, surveyed by mail in 1986, 1990, and 1991 (Mage = 65.5 years, SD = 7.3). They reported on their combat exposure, desirable appraisals of military service, unit cohesion, dispositional optimism, self-rated health, and psychological well-being (PWB), as well as age, military rank, and education...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447809/understanding-the-cognitive-processes-involved-in-writing-to-learn
#13
Kathleen M Arnold, Sharda Umanath, Kara Thio, Walter B Reilly, Mark A McDaniel, Elizabeth J Marsh
Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444500/metastatic-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-and-the-primary-thyroid-gross-examination-institutional-review-of-cases-from-1990-to-2015
#14
Krzysztof Glomski, Vania Nosé, William C Faquin, Peter M Sadow
The diagnosis of follicular-patterned carcinomas, including follicular thyroid carcinoma, oncocytic (Hürthle cell) carcinoma, and the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, requires evidence of capsular and/or vascular invasion. With minimally invasive carcinomas classified often within less than a millimeter of tissue segregating them from adenomas and non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features, opinions vary internationally over how much of the capsule to submit in order to deem it well enough represented, considering that even if grossly entirely submitted in microcassettes, without leveling through each tissue block, the capsule is truly never entirely examined microscopically...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444285/preeclampsia-screening-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#15
Jillian T Henderson, Jamie H Thompson, Brittany U Burda, Amy Cantor
Importance: Preeclampsia is a complex disease of pregnancy with sometimes serious effects on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. It is defined by hypertension after 20 weeks' gestation and proteinuria or other evidence of multisystem involvement. Objective: To systematically review the benefits and harms of preeclampsia screening and risk assessment for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from 1990 through September 1, 2015...
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443987/seroprevalence-of-bactericidal-antibodies-against-serogroup-b-and-c-meningococci-in-a-university-hospital
#16
C A C Gioia, A P S Lemos, M C O Gorla, R Mendoza-Sassi, B S Figueredo, T Ballester, A Von Groll, B Wedig, N V Ethur, L Bragança, P E A Silva, L G Milagres
Meningococcus serogroup B (MenB), clonal complex 32 (cc 32), was the Brazilian epidemic strain of meningococcal disease (MD) in the 1990's. Currently, meningococcus serogroup C (MenC), cc 103, is responsible for most of the cases of the disease in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of bactericidal antibody (SBA) against representative epidemic strains of MenC, (N753/00 strain, C:23:P1.22,14-6, cc103) and MenB, (Cu385/83 strain, B:4,7:P1.15,19, cc32) in students and employees of a university hospital in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil)...
April 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443206/estimation-of-lung-cancer-burden-in-australia-the-philippines-and-singapore-an-evaluation-of-disability-adjusted-life-years
#17
Suman Morampudi, Neha Das, Arun Gowda, Anand Patil
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers and major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The economic burden associated with the high mortality of lung cancer is high, which accounts for nearly $180 billion on a global scale in 2008. This paper aims to understand the economic burden of lung cancer in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Australia, the Philippines, and Singapore. METHODS: The years of life lost (YLL) and years lost due to disability (YLD) were calculated using the formula developed by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability for diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020...
February 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439378/oman-vision-2050-for-health-research-a-strategic-plan-for-the-future-based-on-the-past-and-present-experience
#18
REVIEW
Adhra Hilal Nasser Al Mawali, Ahmed Mohamed Al Qasmi, Sultana Mohamed Saif Al Sabahi, John Idikula, Mahmoud Attia Abd Elaty, Magdi Morsi, Ali Talib Al Hinai
Health care delivery in Oman has attained great heights since the modern renaissance in 1970. Although the health service had the main impetus all these years, the importance of health research began to take place by mid 1990's and is now gaining momentum as an important responsibility and activity of the Ministry of Health (MoH). Although there has been progressively increasing investment and commitment to research activities in the recent Five Year Plan for Health Development, it still lags behind in the quality and quantity of research output...
March 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439077/unravelling-the-drastic-range-retraction-of-an-emblematic-songbird-of-north-africa-potential-threats-to-afro-palearctic-migratory-birds
#19
Rassim Khelifa, Rabah Zebsa, Hichem Amari, Mohammed Khalil Mellal, Soufyane Bensouilah, Abdeldjalil Laouar, Hayat Mahdjoub
Understanding how culture may influence biodiversity is fundamental to ensure effective conservation, especially when the practice is local but the implications are global. Despite that, little effort has been devoted to documenting cases of culturally-related biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the cultural domestication of the European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) in western Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and the effects of long-term poaching of wild populations (1990-2016) on range distribution, socio-economic value, international trading and potential collateral damage on Afro-Palearctic migratory birds...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438911/human-infectious-disease-burdens-decrease-with-urbanization-but-not-with-biodiversity
#20
Chelsea L Wood, Alex McInturff, Hillary S Young, DoHyung Kim, Kevin D Lafferty
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet380, 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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