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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684405/moderate-perinatal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-alters-visual-system-function-in-adult-rats
#1
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684364/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission-preserves-photoreceptors-after-retinal-detachment
#2
Xiangjun She, Xinmin Lu, Tong Li, Junran Sun, Jian Liang, Yuanqi Zhai, Shiqi Yang, Qing Gu, Fang Wei, Hong Zhu, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Xiaodong Sun
Photoreceptor degeneration is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Separation of neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium is a prominent feature preceding photoreceptor degeneration in a variety of retinal diseases. Although ophthalmic surgeries have been well developed to restore retinal structures, post-op patients usually experience progressive photoreceptor degeneration and irreversible vision loss that is incurable at present. Previous studies point to a critical role of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in photoreceptor degeneration, but the upstream triggers remain largely unexplored...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684094/quantitative-analyses-of-factors-related-to-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#3
Mayumi Sainohira, Takehiro Yamashita, Hiroto Terasaki, Shozo Sonoda, Kazunori Miyata, Yusuke Murakami, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Takeshi Morimoto, Takao Endo, Takashi Fujikado, Junko Kamo, Taiji Sakamoto
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors related to anxiety and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The status of anxiety and depression was determined in RP patients with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire which consisted of subscales for HADS-anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS-depression (HADS-D). The vision-specific quality of life (VSQOL) was assessed with the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ25). The correlations between the HADS-A or HADS-D scores and vision-related clinical parameters such as the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Functional Acuity Score, Functional Field Score, Functional Vision Score, the NEI- VFQ25 subscale score were determined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684091/impaired-visual-working-and-verbal-memory-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Ce Chen, Wen-Hui Jiang, Wei Wang, Xian-Cang Ma, Ye Li, Jin Wu, Kenji Hashimoto, Cheng-Ge Gao
Cognitive impairment has been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether the deficits in specific cognitive domains are present in first-episode, drug-naïve patients or medicated patients. In the present study, using the CogState battery (CSB) Chinese language version, we evaluated the visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode drug-naive patients and medicated patients with MDD in a Chinese population. We measured the cognitive function in first-episode drug-naïve patients (n = 36), medicated MDD patients (n = 71), and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 59) in a Chinese population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683982/does-central-vision-loss-impair-visual-search-performance-of-adults-more-than-children
#5
PremNandhini Satgunam, Gang Luo
SIGNIFICANCE: In general, young adults with normal vision show the best visual search performance when compared with children and older adults. Through our study, we show that this trend is not observed in individuals with vision impairment. An interaction effect of vision impairment with visual development and aging is observed. PURPOSE: Performance in many visual tasks typically shows improvement with age until young adulthood and then declines with aging. Using a visual search task, this study investigated whether a similar age effect on performance is present in people with central vision loss...
April 20, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683518/the-function-and-failure-of-sensory-predictions
#6
REVIEW
Sonia Bansal, Judith M Ford, Miriam Spering
Humans and other primates are equipped with neural mechanisms that allow them to automatically make predictions about future events, facilitating processing of expected sensations and actions. Prediction-driven control and monitoring of perceptual and motor acts are vital to normal cognitive functioning. This review provides an overview of corollary discharge mechanisms involved in predictions across sensory modalities and discusses consequences of predictive coding for cognition and behavior. Converging evidence now links impairments in corollary discharge mechanisms to neuropsychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683030/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-enhances-motor-skill-learning-but-not-generalization-in-chronic-stroke
#7
Manuela Hamoudi, Heidi M Schambra, Brita Fritsch, Annika Schoechlin-Marx, Cornelius Weiller, Leonardo G Cohen, Janine Reis
BACKGROUND: Motor training alone or combined with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) positioned over the motor cortex (M1) improves motor function in chronic stroke. Currently, understanding of how tDCS influences the process of motor skill learning after stroke is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of tDCS on the stages of motor skill learning and on generalization to untrained motor function. METHODS: In this randomized, sham-controlled, blinded study of 56 mildly impaired chronic stroke patients, tDCS (anode over the ipsilesional M1 and cathode on the contralesional forehead) was applied during 5 days of training on an unfamiliar, challenging fine motor skill task (sequential visual isometric pinch force task)...
April 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682791/prevalence-of-refractive-errors-in-children-in-india-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Sethu Sheeladevi, Bharani Seelam, Phanindra B Nukella, Aditi Modi, Rahul Ali, Lisa Keay
Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment which affects children in India. The objective of this review is to estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in children ≤ 15 years of age. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in this review. A detailed literature search was performed to include all population and school-based studies published from India between January 1990 and January 2017, using the Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase...
April 22, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682701/selective-effects-of-5-ht2c-receptor-modulation-on-performance-of-a-novel-valence-probe-visual-discrimination-task-and-probabilistic-reversal-learning-in-mice
#9
Benjamin U Phillips, Sigma Dewan, Simon R O Nilsson, Trevor W Robbins, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey, Johan Alsiö
RATIONALE: Dysregulation of the serotonin (5-HT) system is a pathophysiological component in major depressive disorder (MDD), a condition closely associated with abnormal emotional responsivity to positive and negative feedback. However, the precise mechanism through which 5-HT tone biases feedback responsivity remains unclear. 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) are closely linked with aspects of depressive symptomatology, including abnormalities in reinforcement processes and response to stress...
April 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682343/corrigendum-to-impaired-visual-motor-coordination-in-obese-adults
#10
David Gaul, Arimin Mat, Donal O'Shea, Johann Issartel
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/6178575.].
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681830/post-ocular-trauma-corneal-staphyloma-in-a-child-living-in-an-underdeveloped-region-of-eastern-indonesia
#11
Ratna Sitompul, Gladys Kusumowidagdo, Eiko B Matiur, Julie D Barliana, Rita S Sitorus, Saleha Sungkar
Ocular trauma occurring in children often leads to visual impairment or blindness when it is not properly managed. This often occurs in underdeveloped regions with difficult access to professional care at local health facilities. We report a case of post-trauma corneal staphyloma in an underdeveloped region of eastern Indonesia to illustrate the importance of proper management of ocular trauma in areas lacking such expertise and where patients have difficulty accessing even basic health care. During a community health outreach in Southwest Sumba, eastern Indonesia in May 2017, a 7-year-old boy presented with white protrusion of the left eye of 3 years' duration following an event of sharp trauma...
January 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681800/early-retinal-defects-in-fmr1-y-mice-toward-a-critical-role-of-visual-dys-sensitivity-in-the-fragile-x-syndrome-phenotype
#12
Olivier Perche, Chloé Felgerolle, Maryvonne Ardourel, Audrey Bazinet, Arnaud Pâris, Rafaëlle Rossignol, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Anne-Laure Mausset-Bonnefont, Betty Hébert, David Laurenceau, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, Arnaud Menuet, Jean-Charles Bizot, Jacques Pichon, Isabelle Ranchon-Cole, Sylvain Briault
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1 -/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681441/kinect-v2-implementation-and-testing-of-the-reaching-performance-scale-for-motor-evaluation-of-patients-with-neurological-impairment
#13
Alessandro Scano, Andrea Chiavenna, Matteo Malosio, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Franco Molteni
Automated procedures for neurological patients' motor evaluation may take advantage of the coupling between clinical scales and motion tracking devices to provide affordable, quantified and reliable assessment to be used in clinics, in surgeries and domestic environment. In this study, 20 post-stroke patients performed frontal reaching movements with their more affected limb, and a physician administered the Reaching Performance Scale (RPS) to assess motor functionality. At the same time, patients' kinematics were recorded with the Kinect V2 sensor...
April 19, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681168/hiv-associated-cognitive-disorders-in-perinatally-infected-children-and-adolescents-a-novel-composite-cognitive-domains-score
#14
Nicole J Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Kevin G F Thomas
Accurate assessment of HIV-associated cognitive disorders in perinatally infected children and adolescents is challenging. Assessments of general intellectual functioning, or global cognition, may not provide information regarding domain-specific strengths and weaknesses, and may therefore fail to detect, impaired trajectories of development within particular cognitive domains. We compare the efficacy of global cognitive scores to that of composite cognitive domain scores in detecting cognitive disorders in a sample of perinatally HIV-infected children, and a demographically matched HIV negative control group, drawn from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) study...
April 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680959/neurocognitive-functioning-in-depressed-young-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Joanne Goodall, Caroline Fisher, Sarah Hetrick, Lisa Phillips, Emma M Parrish, Kelly Allott
BACKGROUND: Depression is among the most common mental health problems for young people. In adults, depression is associated with neurocognitive deficits that reduce the effectiveness of treatment and impair educational and vocational functioning. Compared to adults, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of young people with depression, and existing research has reported inconsistent findings. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the literature on neurocognitive functioning in currently depressed youth aged 12-25 years in comparison to healthy controls...
April 22, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679920/optimizing-text-for-an-individual-s-visual-system-the-contribution-of-visual-crowding-to-reading-difficulties
#16
Sung Jun Joo, Alex L White, Douglas J Strodtman, Jason D Yeatman
Reading is a complex process that involves low-level visual processing, phonological processing, and higher-level semantic processing. Given that skilled reading requires integrating information among these different systems, it is likely that reading difficulty-known as dyslexia-can emerge from impairments at any stage of the reading circuitry. To understand contributing factors to reading difficulties within individuals, it is necessary to diagnose the function of each component of the reading circuitry. Here, we investigated whether adults with dyslexia who have impairments in visual processing respond to a visual manipulation specifically targeting their impairment...
March 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679781/fronto-ethmoidal-osteoma-with-secondary-intradural-mucocele-extension-causing-frontal-lobe-syndrome-and-pneumocephalus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Licci Maria, Zweifel Christian, Hench Jürgen, Guzman Raphael, Soleman Jehuda
BACKGROUND: Paranasal sinus osteoma is a common, asymptomatic, histologically benign, and slow-growing tumor. However, it can give rise to secondary pathologies such as a mucocele in about 50% of the cases. Rarely, intracranial and orbital extension is present leading to rhinoliquorrhea, pneumocephalus, or neurological and visual impairment, which might be potentially life-threatening. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year old man presented with an acute frontal lobe syndrome and rhinoliquorrhea...
April 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679616/early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#18
REVIEW
Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes...
April 18, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679545/the-impact-of-ocular-tuberculosis-on-vision-after-two-months-of-intensive-therapy
#19
Suzana Batista Vereza de Oliveira, Ângelo Ferreira Passos, David Jamil Hadad, Lorena Zbyszynski, Pedro Sousa de Almeida Júnior, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Reynaldo Dietze, Moisés Palaci
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global importance with major economic and social burden accounting for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Extrapulmonary involvement may occur either in association with clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis or in isolation. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to evaluate the impact of ocular tuberculosis in visual acuity at baseline and after two months of intensive anti-tuberculous therapy. A sample of 133 pulmonary TB patients, seven disseminated TB, and three pleural TB patients was evaluated...
April 18, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679544/1-f-neural-noise-and-electrophysiological-indices-of-contextual-prediction-in-aging
#20
S Dave, T A Brothers, T Y Swaab
Prediction of upcoming words during reading has been suggested to enhance the efficiency of discourse processing. Emerging models have postulated that predictive mechanisms require synchronous firing of neural networks, but to date, this relationship has been investigated primarily through oscillatory activity in narrow frequency bands. A recently-developed measure proposed to reflect broadband neural activity - and thereby synchronous neuronal firing - is 1/f neural noise extracted from EEG spectral power...
April 18, 2018: Brain Research
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