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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#1
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821647/plasticity-beyond-v1-reinforcement-of-motion-perception-upon-binocular-central-retinal-lesions-in-adulthood
#2
Kalina Burnat, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Małgorzata Kossut, Ulf T Eysel, Lutgarde Arckens
Induction of a central retinal lesion in both eyes of adult mammals is a model for macular degeneration and leads to retinotopic map reorganization in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of molecular activity levels in the central and peripheral representation of five higher order visual areas, V2/18, V3/19, V4/21a,V5/PMLS, area 7, and V1/17, in adult cats with central 10° retinal lesions (both sexes), by means of real-time PCR for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819687/central-not-peripheral-vestibular-processing-impairs-gait-coordination
#3
Yoav Gimmon, Jennifer Millar, Rebecca Pak, Elizabeth Liu, Michael C Schubert
Gait coordination is generated by neuronal inter-connections between central pattern generators in the spinal cord governed by cortical areas. Malfunction of central vestibular processing areas generates vestibular symptoms in the absence of an identifiable peripheral vestibular system lesion. Walking in the dark enforces a coordinated afference primarily from the vestibular and somatosensory systems. We hypothesized that patients with aberrant central vestibular processing would demonstrate unique gait characteristics, and have impaired gait coordination compared with those patients with abnormal peripheral vestibular function and healthy controls...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818990/clinical-use-and-utility-of-amyloid-imaging
#4
Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri
Currently, three amyloid PET tracers are approved and commercially available for clinical use. They allow for the accurate in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical use and utility of amyloid imaging. Appropriate use criteria for the clinical application of amyloid imaging are established, and most currently available data point to their validity. Visual amyloid image analysis is highly standardized. Disclosure of amyloid imaging results is desired by many cognitively impaired subjects, and seems to be safe once appropriate education is delivered to the disclosing clinicians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#5
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817745/association-of-vision-loss-with-cognition-in-older-adults
#6
Stephanie P Chen, Jay Bhattacharya, Suzann Pershing
Importance: Visual dysfunction and poor cognition are highly prevalent among older adults; however, the relationship is not well defined. Objective: To evaluate the association of measured and self-reported visual impairment (VI) with cognition in older US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of 2 national data sets: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), 2011-2015...
August 17, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817700/the-loss-and-recovery-of-vertebrate-vision-examined-in-microplates
#7
Robert J Thorn, Danielle E Clift, Oladele Ojo, Ruth M Colwill, Robbert Creton
Regenerative medicine offers potentially ground-breaking treatments of blindness and low vision. However, as new methodologies are developed, a critical question will need to be addressed: how do we monitor in vivo for functional success? In the present study, we developed novel behavioral assays to examine vision in a vertebrate model system. In the assays, zebrafish larvae are imaged in multiwell or multilane plates while various red, green, blue, yellow or cyan objects are presented to the larvae on a computer screen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817069/detecting-traversable-area-and-water-hazards-for-the-visually-impaired-with-a-prgb-d-sensor
#8
Kailun Yang, Kaiwei Wang, Ruiqi Cheng, Weijian Hu, Xiao Huang, Jian Bai
The use of RGB-Depth (RGB-D) sensors for assisting visually impaired people (VIP) has been widely reported as they offer portability, function-diversity and cost-effectiveness. However, polarization cues to assist traversability awareness without precautions against stepping into water areas are weak. In this paper, a polarized RGB-Depth (pRGB-D) framework is proposed to detect traversable area and water hazards simultaneously with polarization-color-depth-attitude information to enhance safety during navigation...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816636/the-distress-thermometer-predicts-subjective-but-not-objective-cognitive-complaints-six-months-after-treatment-initiation-in-cancer-patients-receiving-a-curative-cancer-treatment
#9
Michelle Lycke, Tessa Lefebvre, Lies Pottel, Hans Pottel, Lore Ketelaars, Karin Stellamans, Koen Van Eygen, Philippe Vergauwe, Patrick Werbrouck, Laurence Goethals, Patricia Schofield, Tom Boterberg, Philip R Debruyne
OBJECTIVES: Research has indicated that cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) may be influenced by psychosocial factors such as distress, worry and fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to validate the distress thermometer (DT) as a screening tool to detect CRCI six months post treatment initiation in a group of general cancer patients. METHODS: Patients(18 years, n 125) with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of a solid cancer or haematological malignancy, scheduled for a curative treatment, were evaluated at baseline (T0) and six months post-treatment initiation (T1) for CRCI by a neuropsychological assessment including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816482/same-location-costs-in-peripheral-cueing-the-role-of-cue-awareness-and-feature-changes
#10
Tobias Schoeberl, Thomas Ditye, Ulrich Ansorge
Prior studies using the peripheral cueing paradigm have shown that singleton cues that do not match to the top-down search settings of the observer can impair performance in visual search when the cue appears at the target location (in valid conditions) compared with when the cue appears at a location away from the target (in invalid conditions). This pattern, the same-location cost (SLC), has recently been suggested to originate from an awareness-dependent updating of object files in working memory. It has also been argued that the processes underlying the SLC could have obscured results of prior studies by masking attentional capture effects by peripheral cues under certain conditions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816477/transition-from-feature-search-to-singleton-detection-strategies-in-visual-search-the-role-of-number-of-target-defining-options
#11
Hayley E P Lagroix, Matthew R Yanko, Thomas M Spalek
When searching for a uniquely colored target in an RSVP stream of homogeneously colored nontarget items, observers can use singleton-detection and/or feature-search modes. Using an attentional-capture paradigm, we varied systematically (a) the number of possible target colors from 1 to 4 and (b) the presence or absence of a colored ring surrounding the nontarget item displayed 200 ms before the target. When present, the ring was either the same color as 1 of the possible targets (color-match), or an irrelevant color (color-mismatch)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814979/executive-functioning-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-domain-asynchrony-and-age-related-performance
#12
Donna Reid, Jo Moss, Lisa Nelson, Laura Groves, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814870/abnormal-intrinsic-functional-hubs-in-alcohol-dependence-evidence-from-a-voxelwise-degree-centrality-analysis
#13
Xiaoping Luo, Linghong Guo, Xi-Jian Dai, Qinglai Wang, Wenzhong Zhu, Xinjun Miao, Honghan Gong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814779/the-beach-protein-lrba-promotes-the-localization-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-golf-to-olfactory-cilia
#14
Stefan Kurtenbach, Andreas Gießl, Siv Strömberg, Jan Kremers, Jenny Atorf, Sebastian Rasche, Eva M Neuhaus, Denis Hervé, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Esther Asan, Hanns Hatt, Manfred W Kilimann
BEACH domain proteins are involved in membrane protein traffic and human diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are not understood. The BEACH protein LRBA has been implicated in immune response and cell proliferation, and human LRBA mutations cause severe immune deficiency. Here, we report a first functional and molecular phenotype outside the immune system of LRBA-knockout mice: compromised olfaction, manifesting in reduced electro-olfactogram response amplitude, impaired food-finding efficiency, and smaller olfactory bulbs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814108/association-of-anxiety-and-depression-with-pain-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-chronic-foot-and-ankle-diseases
#15
Ryosuke Nakagawa, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Seiji Kimura, Aya Sadamasu, Yohei Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Ryuichiro Akagi, Takahisa Sasho, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to clarify the incidence of anxiety and depression among patients with chronic foot and ankle diseases and to examine the independent association of anxiety and depression with pain and quality of life. METHODS: Patients who visited the foot and ankle clinic from April 2015 to November 2016 were recruited. Anxiety and depression in patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Pain and quality of life were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q), respectively...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813951/design-of-an-immersive-simulator-for-assisted-power-wheelchair-driving
#16
Louise Devigne, Marie Babel, Florian Nouviale, Vishnu K Narayanan, Francois Pasteau, Philippe Gallien
Driving a power wheelchair is a difficult and complex visual-cognitive task. As a result, some people with visual and/or cognitive disabilities cannot access the benefits of a power wheelchair because their impairments prevent them from driving safely. In order to improve their access to mobility, we have previously designed a semi-autonomous assistive wheelchair system which progressively corrects the trajectory as the user manually drives the wheelchair and smoothly avoids obstacles. Developing and testing such systems for wheelchair driving assistance requires a significant amount of material resources and clinician time...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#17
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813944/robotic-set-up-to-quantify-hand-eye-behavior-in-motor-execution-and-learning-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Claudia Casellato, Marta Gandolla, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Pedrocchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813816/computational-rehabilitation-of-neglect-using-state-space-models-to-understand-the-recovery-mechanisms
#19
Giulia Sedda, Marcella Ottonello, Elena Fiabane, Caterina Pistarini, Anna Sedda, Vittorio Sanguineti
Unilateral spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome often observed in right hemisphere stroke patients. The symptoms differ from subject to subject. A few rehabilitation approaches, e.g. prism adaptation, have demonstrated some effect in reducing the symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. Recently, neural models have been proposed to qualitatively describe cortical lesions, the resulting neglect symptoms and the effects of treatment. However, these predictions are qualitative and cannot be used to compare different hypotheses or to interpret symptoms at individual subjects level...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813793/the-combined-action-of-a-passive-exoskeleton-and-an-emg-controlled-neuroprosthesis-for-upper-limb-stroke-rehabilitation-first-results-of-the-retrainer-project
#20
E Ambrosini, S Ferrante, J Zajc, M Bulgheroni, W Baccinelli, E d'Amico, T Schauer, C Wiesener, M Russold, M Gfoehler, M Puchinger, M Weber, S Becker, K Krakow, M Rossini, D Proserpio, G Gasperini, F Molteni, G Ferrigno, A Pedrocchi
The combined use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) and robotic technologies is advocated to improve rehabilitation outcomes after stroke. This work describes an arm rehabilitation system developed within the European project RETRAINER. The system consists of a passive 4-degrees-of-freedom exoskeleton equipped with springs to provide gravity compensation and electromagnetic brakes to hold target positions. FES is integrated in the system to provide additional support to the most impaired muscles. FES is triggered based on the volitional EMG signal of the same stimulated muscle; in order to encourage the active involvement of the patient the volitional EMG is also monitored throughout the task execution and based on it a happy or sad emoji is visualized at the end of each task...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
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