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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443034/subretinal-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-into-a-large-eyed-model-of-geographic-atrophy
#1
Sandra Petrus-Reurer, Hammurabi Bartuma, Monica Aronsson, Sofie Westman, Fredrik Lanner, Anders Kvanta
Geographic atrophy (GA), the late stage of dry age-related macular degeneration is characterized by loss of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to subsequent degeneration of vital retinal structures (e.g., photoreceptors) causing severe vision impairment. Similarly, RPE-loss and decrease in visual acuity is seen in long-term follow up of patients with advanced wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. Therefore, on the one hand, it is fundamental to efficiently derive RPE cells from an unlimited source that could serve as replacement therapy...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443031/ultrasound-cyclo-plasty-in-eyes-with-glaucoma
#2
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Stefano Sebastiani, Emilio C Campos
Glaucoma is a chronic disease caused by the progressive degeneration of the optical nerve fibers, resulting in decreased visual field that can lead to severe visual impairment, and eventually blindness. This manuscript describes a simple, surgeon-friendly, non-incisional technique, named Ultrasound Cyclo Plasty (UCP), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. The technique determines a selective coagulation necrosis of the ciliary body; in addition, the stimulation of supra-choroidal and trans-scleral portions of the uveo-scleral outflow pathway has been recently proposed...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442245/retrobulbar-and-intraocular-blood-flow-in-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy-are-linked-to-the-functional-impairment
#3
David Kuerten, Matthias Fuest, Marion Bienert, Niklas Plange
PURPOSE: Evaluation of ocular haemodynamics in patients with acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by colour Doppler imaging and fluorescein angiography and correlation of blood flow parameters to visual field loss and visual acuity. METHODS: Blood flow velocities (peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV)) of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and nasal and temporal posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs) were measured via colour Doppler imaging...
February 13, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440940/the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-using-visual-art-modalities-with-the-bereaved-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Rachel E Weiskittle, Sandra E Gramling
Bereaved individuals are increasingly considered at risk for negative psychological and physiological outcomes. Visual art modalities are often incorporated into grief therapy interventions, and clinical application of art therapy techniques with the bereaved has been widely documented. Although clinicians and recipients of these interventions advocate for their helpfulness in adapting to bereavement, research investigating the efficacy of visual art modalities has produced equivocal results and has not yet been synthesized to establish empirical support across settings...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440869/exfoliation-syndrome-in-northern-nigeria
#5
Ugbede Idakwo, Olusola Olawoye, Benedictus Gk Ajayi, Robert Ritch
Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439666/prevalence-and-causes-of-low-vision-and-blindness-in-an-elderly-population-in-nepal-the-bhaktapur-retina-study
#6
Raba Thapa, Sanyam Bajimaya, Govinda Paudyal, Shankar Khanal, Stevie Tan, Suman S Thapa, G H M B van Rens
BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness focused on retinal disease in a population above 60 years in Nepal. METHODS: Two thousand one hundred subjects were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. History, presenting and best corrected visual acuity after subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment examinations was obtained in detail. RESULTS: Among the total subjects, 1860 (88...
February 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439090/blindness-low-vision-and-cataract-surgery-outcome-among-adults-in-hohhot-of-inner-mongolia-a-rapid-assessment-of-avoidable-blindness-raab-study
#7
Guisen Zhang, Yih-Chung Tham, Hui Gong, Fengmei Ren, Jilitu Morige, Wei Dai, Ching-Yu Cheng, Han Zhang, Lei Liu
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI), and to describe the characteristics of cataract surgery coverage and related barriers among adults aged ≥50 years residing in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was measured using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology. All VI cases were defined using the WHO definition, based on the PVA of the better-seeing eye...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439072/-because-my-brain-isn-t-as-active-as-it-should-be-my-eyes-don-t-always-see-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-stress-process-for-those-living-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#8
Emma Harding, Mary Pat Sullivan, Rachel Woodbridge, Keir X X Yong, Anne McIntyre, Mary L Gilhooly, Kenneth J Gilhooly, Sebastian J Crutch
OBJECTIVES: To explore the stress process for individuals living with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and their families. DESIGN: A qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured dyadic and individual interviews with people living with a diagnosis of PCA and a family carer. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed. SETTING: Participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: 20 individuals in the mild to moderate stages of PCA and 20 family carers...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438279/recent-updates-on-treatment-of-ocular-microbial-infections-by-stem-cell-therapy-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Seoh Wei Teh, Pooi Ling Mok, Munirah Abd Rashid, Mae-Lynn Catherine Bastion, Normala Ibrahim, Akon Higuchi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Rajan Mariappan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438267/clinical-significance-of-visually-equivocal-amyloid-pet-findings-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-cohort
#10
Minyoung Oh, Minjung Seo, Sun Young Oh, Heeyoung Kim, Byung Wook Choi, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim
To evaluate the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with visually equivocal amyloid PET images, patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who had fluorine-18-florbetapir PET scans both at baseline and 24 months were selected. Five nuclear medicine physicians visually assessed the PET images and classified them as either positive or negative. Images not reaching a majority agreement were classified as equivocal. Among a total of 379 patients, the number of patients in each fluorine-18-florbetapir PET negative/equivocal/positive categories was 218 (57...
February 12, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438074/lacunar-infarcts-but-not-perivascular-spaces-are-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#11
Philip Benjamin, Sarah Trippier, Andrew J Lawrence, Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen A Williams, Bhavini Patel, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Andrew D MacKinnon, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS. We determined the relationship between baseline PvS score and PvS volume with change in cognition over a 5-year follow-up. We compared this to the relationship between baseline lacune count and total lacune volume with cognition...
February 2, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438044/impairment-of-cross-modality-of-vision-and-olfaction-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Motoyasu Honma, Yuri Masaoka, Takeshi Kuroda, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Masahiko Izumizaki, Mitsuru Kawamura
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Parkinson disease (PD) affects cross-modal function of vision and olfaction because it is known that PD impairs various cognitive functions, including olfaction. METHODS: We conducted behavioral experiments to identify the influence of PD on cross-modal function by contrasting patient performance with age-matched normal controls (NCs). We showed visual effects on the strength and preference of odor by manipulating semantic connections between picture/odorant pairs...
February 7, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437810/down-syndrome-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#13
Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Amandine Pallardy
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. The average age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranged from 50 to 55 years in DS, with early symptoms usually characterised by changes in behaviour and executive dysfunction. On the other hand, posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive impairment of visual functions in the absence of visual deficits and a pattern of atrophy involving posterior cortex. This syndrome is mostly caused by AD pathology...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437580/the-epidemiology-of-childhood-blindness-and-severe-visual-impairment-in-indonesia
#14
Mohammad Muhit, Tasneem Karim, Johurul Islam, Denny Hardianto, Habibah Setyawati Muhiddin, Setia A Purwanta, Suhardjo Suhardjo, Doni Widyandana, Gulam Khandaker
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of blindness among children in Indonesia is unknown. In this study, we aimed to define the magnitude and aetiology of childhood blindness in two parts of Indonesia. METHOD: Children aged 0-15 years, identified through key informant method and from special schools and community-based rehabilitation programme in Sumba and Yogyakarta, were assessed following WHO protocol and definitions for ophthalmological assessment and classification of visual impairment and blindness among children...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437494/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-mertk-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#15
Mu Yang, Shujin Li, Wenjing Liu, Yeming Yang, Lin Zhang, Shanshan Zhang, Zhilin Jiang, Zhenglin Yang, Xianjun Zhu
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal diseases that result in severe progressive visual impairment. AIMS: The purpose of this article was to apply targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify the causative mutation in a Chinese RP family. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from a Chinese proband diagnosed with RP and her family members. A total of 163 genes that have been previously found to be involved in inherited retinal diseases were selected for NGS...
February 13, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434075/a-missense-mutation-in-gja8-encoding-connexin-50-in-a-chinese-pedigree-with-autosomal-dominant-congenital-cataract
#16
Lusi Zhang, Youling Liang, Yedi Zhou, Huilan Zeng, Songbai Jia, Jingming Shi
Congenital cataract is leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in children worldwide. Approximately one-third of congenital cataract cases are familial, whose genetic etiology can be distinguished by targeted exome sequencing. Here, a three-generation congenital cataract pedigree was recruited, and physical and ophthalmologic examinations were taken. Targeted exome sequencing of 139 cataract-related genes was performed on the proband III:1. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the presence of variation identified via exome sequencing in family members and 200 controls...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433477/prevalence-and-causes-of-blindness-visual-impairment-among-different-ethnical-minority-groups-in-xinjiang-uygur-autonomous-region-china
#17
Yanping Li, Wenyong Huang, Aoyun Qiqige, Hongwei Zhang, Ling Jin, Pula Ti, Jennifer Yip, Baixiang Xiao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. METHODS: Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015...
February 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432854/color-vision-impairments-with-low-level-methylmercury-exposure-of-an-amazonian-population-brazil
#18
Cláudia Feitosa-Santana, Givago da Silva Souza, Esaú Sirius Ventura Pupo, Anderson Raiol Rodrigues, Maria Izabel Tentes Cortes, Dora Fix Ventura
Land exploitation that follows deforestation and mining can result in soil erosion and the release of mercury to the waters of rivers in the Amazon Basin. Inorganic mercury is methylated by bacteria that are present in the environment and it serves as a source of human contamination through fish consumption in the form of methylmercury. Long-term exposure to low-level methylmercury in the riverside populations can lead to nervous system alterations, some of which are visual impairments such as loss of luminance contrast sensitivity, restricted visual fields and color vision defects...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432768/reading-and-visual-word-recognition-ability-in-semantic-dementia-is-not-predicted-by-semantic-performance
#19
David Playfoot, Jac Billington, Jeremy J Tree
This paper describes longitudinal testing of two Semantic Dementia (SD) cases. It is common for patients with SD to present with deficits in reading aloud irregular words (i.e. surface dyslexia), and in lexical decision. Theorists from the connectionist tradition (e.g. Woollams, et al., 2007) argue that in SD cases with concurrent surface dyslexia, the deterioration of irregular word reading and recognition performance is related to the extent of the deterioration of the semantic system. The Dual Route Cascaded model (DRC; Coltheart et al...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432106/a-feasibility-study-of-autism-behavioral-markers-in-spontaneous-facial-visual-and-hand-movement-response-data
#20
Manar D Samad, Norou Diawara, Jonna L Bobzien, John W Harrington, Megan A Witherow, Khan M Iftekharuddin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with atypical traits in behavioral and physiological responses. These atypical traits in individuals with ASD may be too subtle and subjective to measure visually using tedious methods of scoring. Alternatively, the use of intrusive sensors in the measurement of psychophysical responses in individuals with ASD may likely cause inhibition and bias. This paper proposes a novel experimental protocol for non-intrusive sensing and analysis of facial expression, visual scanning, and eye-hand coordination to investigate behavioral markers for ASD...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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