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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770080/public-health-surveillance-for-the-toronto-2015-pan-parapan-american-games
#1
E Chan, K Hohenadel, B Lee, M Helferty, J R Harris, L Macdonald, T Badiani
Background: Public health surveillance for previous Olympic and Paralympic Games have been described in the literature, but surveillance for regional, multisport events on a smaller scale have rarely been explored. Objective: To describe the public health surveillance planning, implementation, results, and lessons learned from the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Intervention: Public health surveillance planning for the Games began two years in advance and involved local, provincial and federal partners, primarily focusing on infectious disease...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768121/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-initial-sprint-acceleration-performance-and-technique-in-an-elite-athlete-with-cerebral-palsy-and-able-bodied-sprinters
#2
Ian N Bezodis, James Cowburn, Adam Brazil, Rhian Richardson, Cassie Wilson, Timothy A Exell, Gareth Irwin
Cerebral palsy is known to generally limit range of motion and force producing capability during movement. It also limits sprint performance, but the exact mechanisms underpinning this are not well known. One elite male T36 multiple-Paralympic sprint medallist (T36) and 16 well-trained able-bodied (AB) sprinters each performed 5-6 maximal sprints from starting blocks. Whole-body kinematics (250 Hz) in the block phase and first two steps, and synchronised external forces (1,000 Hz) in the first stance phase after block exit were combined to quantify lower limb joint kinetics...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757043/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-25-oh-d-status-in-elite-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Kelly Pritchett, Robert C Pritchett, Lauren Stark, Elizabeth Broad, Melissa LaCroix
Recent studies suggest that a substantial proportion of athletes with SCI (spinal cord injury) have insufficient 25(OH)D status which may be associated with decreased muscle strength. This study consisted of two parts: 1) to examine the effects of a 12 -16 week vitamin D3 supplementation protocol on 25(OH)D concentration and 2) to determine whether subsequent 25(OH)D status impacts muscle performance in elite athletes with SCI. Thirty-four members (age: 33 ± 15 years, weight: 69.6 ± 28.2kg, height: 170.2 ± 25...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740546/participating-in-the-paralympic-games-through-exercise-rehabilitation-for-individuals-with-disabilities
#4
EDITORIAL
Yong-Seok Jee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706694/difference-in-contributions-to-the-team-s-score-in-female-wheelchair-basketball-at-the-2016-rio-paralympics-by-physical-capability-classification
#5
Takashi Doi, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Kaori Tachibana, Yasuyoshi Wadano, Koichi Iwai
[Purpose] This study clarified differences in players' contributions to the team's score in female wheelchair basketball at the 2016 Rio Paralympics by physical capacity classification, and examined the roles required in the team. [Subjects and Methods] This study used stats (record of play contents) for players who played for more than 20 minutes from the official box scores of all 31 games at the 2016 Paralympics. Players were divided into three groups by physical capacity classification: low, middle, and high...
April 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687744/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-during-200-m-sprint-between-bilateral-and-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#6
Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Yuta Namiki, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although Paralympic T42 class Men's 200 m sprints are currently competed by athletes with bilateral and unilateral transfemoral amputations, there may be performance differences between the groups. This study aimed to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of a 200-m sprint between bilateral and unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. TECHNIQUE: We analyzed 29 races (nine sprinters) with bilateral or unilateral transfemoral amputations from publicly available Internet broadcasts...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663863/athletic-identity-and-self-esteem-among-active-and-retired-paralympic-athletes
#7
Adriana Marin-Urquiza, José Pedro Ferreira, Debbie Van Biesen
Athletic identity (AI) has been suggested as a variable that can have an impact on the psychological health of the athletes upon retirement. The aim of this study was to provide more insight on the transition out of elite sport by assessing and comparing the extent of AI and self-esteem in an active group (AG) and a retired group (RG) of Paralympic athletes. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were additionally assessed in the AG and RG, respectively. A non-probability sampling method was used to recruit active and retired Paralympic athletes (AG, n = 43; RG, n = 41, where 35 retired voluntarily and 6 retired involuntarily) with visual or physical impairments, from Dutch-, English-, Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking countries...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650501/social-responsibility-and-global-health-lessons-from-the-rio-olympics-zika-controversy
#8
Fernando Hellmann, Luzilena de Souza Prudêncio Rohde, Marta Verdi, Volnei Garrafa, Camilo Manchola-Castillo
The outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas and its possible association with microcephaly raised several concerns among global health authorities regarding the organisation of the Olympic and Paralympic Games scheduled for August and September 2016, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It generated an international controversy over the continuation of the Games with debates on the ethical principle of social responsibility. Based on the principles of social responsibility and health in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights, the present comment ponders on the application of such principles in the context of mega-events and global health...
March 30, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627098/paralympic-games-history-and-legacy-of-a-global-movement
#9
REVIEW
David Legg
The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide.
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627097/social-inclusion-through-para-sport-a-critical-reflection-on-the-current-state-of-play
#10
REVIEW
Jason Bantjes, Leslie Swartz
Medicine has played an integral role in both the inception and development of the Paralympic Games. Sports physicians are well positioned to continue to influence the development of the paralympic movement and to help focus the movement on its agenda to promote social inclusion. This article looks critically at some of the key challenges that the paralympic movement faces in its quest to promote social inclusion, and considers the role of sports medicine in this process.
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627092/performance-characteristics-of-para-swimmers-how-effective-is-the-swimming-classification-system
#11
REVIEW
Brendan Burkett, Carl Payton, Peter Van de Vliet, Hannah Jarvis, Daniel Daly, Christiane Mehrkuehler, Marvin Kilian, Luke Hogarth
Swimming is one of the inaugural sports within the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic games being the classification system. The aim of this study was to investigate how effective the current classification system creates clearly differentiated Paralympic competition classes, based on performance time for all swimming strokes and events. Based on the performance characteristics of swimmers within the current classification system, the relationship between impairment and swimming performance is inconsistent, potentially disadvantaging some athletes...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627091/applying-scientific-principles-to-enhance-paralympic-classification-now-and-in-the-future-a-research-primer-for-rehabilitation-specialists
#12
REVIEW
Sean M Tweedy, Mark J Connick, Emma M Beckman
Para-sport classification systems define eligibility for Para sport and provide a competition structure that controls for the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. This article focuses on the classification of para athletes with physical impairments. Development of classification systems based on scientific evidence has only recently been made possible by adoption of a statement of the purpose of classification by the International Paralympic Committee and its member organizations. Rigorous descriptive science can improve extant systems of classification and a recently published study described a data-driven classification structure with validity superior to that of the extant system...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627090/concussion-in-para-sport
#13
REVIEW
James Kissick, Nick Webborn
Although Para athletes (the International Paralympic Committee term for sportspeople with a disability) are exposed to a risk of concussion just like their able-bodied counterparts, there has been little research into the incidence of concussion in para sport. Existing assessment and management guidelines and tools have been developed for the general sport population but may not be appropriate for use in some para-athletes. This review examines what is currently known about concussion in para sport and identifies challenges and opportunities in moving knowledge on this topic forward...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627087/autonomic-nervous-system-in-paralympic-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Matthias Walter, Andrei V Krassioukov
Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627085/illness-among-paralympic-athletes-epidemiology-risk-markers-and-preventative-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Dina Christina Janse Van Rensburg, Martin Schwellnus, Wayne Derman, Nick Webborn
Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes...
May 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619792/degree-of-vision-impairment-influence-the-fight-outcomes-in-the-paralympic-judo-a-10-year-retrospective-analysis
#16
Evgeny Mashkovskiy, Ayshat Magomedova, Evgeny Achkasov
INTRODUCTION: In the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) judo Sports Classes B1, B2, and B3 compete against each other within weight- and gender-specific categories. B1 athletes are totally blind, whereas B2 and B3 are partially sighted. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the degree of vision impairment on fight outcomes. METHODS: We analysed 1,936 fights from official competitions and compare win ratio in fights between discordant Sports Classes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542327/fidelity-criteria-development-aligning-paralympic-school-day-with-contact-theory
#17
Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park, Martin Block
The purpose of this study was to address contact theory as the theoretical basis of the Paralympic School Day (PSD) disability awareness program using a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory), seeking to control and explain the manner in which PSD satisfied the four components of contact theory. Participants were 145 sixth-grade students who took part in PSD. Results determined that the PSD intervention supported the four theoretical components of contact theory, with statistically significant differences in student responses across all four indicators (p < ...
April 1, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498253/individualized-dry-land-intervention-program-for-an-%C3%A3-lite-paralympic-swimmer-a-case-report
#18
Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Massimiliano Tosin, F Marcello Iaia, Giampietro Alberti
The aim of this retrospective case study is the longitudinal description of the physical and functional parameters of a top-level Paralympic swimmer class S9-SB8-SM9 during four swimming seasons of training, from the Paralympic games in London 2012 to the Paralympic games in Rio 2016. A 22-year-old male swimmer underwent a specific preventive dry-land training based on diaphragmatic breathing, postural alignment, and slow-velocity resistance training aimed to improve his muscle strength. He was tested by using the Functional Movement ScreenTM, photographic postural assessment and vertical jump...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489904/the-variations-on-the-aerodynamics-of-a-world-ranked-wheelchair-sprinter-in-the-key-moments-of-the-stroke-cycle-a-numerical-simulation-analysis
#19
Pedro Forte, Daniel A Marinho, Jorge E Morais, Pedro G Morouço, Tiago M Barbosa
Biomechanics plays an important role helping Paralympic sprinters to excel, having the aerodynamic drag a significant impact on the athlete's performance. The aim of this study was to assess the aerodynamics in different key-moments of the stroke cycle by Computational Fluid Dynamics. A world-ranked wheelchair sprinter was scanned on the racing wheelchair wearing his competition gear and helmet. The sprinter was scanned in three different positions: (i) catch (hands in the 12h position on the hand-rim); (ii) the release (hands in the 18h position on the hand-rim) and; (iii) recovery phase (hands do not touch the hand-rim and are hyperextended backwards)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484955/correction-to-funken-heinrich-willwacher-m%C3%A3-ller-b%C3%A3-cker-hobara-bruggemann-potthast-leg-amputation-side-determines-performance-in-curve-sprinting-a-case-study-on-a-paralympic-medalist
#20
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