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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#1
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144392/design-and-development-of-a-novel-upper-limb-cycling-prosthesis
#2
Akira Tiele, Shivam Soni-Sadar, Jack Rowbottom, Shilen Patel, Edward Mathewson, Samuel Pearson, David Hutchins, John Head, Stephen Hutchins
The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis...
November 16, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132378/protocol-for-the-study-of-self-perceived-psychological-and-emotional-well-being-of-young-paralympic-athletes
#3
Luca Puce, Lucio Marinelli, Laura Mori, Ilaria Pallecchi, Carlo Trompetto
BACKGROUND: We present the detailed protocol set up to investigate how agonistic sport affects the self-perceived psychological and emotional well-being of disabled young people. METHODS: The study will be carried out on a number of subjects as large as 800-1200, using well-established indices that give a quantitative measure of such well-being, namely SF-12 and PGWBI. The related questionnaires will be administered to the participants to a forthcoming international event, the European Para-Youth Games, 9-15 October 2017, Liguria, Italy, as well as to a reference population of a similar number of subjects, made up of young disabled people that do not practice agonistic sport...
November 13, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132264/leg-amputation-side-determines-performance-in-curve-sprinting-a-case-study-on-a-paralympic-medalist
#4
Johannes Funken, Kai Heinrich, Steffen Willwacher, Ralf Müller, Jonas Böcker, Hiroaki Hobara, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Wolfgang Potthast
The lower limb kinetics of curve sprinting in amputees are not well described in the literature, particularly with respect to the effect of the side of amputation. This is an issue due to the importance of the knowledge for prosthetic design and classification of athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of side of amputation on curve sprinting performance in athletes with a unilateral leg amputation. A three-dimensional motion analysis system (Vicon), four force plates (Kistler) and a modified mathematical human model (ALASKA) were used to compare clockwise and counter clockwise curve sprinting lower limb kinematics and kinetics of a Paralympic medalist with a left-sided knee exarticular amputation...
November 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124974/media-portrayal-of-elite-athletes-with-disability-a-systematic-review
#5
Leanne Rees, Priscilla Robinson, Nora Shields
BACKGROUND: The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. METHOD: Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors...
November 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107585/changing-identity-through-sport-the-paralympic-sport-club-experience-among-adolescents-with-mobility-impairments
#6
Jennifer Piatt, Sangguk Kang, Mary Sara Wells, Shinichi Nagata, Jamie Hoffman, Jennifer Taylor
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with mobility impairments have fewer opportunities to challenge identity as an athlete through sport participation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined athletic identity impact of adolescent athletes with mobility impairments who participate in Paralympic Sport Clubs. METHODS: This cross-sectional web-survey design examined demographics (gender, academic level, hours of time spent in sports participation, and preferred amount of time in sport participation) and athletic identity through the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS)...
October 23, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078043/doping-control-analysis-at-the-rio-2016-olympic-and-paralympic-games
#7
Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira, Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Monica Costa Padilha, Luciana Mirotti, Alessandro Casilli, Fabio Azamor de Oliveira, Gustavo de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Lucas Martins Lisandro Rodrigues, Amanda Lessa Dutra de Araujo, Rachel Santos Levy, Pedro Antonio Castelo Teixeira, Felipe Alves Gomes de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Giordani Duarte, Ana Carolina Dudenhoeffer Carneiro, Joseph Albert Medeiros Evaristo, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso Dos Santos, Giovanni Carlo Verissimo da Costa, Fernando de Lima Castro, Fabio Cesar Sousa Nogueira, Fernanda Bertão Scalco, Luciana Pizzatti, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto
This paper summarizes the results obtained from the doping control analyses performed during the Summer XXXI Olympic Games (from 03 to 21 August 2016) and XV Paralympic Games (from 07 to 18 September 2016). The analyses of all doping control samples were performed at the Brazilian Doping Control Laboratory (LBCD), a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratory located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A new facility at Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ) was built and fully operated by over seven hundred professionals, including Brazilian and international scientists, administrative staff and volunteers...
October 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074477/sport-sex-and-age-increase-risk-of-illness-at-the-rio-2016-summer-paralympic-games-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-51-198-athlete-days
#8
Wayne Derman, Martin P Schwellnus, Esme Jordaan, Phoebe Runciman, Cheri Blauwet, Nick Webborn, Jan Lexell, Peter Van de Vliet, Yetsa Tuakli-Wosornu, James Kissick, Jaap Stomphorst
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.5% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system (WEB-IISS) over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Illness data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support through the WEB-IISS electronic data capturing systems...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068864/monitoring-training-load-in-handcycling-a-case-study
#9
Sebastian Zeller, Thomas Abel, Heiko K Strueder
Zeller, S, Abel, T, and Strueder, HK. Monitoring training load in handcycling: a case study. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3094-3100, 2017-The aim of this study was to analyze the training intensity distribution (TID) and the total training load (TTL) for the first time in handcycling of a multiple female Paralympic medalist (lesion level: L2-3 incomplete, ASIA C, classification: WH5). This study focuses on the preparation and the competitive period of the 2015 season. The athlete completed 194 handcycling training sessions in a time of 433:53 hours, covering a total distance of 10...
November 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051334/case-studies-in-physiology-the-biomechanics-of-the-fastest-sprinter-with-a-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#10
Owen N Beck, Alena Marie Grabowski
People have debated whether athletes with transtibial amputations should compete with non-amputees in track events despite insufficient information regarding how the use of running-specific prostheses affects athletic performance. Thus, we sought to quantify the spatio-temporal variables, ground reaction forces, and spring-mass mechanics of the fastest athlete with a unilateral transtibial amputation using an RSP to reveal how he adapts his biomechanics to achieve elite running speeds. Accordingly, we measured ground reaction forces during treadmill running trials spanning 2...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030389/high-precompetition-injury-rate-dominates-the-injury-profile-at-the-rio-2016-summer-paralympic-games-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-51%C3%A2-198-athlete-days
#11
Wayne Derman, Phoebe Runciman, Martin Schwellnus, Esme Jordaan, Cheri Blauwet, Nick Webborn, Jan Lexell, Peter van de Vliet, Yetsa Tuakli-Wosornu, James Kissick, Jaap Stomphorst
OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of injury in the precompetition and competition periods of the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.4% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support. RESULTS: A total of 510 injuries were reported during the 14-day Games period, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 10...
October 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018542/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-motor-actions-by-blind-long-jump-athletes
#12
Miguel Angel Torralba, José María Padullés, Jose Luis Losada, Jose Luis López
BACKGROUND: Blind people depend on spatial and temporal representations to perform activities of daily living and compete in sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of long jumps performed by blind athletes and compare findings with those reported for sighted athletes. METHODS: We analysed a sample of 12 male athletes competing in the F11 Long Jump Finals at the Paralympic Games in London 2012...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958175/the-impact-of-lower-limb-prosthetic-limb-use-in-international-c4-track-para-cycling
#13
Bryce Dyer
An investigation was undertaken to ascertain any impact or significance of athletes within the C4 paracycling classification between those who use a lower-limb prostheses and those who do not. A statistical evaluation of event completion time was undertaken to assess C4 cyclists when competing at the World Championships and the Paralympic Games in the 1 km track time trial. The C4 athletes who utilize a prostheses consistently outperformed non-amputees in the C4 classification from 2011 to 2016 on a competition-to-competition basis...
September 29, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946827/development-of-a-high-performance-transtibial-cycling-specific-prosthesis-for-the-london-2012-paralympic-games
#14
Bryce Dyer, Howard Woolley
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been reported that cycling-specific research relating to participants with an amputation is extremely limited in both volume and frequency. However, practitioners might participate in the development of cycling-specific prosthetic limbs. This technical note presents the development of a successful design of a prosthetic limb developed specifically for competitive cycling. TECHNIQUE: This project resulted in a hollow composite construction which was low in weight and shaped to reduce a rider's aerodynamic drag...
October 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904270/comparison-of-chemicals-in-mainstream-smoke-in-heat-not-burn-tobacco-and-combustion-cigarettes
#15
Kanae Bekki, Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
Because of the health effects of secondhand smoke, the Japanese government is trying to establish an effective law for total avoidance of secondhand smoke in indoor environments for tobacco-free Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games 2020, as requested by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Meanwhile, Philip Morris International has begun selling a new heat-not-burn tobacco, iQOS, which it claims is designed not to produce secondhand smoke. There is little scientific data, however, of the hazards and toxicity of iQOS...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813336/searching-for-the-elusive-gift-advances-in-talent-identification-in-sport
#16
REVIEW
David L Mann, Nima Dehghansai, Joseph Baker
The incentives for sport organizations to identify talented athletes from a young age continue to grow, yet effective talent identification remains a challenging task. This opinion paper examines recent advances in talent identification, focusing in particular on the emergence of new approaches that may offer promise to identify talent (e.g., small-sided games, genetic testing, and advanced statistical analyses). We appraise new multi-disciplinary and large-scale population studies of talent identification, provide a consideration of the most recent psychological predictors of performance, examine the emergence of new approaches that strive to diminish biases in talent identification, and look at the rise in interest in talent identification in Paralympic sport...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812396/the-influence-of-lower-limb-prostheses-technology-on-paracanoeing-time-trial-performance
#17
Shelley Ellis, Andrew Callaway, Bryce Dyer
Within the Paracanoeing discipline, it is important to ensure that appropriate control is achieved by a paddler with a disability. However, this Paralympic Games discipline has seen very little attention to date. The aims of this study were to understand the kinematic impact to a paracanoeist when not utilizing the use of a prosthetic lower-limb. A kayaker with a uni-lateral transfemoral amputation completed several 200 m maximal efforts both with and without their prosthesis. When the prosthetic limb was removed, there were significant differences found in stroke rate, stroke speed, stroke length and overall power output...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804521/home-advantage-in-the-winter-paralympic-games-1976-2014
#18
Darryl Wilson, Girish Ramchandani
PURPOSE: There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. METHODS: Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014...
2017: Sport Sciences for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782993/where-science-meets-practice-olympic-coaches-crafting-of-the-tapering-process
#19
Darren Ritchie, Justine B Allen, Andrew Kirkland
Although there is research providing physiologically-based guidance for the content of the taper, this study was the first to examine how coaches actually implement the taper. The purpose of this study was to examine the taper planning and implementation processes of successful Olympic coaches leading up to major competitions and how they learned about tapering. Seven track and field coaches participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their tapering processes. To be considered for inclusion, coaches were required to have coached one or more athletes to an Olympic or Paralympic medal...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#20
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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