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Muscle capacity

J Y Yang, H J Zhang, J Wang, S G Wu, H Y Yue, X R Jiang, G H Qi
Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat-soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7...
October 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V N Sukhorukov, V P Karagodin, E R Zakiev, A N Orekhov
This review mainly focuses on the medical and biological role of relatively poor studied enzymes known as sialidases. Structure and function of sialic acid, particularly as a component of gangliosides and plasma lipoproteins is described. Among the whole variety of sialidases, trans-sialidase is of special interest, since it is capable of removing sialic acid from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and transferring it to different acceptors in plasma. Desialylation of LDL in turn endow them the capacity to accumulate in the smooth muscle cells of human aortic intima, highlighting the important role of desialylation in atherogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yun Liu, Zi-Cheng Hu, Yi Zhou, Yan Pi, Lu Guo, Xu Wang, Xue Chen, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling...
October 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
J Cvetkovic, L Sofronic-Milosavljevicj, N Ilic, M Gnjatovic, I Nagano, A Gruden-Movsesijan
Excretory-secretory antigens (ES L1) of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae can induce the semi-matured status of rat dendritic cells (DCs). This may at least partly be the consequence of transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here we investigated the potential of several components of ES L1 (native fraction containing 45, 49 and 53 kDa proteins and recombinant Tsp53, representing one of the constituents of this fraction) to demonstrate previously observed effects of ES L1 on DCs in vitro, characterized by establishment of a particular phenotype (very low MHC II expression, moderate CD86 expression and significant ICAM-1 expression) and functional properties (low production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p70, and high production of IL-10 and TGF-β)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Marcelo Barreto Lopes, Luciana Ferreira Silva, Gildete Barreto Lopes, Maria Auxiliadora Penalva, Cacia Mendes Matos, Bruce M Robinson, Antonio Alberto Lopes
OBJECTIVE: The malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) combines ten components to assess nutritional status. Higher MIS has been associated with higher mortality and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. It is interesting to investigate associations of each component with mortality and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), that is, HRQOL and depression symptoms, and if MIS associations are generalizable for diverse populations. This study assessed associations of MIS and its components with mortality and PROs in an African descent MHD population...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ellen L Mintz, Juliana A Passipieri, Daniel Y Lovell, George J Christ
Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Simona Ceccarelli, Heather P McDowell, Olga Mannarino, Francesco Marampon, Barry Pizer, Rajeev Shukla, Antonio Pizzuti, Cinzia Marchese, Anna Clerico, Carlo Dominici
Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Achraf Ammar, Mouna Turki, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Choumous Kallel, Osama Abdelkarim, Anita Hoekelmann, Mohamed Bouaziz, Fatma Ayadi, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session. METHODS: Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA) or natural pomegranate juice (POMj) supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session...
2016: PloS One
Amanda Faria Assoni, Giuliana Castello, Marcos Valadares, Melinda Beccari, Juliana Gomes, Mayra Pelatti, Miguel Mitne-Neto, Valdemir Melechco Carvalho, Mayana Zatz
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by null mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although the primary defect is the deficiency of muscle dystrophin, secondary events, including chronic inflammation, fibrosis and muscle regeneration failure are thought to actively contribute to disease progression. Despite several advances, there is still no effective therapy for DMD. Therefore, the potential regenerative capacities, as well as immune-privileged properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs), have been the focus of intense investigation in different animal models aiming the treatment of these disorders...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Shinnosuke Ikemura, Nao Aramaki, Satoshi Fujii, Keisuke Kirita, Shigeki Umemura, Shingo Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Hironobu Ohmatsu, Takeshi Kuwata, Motohiro Kojima, Atsushi Ochiai, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Masahiro Tsuboi, Koichi Goto, Genichiro Ishii
Metastasis and growth in neoplastic lesions requires the multi-step regulation of microenvironmental factors. We aimed to elucidate the microenvironmental changes in the process of lymphatic metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma. We examined the morphological characteristics of 102 cases of Primary Tumor (PT), 50 of intralymphatic tumor (ILT), 51 of lymph node (LN) micrometastasis (LN-Mic; less than 2 mm in size) and 82 of LN macrometastasis (LN-Mac; greater than 10 mm in size). Afterwards we evaluated the expression of nine molecules (EGFR, FGFR2, CD44, ALDH1, Podoplanin, E-cadherin, S100A4, geminin and ezrin) in matched PT, ILT, LN-Mic and LN-Mac from 23 of these cases...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Science
Rafael Mesquita, Frits M E Franssen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Yvonne M J Goërtz, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and to what extent impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) affects physical and psychological status in COPD. We aimed to compare health outcome measures between COPD patients with and without impaired LVEF after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and FEV1. METHODS: Impaired LVEF was defined as values <50%. 85 COPD patients with impaired LVEF and 85 COPD patients with normal LVEF were matched for sex, age, BMI and FEV1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Francesca de Blasio, Francesco de Blasio, Giulia Miracco Berlingieri, Andrea Bianco, Marta La Greca, Frits M E Franssen, Luca Scalfi
BACKGROUND: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. OBJECTIVES: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Tadashi Yoshida, Patrice Delafontaine
Patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia. We previously demonstrated that Ang II, via its type 1 receptor (AT1R), causes muscle protein breakdown and apoptosis, and inhibits satellite cell (SC) proliferation and muscle regeneration, likely contributing to cachexia in CHF and CKD. In contrast, AT2R expression is robustly induced during SC differentiation and it potentiates muscle regeneration. To understand mechanisms regulating AT2R expression and its potential role in muscle regeneration in chronic diseases we used a mouse model of CHF and found that muscle regeneration was markedly reduced and that this was accompanied by blunted increase of AT2R expression...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shannon Jordan, Justin Karcher, Rebecca Rogers, Kathleen Kennedy, Anne Lawrence, Jenny Adams
PURPOSE: Updated cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and return-to-work guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) now include specificity of training for industrial athletes (exercise training that involves the muscle groups, movements, and energy systems that these patients use during occupational tasks). However, many CR facilities do not apply this principle, relying instead on the traditional protocol that consists primarily of aerobic exercise. This study was conducted to measure the metabolic cost of typical farming tasks and to compare 2 methods of calculating training intensities...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Hideaki Kaneto, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Masashi Shimoda, Seizo Okauchi, Naoki Shimo, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Kohei Kaku
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in various insulin target tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors which are newly developed anti-diabetic agents decrease blood glucose levels by enhancing urinary glucose excretion and thereby function in an insulin-independent manner. SGLT2 inhibitors exert beneficial effects for the reduction of insulin resistance as well as for the preservation of pancreatic β-cell function...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Apostolos Tsimploulis, Michael Doumas, Andreas Pittaras, Charles Faselis, Jonathan Myers, Peter Kokkinos
OBJECTIVE: Chronological aging in healthy subjects is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, endurance, and aerobic fitness. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related dysfunctions. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the impact of increased exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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