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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926543/effects-of-exercise-interventions-and-physical-activity-behavior-on-cancer-related-cognitive-impairments-an-update
#1
Nils Schaffrath, Max Oberste, Philipp Zimmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to give an update on studies investigating the influence of physical activity behavior and exercise interventions on cancer-related cognitive impairments. RECENT FINDINGS: Cross-sectional and observational studies underline previous findings, revealing an association of cancer patients' fitness and their cognitive functions. Results from interventional studies are sparse. Only one study investigated self-perceived cognitive function in breast cancer patients as a secondary outcome, indicating no effects...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925344/comparison-on-accuracy-of-different-nonlinear-models-in-predicting-growth-of-podolica-bulls
#2
Maria Selvaggi, Vito Laudadio, Angela Gabriella D'Alessandro, Cataldo Dario, Vincenzo Tufarelli
Animal growth does not follow a linear pattern, being explained mathematically by functions that have parameters with biological meaning. These parameters are used to estimate the expected weight of animals at specific ages. Several nonlinear models have been used to describe growth. This study was carried out to estimate the parameters of logistic, Gompertz, Richards and von Bertalanffy growth curve models in a sample of Podolica young bulls to determine the goodness of fit. Animals were weighed every 3 months from birth to 810 days of age...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925181/estimation-of-the-tumor-size-at-cure-threshold-among-aggressive-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-nsclcs-evidence-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-program-seer-and-the-national-lung-screening-trial-nlst
#3
Deborah L Goldwasser
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mortality can be reduced by a program of annual CT screening in high-risk individuals. However, CT screening regimens and adherence vary, potentially impacting the lung cancer mortality benefit. We defined the NSCLC cure threshold as the maximum tumor size at which a given NSCLC would be curable due to early detection. We obtained data from 518,234 NSCLCs documented in the U.S. SEER cancer registry between 1988 and 2012 and 1,769 NSCLCs detected in the NLST...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924282/a-computationally-efficient-algorithm-for-fitting-ion-channel-parameters
#4
Zachary R Teed, Jonathan R Silva
Continuous time Markov models have been widely used to describe ion channel kinetics, providing explicit representation of channel states and transitions. Fitting models to experimental data remains a computationally demanding task largely due to the high cost of model evaluation. Here, we propose a method to efficiently optimize model parameters and structure. Voltage clamp channel protocols can be decomposed into a series of fixed steps of constant voltage resulting in a set of linear systems of differential equations...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923877/poison-and-alarm-the-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-uses-sting-venom-volatiles-as-alarm-pheromone
#5
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defense and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets as compared to the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks humans and honey bees...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923708/acth-modulation-on-corticosterone-melatonin-testosterone-and-innate-immune-response-in-the-tree-frog-hypsiboas-faber
#6
Adriana Maria Giorgi Barsotti, Vania Regina de Assis, Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Braz Titon Junior, Zulma Felisbina da Silva Ferreira, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
The modulation exerted by glucocorticoids in physiological responses to stressors is essential for maintaining short-term homeostasis. However, highly frequent and/or prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis may inhibit processes that are important to long-term fitness and health, including reproduction and immunocompetence. The present study evaluates the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection in the adult male tree frog, Hypsiboas faber, as indicated by levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT), plasma testosterone (T), ocular melatonin (MEL), hematocrit and immune functioning (total leukocyte count and bacterial killing ability against Escherichia coli)...
December 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923457/micrornas-in-the-hypothalamus
#7
REVIEW
Mohammed Taouis
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923448/fit-with-good-fat-the-role-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-exercise-performance
#8
REVIEW
Mariasole Da Boit, Angus M Hunter, Stuart R Gray
N-3 PUFA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of fatty acids mainly found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. The effects of n-3 PUFA on health are mainly derived from its anti-inflammatory proprieties and its influence on immune function. Lately an increased interest in n-3 PUFA supplementation has reached the world of sport nutrition, where the majority of athletes rely on nutrition strategies to improve their training and performance. A vast amount of attention is paid in increasing metabolic capacity, delaying the onset of fatigue, and improving muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function...
January 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922752/abnormal-glucose-metabolism-and-high-energy-expenditure-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
Gustavo A Heresi, Steven K Malin, Jarrod W Barnes, Liping Tian, John P Kirwan, Raed A Dweik
RATIONALE: Insulin resistance has emerged as a potential mechanism related to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, direct measurements of insulin and glucose metabolism have not been performed in IPAH patients to date. OBJECTIVES: To perform comprehensive metabolic phenotyping on humans with IPAH. METHODS: We assessed plasma insulin and glucose using an oral glucose tolerance test and estimated insulin resistance and beta-cell function in 14 IPAH patients and 14 controls matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI),...
December 6, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922726/bichromophoric-compounds-with-orthogonally-and-parallelly-arranged-chromophores-separated-by-rigid-spacers
#10
Dirk N H Meineke, Mariano L Bossi, Haisen Ta, Vladimir N Belov, Stefan W Hell
Electronic energy transfer (EET) between chromophores is of fundamental importance for many biological processes and optoelectronic devices. However, common models fall short in fully describing the process, especially in bichromophoric model systems with a donor and acceptor connected by a rigid linker providing perpendicular geometries. Herein, we report a novel strategy to prepare bichromophores containing adamantane or 2-(2-adamantylidene)-adamantane as rigid spacers, providing a fixed distance between chromophores, and their parallel or perpendicular arrangement without chromophore rotation...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#11
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922463/the-dangers-of-estimating-v%C3%AB-o2max-using-linear-nonexercise-prediction-models
#12
Alan M Nevill, Carlton B Cooke
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy and goodness-of-fit of two competing models (linear versus allometric) when estimating V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) using non-exercise prediction models. METHODS: The two competing models were fitted to the V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) data taken from two previously published studies. Study 1 (the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, ADNFS), recruited 1732 randomly selected healthy participants, aged 16 years and over, from thirty English parliamentary constituencies...
December 1, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921223/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-reproductive-concerns-after-cancer-scale-rcac-for-young-female-cancer-survivors
#13
Ting-Ting Qiao, Wei Zheng, Wei Xing, Li-Xia Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yan-Ping Shi, Xiao-Juan Chen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and test the psychometric properties of the Reproductive Concerns After Cancer scale (RCAC) in young Chinese female cancer survivors. METHODS: The Chinese version of the RCAC was developed using the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) translation methodology, and then 800 young Chinese female cancer survivors were recruited to complete the scale. The validation of the RCAC is as follows: (1) content validity was evaluated by a group of experts; (2) factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and factorial invariance analysis; (3) convergent validity was determined by correlations with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) scale; (4) internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α coefficient; and (5) test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations...
December 5, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920590/a-comparison-of-the-oxford-shoulder-score-and-shoulder-pain-and-disability-index-factor-structure-in-the-context-of-a-large-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Jill Dawson, Kristina K Harris, Helen Doll, Ray Fitzpatrick, Andrew Carr
BACKGROUND: To explore and compare the factor structure of the 12-item Oxford shoulder score (OSS) and 13-item shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI). METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from 660 patients attending 46 hospitals in the UK. Complete OSS and SPADI data were available for 648 (98.2%) and 628 (95.2%) participants, respectively. RESULTS: For both instruments, either one or two factors were indicated, depending on the extraction method...
2016: Patient related Outcome Measures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919990/validation-and-enhancement-of-the-clinicopathological-melanoma-nomogram-via-incorporation-of-a-molecular-marker-in-the-primary-tumor
#15
Samer A Naffouje, Rand Naffouje, Jinsong Chen, George I Salti
BACKGROUND/AIM: To validate the melanoma nomogram and improve its function in prediction of nodal dissemination by incorporating a molecular marker in the model. Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) is an important regulator of melanocyte homeostasis and differentiation. We have shown that the grade of MITF expression in primary melanoma cells can serve as a predictor of nodal status. Many efforts to identify the nodal spread in cutaneous melanoma using non-invasive means have been recently undertaken...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919864/taxonomy-for-the-rehabilitation-of-knee-conditions-trak-a-digital-intervention-to-support-the-self-care-components-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rehabilitation-protocol-of-a-feasibility-study
#16
Emma Dunphy, Fiona L Hamilton, Kate Button
BACKGROUND: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common, especially in the active population. In defining the problem of ACL rehabilitation, this study draws from the knowledge that improved self-care, strength, and fitness are associated with better outcomes. Traditional rehabilitation involves regular physiotherapy, but it is not clear what the optimal way for delivering rehabilitation is, and it varies widely across the world. Evidence for treatments are discussed in the literature, however standard length of rehabilitation and frequency of appointments are unknown...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919597/axiographic-results-of-cad-cam-assisted-microvascular-fibular-free-flap-reconstruction-of-the-mandible-a-prospective-study-of-21-consecutive-cases
#17
Lucas M Ritschl, Thomas Mücke, Andreas M Fichter, Maximilian Roth, Clemens Kaltenhauser, Jean Marc Pho Duc, Marco R Kesting, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Denys J Loeffelbein
Virtual planning and guided reconstruction of the mandible following ablative surgery have become standard procedures in reconstructive surgery. Many advantages regarding operation time, morphology, bony fit, and consolidation have been described, but analyses of the functional outcome of virtually planned mandibular reconstructions are lacking. We prospectively analyzed 21 consecutive cases of mandibular reconstructions using CAD/CAM-assisted microvascular, fibular free flaps in operations between July 2014 and January 2016 at a single center...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919565/examination-of-the-promis-upper-extremity-item-bank
#18
Man Hung, Maren W Voss, Jerry Bounsanga, Anthony B Crum, Andrew R Tyser
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical measurement. INTRODUCTION: The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. METHODS: The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919026/hindered-cytoplasmic-diffusion-of-inositol-trisphosphate-restricts-its-cellular-range-of-action
#19
George D Dickinson, Kyle L Ellefsen, Silvina Ponce Dawson, John E Pearson, Ian Parker
The range of action of intracellular messengers is determined by their rates of diffusion and degradation. Previous measurements in oocyte cytoplasmic extracts indicated that the Ca(2+)-liberating second messenger inositol trisphosphate (IP3) diffuses with a coefficient (~280 μm(2) s(-1)) similar to that in water, corresponding to a range of action of ~25 μm. Consequently, IP3 is generally considered a "global" cellular messenger. We reexamined this issue by measuring local IP3-evoked Ca(2+) puffs to monitor IP3 diffusing from spot photorelease in neuroblastoma cells...
November 8, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917929/adsorption-of-methylene-blue-on-an-agro-waste-oiltea-shell-with-and-without-fungal-treatment
#20
Jiayang Liu, Enzhong Li, Xiaojuan You, Changwei Hu, Qingguo Huang
A lignocellulosic waste oiltea shell (OTS) was evaluated as an inexpensive sorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Fungal treatment of OTS increased the MB adsorption by modifying the physicochemical properties of OTS and simultaneously produced laccase as a beneficial co-product. Without fungal treatment, the maximum amount of adsorption (qm) of MB by OTS was 64.4 mg/g, whereas the treatment with fungus Pycnoporus sp. and Trametes versicolor increased qm up to 72.5 mg/g and 85.7 mg/g, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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