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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215054/semiparametric-modeling-and-analysis-of-longitudinal-method-comparison-data
#1
Lasitha N Rathnayake, Pankaj K Choudhary
Studies comparing two or more methods of measuring a continuous variable are routinely conducted in biomedical disciplines with the primary goal of measuring agreement between the methods. Often, the data are collected by following a cohort of subjects over a period of time. This gives rise to longitudinal method comparison data where there is one observation trajectory for each method on every subject. It is not required that observations from all methods be available at each observation time. The multiple trajectories on the same subjects are dependent...
February 19, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214619/transition-from-non-fickian-to-fickian-longitudinal-transport-through-3-d-rough-fractures-scale-in-sensitivity-and-roughness-dependence
#2
Lichun Wang, M Bayani Cardenas
Understanding transport in rough fractures from non-Fickian to Fickian regimes and the prediction of non-Fickian transport is critical for the development of new transport theories and many practical applications. Through computational experiments that fall within the macrodispersion regime, we first simulated and analyzed solute transport through synthetic rough fractures with stationary geometrical properties (i.e., fracture roughness σb/〈b〉 and correlation length λ, where b refers to aperture with its standard deviation σb and arithmetic mean 〈b〉) across increasing fracture longitudinal transport domain length L, with L/λ ranging from 2...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214584/removal-of-cd-ii-and-hg-ii-from-effluents-by-ionic-solid-impregnated-chitosan
#3
Anita Shekhawat, Shashikant Kahu, D Saravanan, Ravin Jugade
Ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide impregnated chitosan (EHDAIC) was prepared to remove cadmium and mercury from synthetic effluent. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and TGA-DTA. Adsorption studies were carried out under different conditions of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of EHDAIC is a function of the solution pH and the optimum pH for these metal ions was found to be 3.0. The equilibrium data has been described using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#4
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213033/dynamic-predictive-model-for-growth-of-salmonella-spp-in-scrambled-egg-mix
#5
Lin Li, Jihan Cepeda, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Glenn Froning, Vijay K Juneja, Harshavardhan Thippareddi
Liquid egg products can be contaminated with Salmonella spp. during processing. A dynamic model for the growth of Salmonella spp. in scrambled egg mix - high solids (SEM) was developed and validated. SEM was prepared and inoculated with ca. 2 log CFU/mL of a five serovar Salmonella spp. cocktail. Salmonella spp. growth data at isothermal temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, and 47 °C) in SEM were collected. Baranyi model was used (primary model) to fit growth data and the maximum growth rate and lag phase duration for each temperature were determined...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212973/the-burden-of-obesity-on-diabetes-in-the-united-states-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-2008-to-2012
#6
Man Yee Mallory Leung, Nils P Carlsson, Graham A Colditz, Su-Hsin Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the risk of developing diabetes and the annual cost of diabetes for a US general population. METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008 to 2012, were used to analyze 1) probabilities of developing diabetes and 2) annual total health care expenditures for diabetics. The age-, sex-, race-, and body mass index (BMI)-specific risks of developing diabetes were estimated by fitting an exponential survival function to age at first diabetes diagnosis...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212955/health-state-preference-weights-for-the-glasgow-outcome-scale-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-mapping-study
#7
Gordon Ward Fuller, Monica Hernandez, David Pallot, Fiona Lecky, Mathew Stevenson, Belinda Gabbe
BACKGROUND: Valid and relevant estimates of health state preference weights (HSPWs) for Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) categories are a key input of economic models evaluating treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVES: To characterize existing HSPW estimates, and model the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) from the GOS, to inform parameterization of future economic models. METHODS: A systematic review of HSPWs for GOS categories following TBI was conducted using a highly sensitive search strategy implemented in an extensive range of information sources between 1975 and 2016...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212586/effects-of-resistance-band-exercise-on-vascular-activity-and-fitness-in-older-adults
#8
Mark F Smith, Mistrelle Ellmore, Geoff Middleton, Paul M Murgatroyd, Thomas I Gee
This study investigated the effects of a low to moderately intense resistance-band exercise intervention on cutaneous microvascular function in an older population. 18 sedentary healthy participants (age: 58±5) were assessed for their upper and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance using laser Doppler fluximetry with endothelial-dependent (80 μl acetylcholine chloride), and -independent vasodilation (80 μl sodium nitroprusside). In addition, participants underwent a range of functional assessments (cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, flexibility), and completed a perceived quality of life questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212454/clinical-comparison-of-screw-retained-and-screwless-morse-taper-implant-abutment-connections-one-year-postloading-results
#9
Esma Geckili, Onur Geckili, Hakan Bilhan, Omer Kutay, Tayfun Bilgin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the screwless Morse taper implant-abutment connection type, in which the retention screw is totally eliminated, in terms of stability, success, periodontal parameters, and marginal bone levels after 1 year of function by comparing it with a passive fit internal implant-abutment connection, wherein a space exists between the matching components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each edentulous subject received an implant with a screwless Morse taper connection (MT) in the left canine area of the mandible and an implant with a screw-retained implant-abutment connection (SR) in the right canine area of the mandible...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211825/multiple-mediation-path-model-of-pain-s-cascading-influence-on-physical-disability-in%C3%A2-individuals-with-sci-from-colombia-south-america
#10
Paul B Perrin, Alejandra Morlett Paredes, Silvia Leonor Olivera, Juan Esteban Lozano, Wendy Tatiana Leal, Usman F Ahmad, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
BACKGROUND: Research has begun to document the bivariate connections between pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and various aspects of health related quality of life (HRQOL), such as fatigue, social functioning, mental health, and physical functioning. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct and test a theoretical path model illuminating the stage-wise and sequential (cascading) HRQOL pathways through which pain increases physical disability in individuals with SCI in a sample from Colombia, South America...
February 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211577/genetic-dissection-of-adaptive-form-and-function-in-rapidly-speciating-cichlid-fishes
#11
Frederico Henning, Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino, Lukas Baumgarten, Axel Meyer
Genes of major phenotypic effects and strong genetic correlations can facilitate adaptation, direct selective responses and potentially lead to phenotypic convergence. However, the preponderance of this type of genetic architecture in repeatedly-evolved adaptations remains unknown. Using hybrids between Haplochromis chilotes (thick-lipped) and H. nyererei (thin-lipped) we investigated the genetics underlying hypertrophied lips and elongated heads, traits that evolved repeatedly in cichlids. At least 25 loci of small-to-moderate and mainly additive effects were detected...
February 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211469/soil-wettability-can-be-explained-by-the-chemical-composition-of-particle-interfaces-an-xps-study
#12
Susanne K Woche, Marc-O Goebel, Robert Mikutta, Christian Schurig, Matthias Kaestner, Georg Guggenberger, Jörg Bachmann
Soil wettability (quantified in terms of contact angle, CA) is crucial for physical, chemical, and biological soil functioning. As the CA is determined by components present within the outmost nanometer of particles, this study applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a maximum analysis depth of 10 nm to test the relationship between CA and surface elemental composition, using soil samples from a chronosequence where CA increased from 0° (0 yrs) to about 98° (120 yrs). Concurrently, as seen by XPS, C and N content increased and the content of O and the mineral-derived cations (Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) decreased...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211338/enhancement-of-the-adsorption-capacity-of-the-light-weight-expanded-clay-aggregate-surface-for-the-metronidazole-antibiotic-by-coating-with-mgo-nanoparticles-studies-on-the-kinetic-isotherm-and-effects-of-environmental-parameters
#13
Ebrahim Mohammadi Kalhori, Tariq J Al-Musawi, Esmaeil Ghahramani, Hossein Kazemian, Mansur Zarrabi
The synthesized MgO nanoparticles were used to coat the light-weight expanded clay aggregates (LECA) and as a metronidazole (MNZ) adsorbent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques were employed to study the surface morphology and characteristics of the adsorbents. MgO/LECA clearly revealed the advantages of the nanocomposite particles, showing high specific surface area (76.12 m(2)/g), significant adsorption sites and functional groups...
February 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211180/slope-of-psychometric-functions-and-termination-rule-analysis-for-low-contrast-acuity-charts
#14
Andrew Carkeet, Ian L Bailey
PURPOSE: To assess whether the slopes of psychometric functions for measuring low contrast letter acuity were different from those for measuring high contrast letter acuity. METHODS: Ten participants, wearing their best spectacle correction, were assessed monocularly. Stimuli were logarithmic progression charts, generated on a computer monitor, with nine rows of five randomised Sloan letters generated in either high contrast format (Weber contrast 99.2%) or low contrast format (Weber contrast 18...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#15
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210999/computational-cognitive-modeling-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-fatigue-from-sleep-loss
#16
Matthew M Walsh, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hans P A Van Dongen
Computational models have become common tools in psychology. They provide quantitative instantiations of theories that seek to explain the functioning of the human mind. In this paper, we focus on identifying deep theoretical similarities between two very different models. Both models are concerned with how fatigue from sleep loss impacts cognitive processing. The first is based on the diffusion model and posits that fatigue decreases the drift rate of the diffusion process. The second is based on the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and posits that fatigue decreases the utility of candidate actions leading to microlapses in cognitive processing...
February 16, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210520/synchronous-aberrant-cerebellar-and-opercular-development-in-fetuses-and-neonates-with-congenital-heart-disease-correlation-with-early-communicative-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-initial-experience
#17
A Wong, T Chavez, S O'Neil, J Votava-Smith, D Miller, S delCastillo, A Panigrahy, L Paquette
Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) demonstrate multidomain cognitive delays. Cingulo-opercular and cerebellar brain networks are critical to language functions. This is a description of our initial experience aiming to identify an anatomic correlate for CHD patients with expressive language delays. Fetal CHD patients, prospectively enrolled, underwent serial fetal (1.5T), postnatal pre- and postoperative (3T) MRI. Non-CHD patients were enrolled retrospectively from the same epoch. Comparable fetal and neonatal T2 contrast was used for manual linear cross-sectional measurement...
January 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209806/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-transient-exogenous-cortisol-manipulation-on-oxidative-stress-in-juvenile-brown-trout
#18
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Kathryn S Peiman, Martin H Larsen, Kim Aarestrup, William G Willmore, Steven J Cooke
In the wild, animals are exposed to a growing number of stressors with increasing frequency and intensity, as a result of human activities and human-induced environmental change. To fully understand how wild organisms are affected by stressors, it is crucial to understand the physiology that underlies an organism's response to a stressor. Prolonged levels of elevated glucocorticoids are associated with a state of chronic stress and decreased fitness. Exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation reduces an individual's ability to forage, avoid predators and grow, thereby limiting the resources available for physiological functions like the defence against oxidative stress...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209742/cardiorespiratory-fitness-modulates-the-acute-flow-mediated-dilation-response-following-high-intensity-but-not-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-elderly-men
#19
Tom G Bailey, Maria Perissiou, Mark Windsor, Fraser D Russell, Jonathan Golledge, Daniel J Green, Christopher D Askew
Impaired endothelial function is observed with ageing and with low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) whilst improvements in both are suggested to be reliant on higher-intensity exercise in the elderly. This may be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise of varying intensity. We examined the hypothesis that exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in healthy elderly adults, and would be modulated by VO2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower- (VO2peak = 24.3±2...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209361/a-multivariate-approach-to-analyzing-functional-redundancy-of-marine-periphytic-ciliates-during-the-colonization-process-for-bioassessment-in-coastal-ecosystems
#20
Guangjian Xu, Xiaoxiao Zhong, Alan Warren, Henglong Xu
Functional redundancy is a useful tool for determining functional compensation and for reducing "signal to noise" ratios of full-species datasets in community-based monitoring programs. The functional redundancy of marine periphytic ciliate communities during the colonization process in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, China, was analyzed using a peeling procedure (BVSTEP). Four response units (RUs) with trophic-functional equivalents were identified from the full 77-species dataset. These RUs, which comprised four, seven, six and six species respectively, represented a clear variation in trophic-functional structures across the levels of functional redundancy...
February 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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