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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926759/instructed-subsets-or-agile-swarms-how-t-helper-cells-may-adaptively-counter-uncertainty-with-variability-and-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Edward C Schrom, Andrea L Graham
Over recent years, extensive phenotypic variability and plasticity have been revealed among the T-helper cells of the mammalian adaptive immune system, even within clonal lineages of identical antigen specificity. This challenges the conventional view that T-helper cells assort into functionally distinct subsets following differential instruction by the innate immune system. We argue that the adaptive value of coping with uncertainty can reconcile the 'instructed subset' framework with T-helper variability and plasticity...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926191/clinical-validation-of-the-nursing-outcome-swallowing-status-in-people-with-stroke-analysis-according-to-the-classical-and-item-response-theories
#2
Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira-Kumakura, Thelma Leite de Araujo, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa Costa, Tahissa Frota Cavalcante, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes, Emilia Campos Carvalho
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To validate clinically the nursing outcome "Swallowing status". METHODS: The adjustment of the nursing outcome was investigated according to the Classical and Item Response Theories. The models were compared regarding information loss, goodness-of-fit, and differential item functioning. Stability and internal consistency were examined. RESULTS: The nursing outcome has the best fit in the generalized partial credit model with different discrimination parameters...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925546/multidisciplinary-full-mouth-rehabilitation-with-soft-tissue-regeneration-in-the-esthetic-zone
#3
Anja Liebermann, Stefan Frei, Madalena Lucia Pinheiro Dias Engler, Otto Zuhr, Otto Prandtner, Daniel Edelhoff, Reza Saeidi Pour
OBJECTIVE: Oral rehabilitation often requires a multidisciplinary approach including restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, and periodontology to fulfill high esthetic and functional demands, frequently combined with changes in the vertical dimension. The presence of gingival recessions can be associated with numerous factors, such as brushing or preparation trauma and persistent inflammation of the gingiva due to inadequate marginal fit of restorations. Because gingival recessions can cause major esthetic and functional problems, obtaining stability of the gingival tissue around prosthetic restorations is of essential concern...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925350/beliefs-in-social-inclusion-invariance-in-associations-among-hope-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-social-inclusion-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#4
Clio Berry, Kathryn Greenwood
Social disability in youth is an important precursor of long-term social and mental health problems. Social inclusion is a key policy driver and fits well within a new paradigm of health and well-being rather than illness-oriented services, yet little is known about social inclusion and its facilitators for "healthy" young people. We present a novel exploratory structural analysis of social inclusion using measures from 387 14- to 36-year-olds. Our model represents social inclusion as comprising social activity and community belonging, with both domains predicted by hopeful and dysfunctional self-beliefs but hopefulness more uniquely predicting social inclusion in adolescence...
September 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924732/feature-inference-with-uncertain-categorization-re-assessing-anderson-s-rational-model
#5
Elizaveta Konovalova, Gae L Le Mens
A key function of categories is to help predictions about unobserved features of objects. At the same time, humans are often in situations where the categories of the objects they perceive are uncertain. In an influential paper, Anderson (Psychological Review, 98(3), 409-429, 1991) proposed a rational model for feature inferences with uncertain categorization. A crucial feature of this model is the conditional independence assumption-it assumes that the within category feature correlation is zero. In prior research, this model has been found to provide a poor fit to participants' inferences...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924033/rgpf-is-required-for-maintenance-of-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-in-streptococcus-mutans
#6
C J Kovacs, R C Faustoferri, R G Quivey
Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans, the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of deletion of rgpF, the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in construction of the core poly-rhamnose backbone of RGP...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923960/igh-isotype-specific-b-cell-receptor-expression-influences-b-cell-fate
#7
Pei Tong, Alessandra Granato, Teng Zuo, Neha Chaudhary, Adam Zuiani, Seung Seok Han, Rakesh Donthula, Akritee Shrestha, Debattama Sen, Jennifer M Magee, Michael P Gallagher, Cees E van der Poel, Michael C Carroll, Duane R Wesemann
Ig heavy chain (IgH) isotypes (e.g., IgM, IgG, and IgE) are generated as secreted/soluble antibodies (sIg) or as membrane-bound (mIg) B cell receptors (BCRs) through alternative RNA splicing. IgH isotype dictates soluble antibody function, but how mIg isotype influences B cell behavior is not well defined. We examined IgH isotype-specific BCR function by analyzing naturally switched B cells from wild-type mice, as well as by engineering polyclonal Ighγ1/γ1 and Ighε/ε mice, which initially produce IgG1 or IgE from their respective native genomic configurations...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923701/average-glucose-from-hemoglobin-a1c-for-altered-red-blood-cell-lifetimes-predictions-based-on-a-model-for-hemoglobin-a1c-formation
#8
Ross Molinaro, Jay H Herman, Douglas F Stickle
BACKGROUND: A model for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation was used to predict the relationship between average glucose (AG) and %HbA1c under conditions of altered red blood cell lifetime (RCL). METHODS: Using a kinetic mass balance model for formation of HbA1c in red blood cells as a function of age (time in circulation), whole blood %HbA1c vs. glucose was calculated based on the nonlinear distribution of red blood cells as a function of age across RCL. RESULTS: Model calculations provided a close fit to the standard relationship of estimated average glucose to %HbA1c for normal RCL (r>0...
September 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923575/radioresistance-of-the-breast-tumor-is-highly-correlated-to-its-level-of-cancer-stem-cell-and-its-clinical-implication-for-breast-irradiation
#9
Xiangrong Sharon Qi, Frank Pajonk, Susan McCloskey, Daniel A Low, Patrick Kupelian, Michael Steinberg, Ke Sheng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growing evidence suggested the coexistence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within solid tumors. We aimed to study radiosensitivity parameters for the CSCs and differentiated tumor cells (TCs) and the correlation of the fractions of CSCs to the overall tumor radioresistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surviving fractions of breast cancer cell lines were analyzed using a dual-compartment Linear-quadratic model with independent fitting parameters: radiosensitive αTC, βTC, αCSC, βCSC, and fraction of CSCs f...
September 15, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923470/tripodal-lipoprotein-variants-with-c-terminal-hydrophobic-residues-allosterically-modulate-activity-of-the-degp-protease
#10
Hyojin Park, Yurie T Kim, Chulwon Choi, Seokhee Kim
DegP, a member of the highly conserved HtrA family of proteases, performs a regulated proteolysis of toxic misfolded proteins in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. The allosteric switch between inactive and active conformations is a central mechanism to carefully control proteolytic activity of DegP and to maintain the optimal cellular fitness, but few other molecules than substrates are known to allosterically control DegP activity. Here, we demonstrate that a mutant variant of an outer membrane lipoprotein, Lpp(+Leu), can function as a novel allosteric effector that changes the dynamic range of DegP activity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923146/cannon-ball-diagnosis-and-management-in-a-flight-attendant-candidate
#11
Meryem Zerrik, Houda Echchachoui, Zakaria Iloughmane, Choukri El'mhadi, Salaheddine Elkhader, Laila Benaissa, Mohamed Chemsi
BACKGROUND: ''Cannon ball'' opacities on chest X-rays are a common manifestation of hematogenous dissemination of a malignant tumor in the lungs. They indicate an advanced stage of disease with a very grim prognosis in terms of cure and survival. In aerospace medicine, this aspect means the patient is unfit for flight duties. Nonmetastatic etiologies of pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of cannon ball opacities discovered fortuitously during an admission visit. CASE REPORT: A 23-yr-old flight attendant candidate came to the Aeromedical Expertise Center of the Military Hospital in Rabat for medical evaluation...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922984/cortical-auditory-evoked-potential-caep-and-behavioural-measures-of-auditory-function-in-a-child-with-a-single-sided-deafness
#12
Oscar M Cañete, Suzanne C Purdy, Michel Neeff, Colin R S Brown, Peter R Thorne
OBJECTIVES: To study the changes in behavioural and cortical responses over time in a child with single-sided deafness fitted with a cochlear implant (CI). METHODS: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in noise (+5 dB signal-to-noise ratio) were recorded and auditory skills were assessed using tests of sound localization, spatial speech perception in noise, and self-ratings of auditory abilities (Listening inventory for education, LIFE and Speech, spatial and qualities of hearing questionnaire, SSQ parental version)...
September 19, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922944/revised-inverse-problem-algorithm-based-prediction-of-coronary-artery-stenosis-readings-from-the-clinical-data-of-patients-with-coronary-heart-diseases
#13
Lung-Fa Pan, Shao-Wen Chiu, Min-Feng Xiao, Chia-Hui Chen, Lung-Kwang Pan
AIM: Coronary artery stenosis readings were predicted in this study on the basis of clinical data for patients with coronary heart diseases using the inverse problem algorithm. METHOD: Five factors, including age, BSA (body surface area), MAP (mean artery pressure), sugar AC (ante cibum), and LDL-C (low-density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol) were incorporated into a nonlinear first-order regression fit analysis to develop a prediction equation with sixteen terms derived via a revised inverse problem algorithm implemented through the STATISTICA default regression fit...
September 18, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922773/crop-model-assisted-phenomics-and-genome-wide-association-study-for-climate-adaptation-of-indica-rice-2-thermal-stress-and-spikelet-sterility
#14
Michael Dingkuhn, Richard Pasco, Julie Mae Pasuquin, Jean Damo, Jean-Christophe Soulié, Louis-Marie Raboin, Julie Dusserre, Abdoulaye Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Suchit Shrestha, Tobias Kretzschmar
Low night and high day temperatures during sensitive reproductive stages cause spikelet sterility in rice. Phenotyping of tolerance traits in the field is difficult because of temporal interactions with phenology and organ temperature differing from ambient. Physiological models can be used to separate these effects. A 203-accession indica rice diversity panel was phenotyped for sterility in ten environments in Senegal and Madagascar and climate data were recorded. Here we report on sterility responses while a companion study reported on phenology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922422/psychological-effects-of-the-intensified-follow-up-of-the-ceawatch-trial-after-treatment-for-colorectal-cancer
#15
Zhuozhao Zhan, Charlotte J Verberne, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Irene Grossmann, Adelita V Ranchor, Theo Wiggers, Geertruida H de Bock
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate psychological effects of the state-of-art intensified follow-up protocol for colorectal cancer patients in the CEAwatch trial. METHOD: At two time points during the CEAwatch trial questionnaires regarding patients' attitude towards follow-up, patients' psychological functioning and patients' experiences and expectations were sent to participants by post. Linear mixed models were fitted to assess the influences and secular trends of the intensified follow-up on patients' attitude towards follow-up and psychological functioning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922380/the-warburg-effect-as-an-adaptation-of-cancer-cells-to-rapid-fluctuations-in-energy-demand
#16
Tamir Epstein, Robert A Gatenby, Joel S Brown
To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, glucose metabolism is viewed as a function of oxygen concentrations in which the more efficient oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O produces all or nearly all ATP except under hypoxic conditions when less efficient (2 ATP/ glucose vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922315/validation-of-fear-of-falling-and-balance-confidence-assessment-scales-in-persons-with-dystonia
#17
M J Boyce, L Lam, F Chang, N Mahant, V S C Fung, L Bradnam
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls are problematic for people living with neurological disorders and a fear of falling can impact on actual falls. Fear of falling is commonly assessed using the Falls Self-Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) or the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. These scales can predict risk of falling. We aimed to validate the FES-I and the ABC in persons with dystonia. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of people with dystonia, collecting information on demographics, 6-month falls history, dystonia disability, and the FES-I and ABC scales...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921977/photoinduced-bimolecular-electron-transfer-in-ionic-liquids
#18
Boning Wu, Mark Maroncelli, Edward W Castner
The present work seeks to better understand the role of solute diffusion and solvation dynamics on bimolecular electron transfer in ionic liquids (ILs). Steady-state and time-resolved measurements of the reductive fluorescence quenching of five fluorophores ("F") by six quenchers ("Q"; electron donors) are reported in acetonitrile and two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. Data were collected on 66 different F-Q-solvent systems, which span a 2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921613/voxel-based-multi-model-fitting-method-for-modelling-time-activity-curves-in-spect-images
#19
David Sarrut, Adrien Halty, Jean-Noel Badel, Ludovic Ferrer, Manuel Bardiès
PURPOSE: Estimating the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics from timesequence SPECT images on a per-voxel basis is useful for studying activity nonuniformity or computing absorbed dose distributions by convolution of voxel kernels or Monte-Carlo radiation transport. Current approaches are either region-based, thus assuming uniform activity within the region, or voxel-based but using the same fitting model for all voxels. METHODS: We propose a voxel-based multi-model fitting method (VoMM) that estimates a fitting function for each voxel by automatically selecting the most appropriate model among a predetermined set with Akaike criteria...
September 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921526/parsing-heterogeneity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-eeg-based-subgroups
#20
Sandra K Loo, James J McGough, James T McCracken, Susan L Smalley
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous condition for which multiple efforts to characterize brain state differences are underway. The objective of this study was to identify distinct subgroups of resting electroencephalography (EEG) profiles among children with and without ADHD and subsequently provide extensive clinical characterization of the subgroups. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used with resting state EEG recorded from a large sample of 781 children with and without ADHD (N = 620 ADHD, N = 161 Control), aged 6-18 years old...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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