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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549251/enhanced-methane-production-and-its-kinetics-model-of-thermally-pretreated-lignocellulose-waste-material
#1
C Veluchamy, Ajay S Kalamdhad
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of substrate concentration by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of thermally pretreated pulp and paper mill sludge. Different substrate concentration through food to microorganism ratio varied from 1.0 to 3.0 was carried out in a mesophilic condition as biochemical methane potential assay. Experimental results offered that cellulose removal rate spikes up to 60.2%. The specific methane gas production and biodegradability were increased up to 303mL of CH4/g VS and 73% respectively...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548900/corticosterone-response-as-an-age-specific-mediator-of-nestling-body-mass-in-a-wild-passerine
#2
Vallo Tilgar, Marianne Lind, Jaanis Lodjak, Kadri Moks
The environment can affect individual performance directly via resource availability or indirectly through resource allocation among competing fitness components, such as body growth and maintenance activities related to short-term survival. Corticosterone (CORT), the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be an important mediator of energy allocation to different organismal functions, but its effect on the plasticity of fitness-related traits has rarely been investigated at different ontogenetic stages. Here, we evaluated the role of baseline and stress-induced CORT on nestling development of wild great tits (Parus major) under different growth conditions and at different developmental stages...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548656/nlr-locus-mediated-trade-off-between-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-adaptation-in-arabidopsis
#3
Hirotaka Ariga, Taku Katori, Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Taishi Hirase, Yuri Tajima, Jane E Parker, Rubén Alcázar, Maarten Koornneef, Owen Hoekenga, Alexander E Lipka, Michael A Gore, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Yuriko Kobayashi, Satoshi Iuchi, Masatomo Kobayashi, Kazuo Shinozaki, Yoichi Sakata, Takahisa Hayashi, Yusuke Saijo, Teruaki Taji
Osmotic stress caused by drought, salt or cold decreases plant fitness. Acquired stress tolerance defines the ability of plants to withstand stress following an initial exposure(1). We found previously that acquired osmotolerance after salt stress is widespread among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions(2). Here, we identify ACQOS as the locus responsible for ACQUIRED OSMOTOLERANCE. Of its five haplotypes, only plants carrying group 1 ACQOS are impaired in acquired osmotolerance. ACQOS is identical to VICTR, encoding a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein(3)...
May 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548545/mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-why-spirometry-is-not-sufficient
#4
Amany F Elbehairy, Grace Parraga, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - an inflammatory disease of the airways, alveoli and lung microvasculature - is a leading cause of death worldwide. Smokers with milder airway obstruction constitute the majority of patients with this disease. Many studies have shown increased morbidity, activity-related dyspnea, exercise intolerance and mortality in such patients, compared with age-matched healthy populations. Clinical evaluation of symptomatic smokers with ostensibly mild airway obstruction poses a challenge in clinical practice as spirometry can obscure extensive heterogeneous pathophysiological impairment...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547681/exploratory-behaviors-and-recalibration-what-processes-are-shared-between-functionally-similar-affordances
#5
John M Franchak
Recalibration of affordance perception allows observers to adapt to changes in the body's size or abilities that alter possibilities for action. Of key interest is understanding how exploratory behaviors lead to successful recalibration. The present study was designed to test a novel hypothesis-that the same processes of exploration and recalibration should generalize between affordances that share a similar function. Most affordances for fitting the body through openings are recalibrated without feedback from practicing the action; locomotion exploration is sufficient...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546996/a-mutation-creating-an-upstream-initiation-codon-in-the-sox9-5-utr-causes-acampomelic-campomelic-dysplasia
#6
Anna E von Bohlen, Johann Böhm, Ramona Pop, Diana S Johnson, John Tolmie, Ralf Stücker, Deborah Morris-Rosendahl, Gerd Scherer
BACKGROUND: Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a semilethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in and around SOX9. CD is characterized by multiple skeletal malformations including bending (campomelia) of long bones. Surviving patients frequently have the acampomelic form of CD (ACD). METHODS: This is a single case report on a patient with clinical and radiological features of ACD who has no mutation in the SOX9 protein-coding sequence nor a translocation with breakpoint in the SOX9 regulatory domain...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546384/systematic-analysis-of-the-dna-damage-response-network-in-telomere-defective-budding-yeast
#7
Eva-Maria Holstein, Greg Ngo, Conor Lawless, Peter Banks, Matthew Greetham, Darren Wilkinson, David Lydall
Functional telomeres are critically important to eukaryotic genetic stability. Scores of proteins and pathways are known to affect telomere function. Here, we report a series of related genome-wide genetic interaction screens performed on budding yeast cells with acute or chronic telomere defects. Genetic interactions were examined in cells defective in Cdc13 and Stn1, affecting two components of CST, a single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding complex that binds telomeric DNA. For comparison, genetic interactions were also examined in cells with defects in Rfa3, affecting the major ssDNA binding protein, RPA, which has overlapping functions with CST at telomeres...
May 25, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545121/measurement-of-macular-structure-function-relationships-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-sd-oct-and-pattern-electroretinograms-perg
#8
Keunheung Park, Jinmi Kim, Jiwoong Lee
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a common cause of loss of vision during glaucoma. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is an objective measure of the central retinal function that correlates with macular GCL thickness. The aim of this study is to determine possible relationships between the N95 amplitude of pattern electroretinogram (PERGamp) and macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective and comparative study including 74 glaucoma patients (44 early stage and 30 advanced stage cases) and 66 normal control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545048/a-distribution-model-of-functional-connectome-based-on-criticality-and-energy-constraints
#9
Kosuke Takagi
The analysis of the network structure of the functional connectivity data constructed from fMRI images provides basic information about functions and features of the brain activity. We focus on the two features which are considered as relevant to the brain activity, the criticality and the constraint regarding energy consumptions. Within a wide variety of complex systems, the critical state occurs associated with a phase transition between distinct phases, random one and order one. Although the hypothesis that human brain activity is also in a state of criticality is supported by some experimental results, it still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544886/the-level-of-physical-fitness-in-children-aged-6-7years-with-low-birthweight
#10
Elżbieta Cieśla, Monika Zaręba, Sławomir Kozieł
BACKGROUND: Level of physical fitness is related to the functional status of most of the bodily functions and so it appears to be very important to identify perinatal factors influencing physical fitness. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of birth weight on the level of physical fitness in children 6-7years of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Physical fitness was assessed using EUROFIT tests in 28,623 children, aged 6-7years, from rural areas in Poland...
May 22, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544059/objective-assessment-of-the-evolutionary-action-equation-for-the-fitness-effect-of-missense-mutations-across-cagi-blinded-contests
#11
Panagiotis Katsonis, Olivier Lichtarge
A major challenge in genome interpretation is to estimate the fitness effect of coding variants of unknown significance (VUS). Labor, limited understanding of protein functions, and lack of assays generally limit direct experimental assessment of VUS, and make robust and accurate computational approaches a necessity. Often, however, algorithms that predict mutational effect disagree amongst themselves and with experimental data, slowing their adoption for clinical diagnostics. To objectively assess such methods, the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) community organizes contests to predict unpublished experimental data, available only to CAGI assessors...
May 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543923/sex-differences-in-fitness-and-cardiac-function-during-exercise-in-adolescents-with-chronic-fatigue
#12
Paolo T Pianosi, Eric Emerling, Kristin C Mara, Amy L Weaver, Philip R Fischer
Females demonstrate less robust Frank-Starling mechanism with respect to cardiac preload than males at rest. We asked whether this phenomenon would also affect cardiac performance during exercise. We hypothesized that stroke volume (SV) response to exercise would be more limited in deconditioned females such that cardiac output would be mainly rate dependent, compared with males. We conducted a chart audit of clinical exercise tests performed by adolescents with chronic fatigue. Oxygen uptake (VO2 ) was measured breath-by-breath at rest and during cycle ergometry, while cardiac output was measured by acetylene rebreathing at rest plus 2-3 sub-threshold workloads...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543754/validating-the-european-health-literacy-survey-questionnaire-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-latent-trait-analyses-applying-multidimensional-rasch-modelling-and-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#13
Hanne Søberg Finbråten, Kjell Sverre Pettersen, Bodil Wilde-Larsson, Gun Nordström, Anne Trollvik, Øystein Guttersrud
AIM: To validate the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BACKGROUND: The HLS-EU-Q47 latent variable is outlined in a framework with four cognitive domains integrated in three health domains, implying 12 theoretically defined subscales. Valid and reliable health literacy measurers are crucial to effectively adapt health communication and education to individuals and groups of patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study applying confirmatory latent trait analyses...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542952/compensatory-and-decompensatory-alterations-in-cardiomyocyte-ca-2-dynamics-in-hearts-with-diastolic-dysfunction-following-aortic-banding
#14
Sara Gattoni, Åsmund Treu Røe, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Ivar Sjaastad, William E Louch, Nicolas P Smith, Steven A Niederer
KEY POINTS: At the cellular level cardiac hypertrophy causes remodelling, leading to changes in ionic channel, pump and exchanger densities and kinetics. Previous studies have focused on quantifying changes in channels, pumps and exchangers without quantitatively linking these changes with emergent cellular scale functionality. Two biophysical cardiac cell models were created, parameterized and validated and are able to simulate electrophysiology and calcium dynamics in myocytes from control sham operated rats and aortic-banded rats exhibiting diastolic dysfunction...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542692/association-between-undetected-10-2-visual-field-damage-and-vision-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#15
Dana M Blumberg, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Alisa J Prager, Qi Yu, Lama Al-Aswad, George A Cioffi, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Donald C Hood
Importance: Recent evidence supports the presence of macular damage (within 8° of the central field) to retinal ganglion cells and associated central visual field (VF) defects in glaucoma, even in early stages. Despite this, to our knowledge, the association of 10-2 VF damage with vision-related quality of life (QOL) has not been well studied. Objective: To determine the association between QOL and visual function as measured by 24-2 and 10-2 VFs in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and to test the hypothesis that patients with vision-related QOL disproportionate to their 24-2 VF status may exhibit 10-2 damage overlooked by the 24-2 test...
May 25, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542620/elevated-catalase-expression-in-a-fungal-pathogen-is-a-double-edged-sword-of-iron
#16
Arnab Pradhan, Carmen Herrero-de-Dios, Rodrigo Belmonte, Susan Budge, Angela Lopez Garcia, Aljona Kolmogorova, Keunsook K Lee, Brennan D Martin, Antonio Ribeiro, Attila Bebes, Raif Yuecel, Neil A R Gow, Carol A Munro, Donna M MacCallum, Janet Quinn, Alistair J P Brown
Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542449/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-a-type-cytochrome-c-oxidase-under-starvation-conditions-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Tatsuya Osamura, Takuro Kawakami, Reiko Kido, Masaharu Ishii, Hiroyuki Arai
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has one A-type (caa3) and multiple C-type (cbb3) cytochrome c oxidases as well as two quinol oxidases for aerobic respiration. The caa3 oxidase is highly efficient in creating a proton gradient across the cell membrane, but it is not expressed under normal growth conditions and its physiological role has not been investigated. In the present study, a mutant strain deficient in the coxBA-PA0107-coxC genes encoding caa3 exhibited normal growth under any test conditions, but it had low relative fitness under carbon starvation conditions, indicating that the expression of caa3 is advantageous under starvation conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542423/plasmid-free-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-plasmodium-falciparum-confirms-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-the-dihydroisoquinolone-clinical-candidate-sj733
#18
Emily D Crawford, Jenai Quan, Jeremy A Horst, Daniel Ebert, Wesley Wu, Joseph L DeRisi
Genetic manipulation of the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remains challenging, but the rise of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing tools is increasing the feasibility of altering this parasite's genome in order to study its biology. Of particular interest is the investigation of drug targets and drug resistance mechanisms, which have major implications for fighting malaria. We present a new method for introducing drug resistance mutations in P. falciparum without the use of plasmids or the need for cloning homologous recombination templates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542266/underwater-sonar-image-detection-a-combination-of-non-local-spatial-information-and-quantum-inspired-shuffled-frog-leaping-algorithm
#19
Xingmei Wang, Shu Liu, Zhipeng Liu
This paper proposes a combination of non-local spatial information and quantum-inspired shuffled frog leaping algorithm to detect underwater objects in sonar images. Specifically, for the first time, the problem of inappropriate filtering degree parameter which commonly occurs in non-local spatial information and seriously affects the denoising performance in sonar images, was solved with the method utilizing a novel filtering degree parameter. Then, a quantum-inspired shuffled frog leaping algorithm based on new search mechanism (QSFLA-NSM) is proposed to precisely and quickly detect sonar images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542033/utility-of-prose-device-in-the-management-of-complex-oculoplastic-pathology
#20
Stacy M Scofield-Kaplan, Kristen E Dunbar, Ashley A Campbell, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: To describe the use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in the management of complex oculoplastic pathology. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of individuals over 18 years of age who were referred and successfully fit with the PROSE scleral device between January 1995 and June 2015. RESULTS: Nine cases were identified that had complex oculoplastic disease and severe corneal surface disease...
May 24, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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