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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324968/improving-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-cpr-outcomes-using-model-based-optimization
#1
Dieter Bender, Ali Jalali, C Nataraj
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) outcomes are far from optimal as practiced today, and prior work has documented that among probable reasons is the fact that the procedure remains to be fully understood. In an attempt to gain a broader understanding of the CPR physiology and the elemental principles underlying the CPR outcomes, this study proposes a novel approach. The analysis is carried out in three major steps. First, an appropriate cardiovascular system model was adopted and simulated using real CPR data as the input...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324707/chemical-structure-based-predictive-model-for-the-oxidation-of-trace-organic-contaminants-by-sulfate-radical
#2
Tiantian Ye, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Chong-Jian Tang, Shuang Luo, Ruiyang Xiao, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Second-order rate constants [Formula: see text] for the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO4(•-)) with trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) are of scientific and practical importance for assessing their environmental fate and removal efficiency in water treatment systems. Here, we developed a chemical structure-based model for predicting [Formula: see text] using 32 molecular fragment descriptors, as this type of model provides a quick estimate at low computational cost. The model was constructed using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324258/optimizing-irrigation-and-nitrogen-for-wheat-through-empirical-modeling-under-semi-arid-environment
#3
Umer Saeed, Syed Aftab Wajid, Tasneem Khaliq, Zahir Ahmad Zahir
Nitrogen fertilizer availability to plants is strongly linked with water availability. Excessive or insufficient use of nitrogen can cause reduction in grain yield of wheat and environmental issues. The per capita per annum water availability in Pakistan has reduced to less than 1000 m(3) and is expected to reach 800 m(3) during 2025. Irrigating crops with 3 or more than 3 in. of depth without measuring volume of water is not a feasible option anymore. Water productivity and economic return of grain yield can be improved by efficient management of water and nitrogen fertilizer...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324188/autobiographical-memory-loss-following-a-right-prefrontal-lobe-tumour-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
A A B Jamjoom, P Gallo, J Kandasamy, J Phillips, D Sokol
INTRODUCTION: The right prefrontal lobe has not traditionally been considered eloquent brain. Resection of tumours within this region does not typically lead to permanent functional impairment. In this report, we highlight the case of a patient who developed autobiographical memory loss following an uncomplicated resection of a right prefrontal tumour. CASE MATERIAL: A previously fit and well 15-year old presented with a persistent right-sided headache. An MRI demonstrated an expanded right mid-frontal gyrus with changes consistent with a low-grade tumour...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324047/functional-imaging-in-the-follow-up-of-enteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-clinical-usefulness-and-indications
#5
Elettra Merola, Marianne E Pavel, Francesco Panzuto, Gabriele Capurso, Noemi Cicchese, Anja Rinke, Thomas M Gress, Elsa Iannicelli, Daniela Prosperi, Patrizia Pizzichini, Vikas Prasad, Patrizia Kump, Rainer Lipp, Stefano Partelli, Massimo Falconi, Bertram Wiedenmann, Gianfranco Delle Fave
Context: Functional imaging tests (FITs) detecting somatostatin receptors expression (i.e., Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy, 68Ga-DOTA-peptide positron emission tomography/computed tomography) have a pivotal role in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), while their indication during follow-up still needs to be clarified. Objective: Investigate the role of FITs after diagnosis of metastatic enteropancreatic NETs, identifying patients who might benefit from these exams...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323804/transtibial-amputation-outcomes-study-taos-comparing-transtibial-amputation-with-and-without-a-tibiofibular-synostosis-ertl-procedure
#6
Michael J Bosse, Saam Morshed, Lisa Reider, William Ertl, James Toledano, Reeza Firoozabadi, Rachel B Seymour, Eben Carroll, Daniel O Scharfstein, Barbara Steverson, Ellen J MacKenzie
The optimal technique for a transtibial amputation in a young, active, and healthy patient is controversial. Proponents of the Ertl procedure (in which the cut ends of the tibia and fibula are joined with a bone bridge synostosis) argue that the residual limb is more stable which confers better prosthetic fit and improved function especially among high-performing individuals. At the same time, the Ertl procedure is associated with longer operative and healing time and may be associated with a higher complication rate compared with the standard Burgess procedure...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323435/quantifying-selection-pressure
#7
Evert Haasdijk, Jacqueline Heinerman
Selection is an essential component of any evolutionary systemand analysing this fundamental force in evolution can provide relevant insights into the evolutionary development of a population. The 1990s and early 2000s saw a substantial number of publications that investigated selection pressure through methods such as takeover time and Markov chain analysis. Over the last decade, however, interest in the analysis of selection in evolutionary computing has waned. The established methods for analysis of selection pressure provide little insight when selection is based in more than comparison of fitness values...
March 21, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319426/high-satisfaction-and-return-to-sports-after-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-patients-aged-55-years-and-younger
#8
Grant H Garcia, Joseph N Liu, Alec Sinatro, Hao-Hua Wu, Joshua S Dines, Russell F Warren, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. PURPOSE: To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319189/lung-function-parameters-improve-prediction-of-vo2peak-in-an-elderly-population-the-generation-100-study
#9
Erlend Hassel, Dorthe Stensvold, Thomas Halvorsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Arnulf Langhammer, Sigurd Steinshamn
Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is an indicator of cardiovascular health and a useful tool for risk stratification. Direct measurement of VO2peak is resource-demanding and may be contraindicated. There exist several non-exercise models to estimate VO2peak that utilize easily obtainable health parameters, but none of them includes lung function measures or hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to test whether addition of these parameters could improve prediction of VO2peak compared to an established model that includes age, waist circumference, self-reported physical activity and resting heart rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319179/biophysical-comparison-of-atp-driven-proton-pumping-mechanisms-suggests-a-kinetic-advantage-for-the-rotary-process-depending-on-coupling-ratio
#10
Ramu Anandakrishnan, Daniel M Zuckerman
ATP-driven proton pumps, which are critical to the operation of a cell, maintain cytosolic and organellar pH levels within a narrow functional range. These pumps employ two very different mechanisms: an elaborate rotary mechanism used by V-ATPase H+ pumps, and a simpler alternating access mechanism used by P-ATPase H+ pumps. Why are two different mechanisms used to perform the same function? Systematic analysis, without parameter fitting, of kinetic models of the rotary, alternating access and other possible mechanisms suggest that, when the ratio of protons transported per ATP hydrolyzed exceeds one, the one-at-a-time proton transport by the rotary mechanism is faster than other possible mechanisms across a wide range of driving conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319131/a-direct-method-to-solve-optimal-knots-of-b-spline-curves-an-application-for-non-uniform-b-spline-curves-fitting
#11
Van Than Dung, Tegoeh Tjahjowidodo
B-spline functions are widely used in many industrial applications such as computer graphic representations, computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing, computer numerical control, etc. Recently, there exist some demands, e.g. in reverse engineering (RE) area, to employ B-spline curves for non-trivial cases that include curves with discontinuous points, cusps or turning points from the sampled data. The most challenging task in these cases is in the identification of the number of knots and their respective locations in non-uniform space in the most efficient computational cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318651/postmating-female-control-20-years-of-cryptic-female-choice
#12
REVIEW
Renée C Firman, Clelia Gasparini, Mollie K Manier, Tommaso Pizzari
Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318565/the-counterintuitive-role-of-extra-column-volume-in-the-determination-of-column-efficiency-and-scaling-of-chromatographic-processes
#13
A Schultze-Jena, M A Boon, P J Th Bussmann, A E M Janssen, A van der Padt
In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled up to pilot and subsequently industrial scale. To describe the system, experimental data and model data need to be fitted and extra column contribution must be determined. This paper describes the influence of extra-column volume on overall separation efficiency for lab scale and its impact on the design of large scale systems...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318394/effect-of-foot-and-ankle-immobilization-on-able-bodied-gait-as-a-model-to-increase-understanding-about-bilateral-transtibial-amputee-gait
#14
Antonia Nepomuceno, Matthew J Major, Rebecca Stine, Steven Gard
BACKGROUND: The anatomical foot-ankle complex facilitates advancement of the stance limb through foot rockers and late-stance power generation during walking, but this mechanism is altered for persons with bilateral transtibial amputation when using passive prostheses. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of bilateral foot and ankle immobilization on able-bodied gait to serve as a model for understanding gait of persons with bilateral transtibial amputation and associated compensatory mechanisms...
March 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318258/molecular-dynamics-studies-on-liquid-vapor-interface-properties-and-structures-of-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-dimethylphosphate-water
#15
Tianyu Li, Zongchang Zhao, Xiaodong Zhang, Xican Sun
1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([Emim][Dmp])-water binary solution is one of the promising new working-pairs for absorption heat pump and absorption chillers, which are widely used to recover industrial waste heat. In the absorption process, the mass and heat transfer at the interface greatly depend on interface microscopes structure. Therefore, in order to understand the absorption process, it is very important to study the interface microscopes structure. The liquid-vapor interface properties, as well as the orientation of [Emim]+, [Dmp]-, water at the interface and its aqueous solution with different water mole fraction, were studied using classical all-atom force field by molecular dynamic simulations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318096/numerical-interpretation-of-molecular-surface-field-in-dielectric-modeling-of-solvation
#16
Changhao Wang, Li Xiao, Ray Luo
Continuum solvent models, particularly those based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), are widely used in the studies of biomolecular structures and functions. Existing PBE developments have been mainly focused on how to obtain more accurate and/or more efficient numerical potentials and energies. However to adopt the PBE models for molecular dynamics simulations, a difficulty is how to interpret dielectric boundary forces accurately and efficiently for robust dynamics simulations. This study documents the implementation and analysis of a range of standard fitting schemes, including both one-sided and two-sided methods with both first-order and second-order Taylor expansions, to calculate molecular surface electric fields to facilitate the numerical calculation of dielectric boundary forces...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317948/local-remodeling-of-synthetic-extracellular-matrix-microenvironments-by-co-cultured-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-enables-long-term-dynamic-physiological-function
#17
Christi D Cook, Abby S Hill, Margaret Guo, Linda Stockdale, Julia P Papps, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith
Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models...
March 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317892/ultra-wide-range-field-dependent-measurements-of-the-relaxivity-of-gd1-xeuxvo4-nanoparticle-contrast-agents-using-a-mechanical-sample-shuttling-relaxometer
#18
Ching-Yu Chou, Mouna Abdesselem, Cedric Bouzigues, Minglee Chu, Angelo Guiga, Tai-Huang Huang, Fabien Ferrage, Thierry Gacoin, Antigoni Alexandrou, Dimitris Sakellariou
The current trend for Magnetic Resonance Imaging points towards higher magnetic fields. Even though sensitivity and resolution are increased in stronger fields, T1 contrast is often reduced, and this represents a challenge for contrast agent design. Field-dependent measurements of relaxivity are thus important to characterize contrast agents. At present, the field-dependent curves of relaxivity are usually carried out in the field range of 0 T to 2 T, using fast field cycling relaxometers. Here, we employ a high-speed sample shuttling device to switch the magnetic fields experienced by the nuclei between virtually zero field, and the center of any commercial spectrometer...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317103/outside-the-envelope-rare-events-disrupt-the-relationship-between-climate-factors-and-species-interactions
#19
Katharine L Stuble, Emily Zefferman, Kristina Wolf, Kurt J Vaughn, Truman P Young
The order in which species arrive during community assembly can be an important driver of community composition and function. However, the strength of these priority effects can be variable, in part because of strong site and year effects. To understand how priority effects vary in importance with abiotic conditions, we initiated identical community assembly experiments in which we varied the timing of arrival of native and exotic grass species in each of four years across three grassland sites in northern California...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315837/a-search-for-genes-mediating-the-growth-promoting-function-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-disc
#20
Covadonga F Hevia, Ana López-Varea, Nuria Esteban, Jose F de Celis
TGFβ signalling has a complex influence in cell proliferation, acting to stop cell division in differentiating cells, but also promoting cell division in immature cells. The activity of the pathway in Drosophila is mostly required to stimulate the proliferation of neural and epithelial tissues. Most interestingly, this function is not absolutely required for cell division, but it is needed for these tissues to reach their correct size. It is not known how TGFβ signalling promotes cell division in imaginal discs, or what are the interactions between TGFβ activity and other signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
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