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Immune-mediated neuritis

G Orman, K Y Wang, Y Pekcevik, C B Thompson, M Mealy, M Levy, I Izbudak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J mice is a model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Clinical EAE scores describing motor function deficits are basic readouts of the immune-mediated inflammation of the spinal cord. However, scores and body weight do not allow for an in vivo assessment of brain inflammation and optic neuritis. The latter is an early and frequent manifestation in about 2/3 of MS patients. Here, we show methods for bioluminescence and near-infrared live imaging to assess EAE evoked optic neuritis, brain inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in living mice using an in vivo imaging system...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lei Zhou, Yongheng Huang, Haiqing Li, Jie Fan, Jingzi Zhangbao, Hai Yu, Yuxin Li, Jiahong Lu, Chongbo Zhao, Chuanzhen Lu, Min Wang, Chao Quan
We aim to evaluate the clinical relevance of MOG-ab in a cohort of Chinese Han adults with CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs). MOG-ab and AQP4-ab were examined through a fixed cell based indirect immune-fluorescence assay in 86 patients with CNS-IDDs. MOG-ab was positive in 12 patients, while AQP4-ab was positive in 31 patients; none double positives. Optic neuritis (ON) was the most frequent symptom at onset (75.0%) or during the whole disease course (83.3%) of MOG-ab associated IDDs (MOG-IDDs); 79...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Javier Pablo Hryb, Sergio Morales, Alejandra Gomez, Edson Chiganer, José Luis Di Pace, Carmen Lessa, Mónica Perassolo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is a frequent manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, it can also occur in other immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Positive aquoporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-ab) predict higher relapse rate after LETM. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and brain/spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of LETM immune-mediated at onset and to compare AQP4-ab negative (N-LETM) with AQP4-ab positive (P-LETM) patients...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ryo Ogawa, Ichiro Nakashima, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Tetsuya Akaishi, Yoshiki Takai, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Hiroshi Kuroda, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of adult patients with benign, unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, after we encountered an index case of MOG antibody-positive unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure, we tested for MOG antibody using our in-house, cell-based assay in a cohort of 24 consecutive adult patients with steroid-responsive encephalitis of unknown etiology seen at Tohoku University Hospital (2008-2014)...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Rajesh Verma, Kavita Bharti
Members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family are pathogen recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs mediate the modulation of innate immune responses and influence the development of adaptive immunity. TLR3 is the first identified antiviral TLR that recognizes dsRNA. TLR3 plays a central role in the activation of host immune responses to viral infections and shows detrimental or protective effects against various viral infections. Several viruses are neurotropic and can infect the central nervous system, leading to neuropathologies such as encephalitis, encephalopathy, meningitis, and neuritis...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp
The launch of the Th1/Th2 concept represented a decisive breakthrough concerning our understanding of how very diverse immune reactions can be regulated by functionally different T helper subpopulations via the secretion of different panels of cytokines. In this context, IL-9 was identified to be produced by T helper cell lines in addition to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Detailed analyses revealed that IL-9 production of mouse CD4(+) T helper cells was dependent on a combination of IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β. Roughly a decade later, it was found that TGF-β can also induce the development of CD4(+) Treg cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
Alexander Grimm, Tim W Rattay, Natalie Winter, Hubertus Axer
Ultrasound of the nerves is an additive diagnostic tool to evaluate polyneuropathy. Recently, the need for standardized scoring systems has widely been discussed; different scores are described so far. Therefore, 327 patients with polyneuropathy were analyzed by ultrasound in our laboratory. Consequently, several ultrasound scoring tools were applied, i.e., the nerve pattern classification according to Padua et al. in all patients with CIDP and variants, the Bochum ultrasound score (BUS) and the neuritis ultrasound protocol in immune-mediated neuritis, the ultrasound pattern sum score, the homogeneity score, and the nerve enlargement distribution score in all neuropathies if possible...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Kelly A Langert, Bruktawit Goshu, Evan B Stubbs
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) is an aggressive antibody- and T-cell-mediated variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), a prominent and debilitating autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Despite advancements in clinical management, treatment of patients with AIDP/GBS and its chronic variant CIDP remains palliative and relies on the use of non-specific immunemodulating therapies. Our laboratory has previously reported that therapeutic administration of statins safely attenuates the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a well-characterized animal model of AIDP/GBS, by restricting the migration of autoreactive leukocytes across peripheral nerve microvascular endoneurial endothelial cells that form the blood-nerve barrier...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ying Wang, Jingdian Zhang, Peijuan Luo, Jie Zhu, Jiachun Feng, Hong-Liang Zhang
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated disorder in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) serves as an animal model of GBS. TNF-α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBS and is a potential therapeutic target of GBS. Areas covered: 'TNF-α' and 'Guillain-Barré syndrome' were the keywords used to search for related publications on Pubmed. By binding to different TNF receptors, TNF-α bears distinct immune properties. TNF-α gene polymorphisms are associated with the features of GBS...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Melissa A Wilson, Kelly Guld, Steven Galetta, Ryan D Walsh, Julia Kharlip, Madhura Tamhankar, Suzanne McGettigan, Lynn M Schuchter, Leslie A Fecher
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab, a humanized CLTA-4 antibody is a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced melanoma. While ipilimumab provides an overall survival benefit to patients, it can be associated with immune related adverse events (IrAEs). CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a patient treated with ipilimumab who experienced known IrAEs, including hypophysitis, as well as a profound vision loss due to optic neuritis. There are rare reports of optic neuritis occurring as an adverse event associated with ipilimumab treatment...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Mariana De Virgiliis, Javier Pablo Hryb, Felisa Leguizamon, Julia Celso, José Luis Di Pace, Mónica Perassolo
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-ab) have diagnostic and prognostic value. However, little is known to date about their utility in the first event of optic neuritis (ON). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of systematic AQP4-ab determination in a retrospective cohort of patients with a first onset of ON. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients (n = 42) were tested for AQP4-ab in the following context: typical ON (TON) and atypical ON (AON)...
2016: European Neurology
Bangwei Luo, Fuyu Han, Kai Xu, Jinsong Wang, Zongwei Liu, Zigang Shen, Jia Li, Yu Liu, Man Jiang, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Zhiren Zhang
UNLABELLED: Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is the animal model of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (AIDP), an auto-immune inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the world's leading cause of acute autoimmune neuromuscular paralysis. EAN and AIDP are characterized by self-limitation with spontaneous recovery; however, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution in EAN and AIDP remain elusive. A pathway of endogenous mediators, especially resolvins and clearance of apoptotic cells, may be involved...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Teresa M Crout, Laura P Parks, Vikas Majithia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), previously known as Devic's syndrome, are a group of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by severe, immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage, predominantly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord typically associated with a disease-specific serum NMO-IgG antibody that selectively binds aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The classic and best-defined features of NMOSD include acute attacks of bilateral or rapidly sequential optic neuritis (leading to visual loss) or transverse myelitis (often causing limb weakness and bladder dysfunction) or both with a typically relapsing course...
August 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Hamid Salimi, Matthew D Cain, Robyn S Klein
Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that exhibit worldwide distribution, contributing to systemic and neurologic infections in a variety of geographical locations. Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebral hosts during blood feedings by mosquitoes, ticks, biting flies, mites, and nits. While the majority of arboviral infections do not lead to neuroinvasive forms of disease, they are among the most severe infectious risks to the health of the human central nervous system. The neurologic diseases caused by arboviruses include meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, neuritis, and myositis in which virus- and immune-mediated injury may lead to severe, persisting neurologic deficits or death...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
A Neil Crowson, Jad Saab, Cynthia M Magro
BACKGROUND: The cutaneous manifestations of herpes infection are primarily in the context of active infection and of the post-herpetic zosteriform eruption. The former manifests cytopathic alterations diagnostic of herpes. The latter includes lichen planus-like and granuloma annulare-like eruptions and lymphocytoma cutis. METHODS: We encountered skin biopsies from 28 patients whose acute or chronic herpetic or post-herpetic zosteriform lesions manifested folliculocentricity...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ranran Han, Jinting Xiao, Hui Zhai, Junwei Hao
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, post-infectious, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumaric acid ester, exhibits various biological activities, including multiple immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the potential mechanism underlying the effect of DMF in GBS animal model experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is unclear. METHODS: Using EAN, an established GBS model, we investigated the effect of DMF by assessing clinical score, histological staining and electrophysiological studies...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ranran Han, Juan Gao, Hui Zhai, Jinting Xiao, Ya'nan Ding, Junwei Hao
Guillain-Barre' syndrome (GBS) is an acute, postinfectious, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. As a classical animal model of GBS, experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) has become well-accepted. Additionally, the potent immune modulation exerted by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been used to treat cancers and showed beneficial effects. Here we demonstrate that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) protected rats from the symptoms of EAN, as shown by decreased paralysis, diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, reductions in demyelination of peripheral nerves and improved nerve conduction...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
Jie Lin, Xiang Li, Junhui Xia
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been identified as a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which has been recognized as a B cell-mediated humoral immune disease. However, cases have been reported indicating that some of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have been resistant to B cell-related treatments. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that T cell-mediated immunity may take part in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, especially in the Th17 phenotype. In our PUBMED search, we used the following keywords: Th17 cell, Th17 cell-related cytokines, T cells, B cells, B cell-related productions, NMO, NMOSD, recurrent/bilateral optic neuritis, recurrent transverse myelitis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis...
December 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Mu Yang, Corentin Peyret, Xiang Qun Shi, Nicolas Siron, Jeong Ho Jang, Sonia Wu, Sylvie Fournier, Ji Zhang
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4(+) T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN)...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
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