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Jin-Hua He, Bao-Xia Li, Ze-Ping Han, Mao-Xian Zou, Li Wang, Yu-Bing Lv, Jia-Bin Zhou, Ming-Rong Cao, Yu-Guang Li, Jing-Zhi Zhang
Rapidly accumulated evidence has shown that long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) disregulation is involved in human tumorigenesis in many cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). LncRNAs can regulate essential pathways that contribute to tumor initiation and progression with tissue specificity, which suggests that lncRNAs could be valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), also known as differential display code 3 (DD3), is one such lncRNA that maps to chromosome 9q21-22. PCA3 expression is highly specific to PCa...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Shingo Hatakeyama, Tohru Yoneyama, Yuki Tobisawa, Chikara Ohyama
The application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer (PC) screening, diagnosis, and prognosis has improved the clinical management of PC patients. However, the PSA assay has been faced with criticism due to its potential association with over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment of patients with indolent disease. The United States Preventive Services Task Force incited much debate over PSA-based screening in 2012 by recommending against this approach. However, the PSA assay remains the first-line tool for the early detection of PC...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Matthew J Roberts, Renee S Richards, Clement W K Chow, Suhail A R Doi, Horst Joachim Schirra, Marion Buck, Hemamali Samaratunga, Joanna Perry-Keene, Diane Payton, John Yaxley, Martin F Lavin, Robert A Gardiner
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis requires improvement with the aid of more accurate biomarkers. Postejaculate urethral washings (PEUW) could be a physiological equivalent to urine obtained following rectal prostatic massage, the current basis for the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test. The aim of this study was to investigate if PEUW contained prostate-based material, evidenced by the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of PEUW-based biomarkers...
September 2016: Prostate International
Vlastimil Kulda, Ondrej Topolcan, Radek Kucera, Michaela Kripnerova, Kristyna Srbecka, Milan Hora, Ondrej Hes, Jiri Klecka, Vaclav Babuska, Milena Rousarova, Veronika Benson, Martin Pesta
BACKGROUND/AIM: Current research of prostate cancer (PCa) offers a promising way of identifying patients with adverse prognosis who do benefit from radical treatment that can affect quality of life as resections are associated with numerous side-effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene status, tumor tissue prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), miR-23b, miR-26a and miR-221 expression levels in combination with preoperative serum PSA level to the risk of PCa recurrence after radical prostatectomy...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Michael Fenstermaker, Neil Mendhiratta, Marc A Bjurlin, Xiaosong Meng, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Richard Huang, Fang-Ming Deng, Ming Zhou, William C Huang, Herbert Lepor, Samir S Taneja
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a combination of prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suspicion score (mSS) could further optimize detection of prostate cancer on MRI fusion-targeted biopsy (MRF-TB) among men with no history of biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included in this study 187 men presenting to our institution between June 2012 and August 2014 who underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and PCA3 before MRF-TB. Biopsy results, stratified by biopsy indication and PCA3 score, were recorded...
August 22, 2016: Urology
Kristina Wittig, Johnathan Yamzon, David D Smith, Daniel R Jeske, Steven S Smith
BACKGROUND: Gleason Score (GS) upgrading is generally considered a trigger for exit to definitive treatment during active surveillance (AS). Predicting the potential for GS upgrading would be of value in assessing AS eligibility. METHODS: We assessed the performance of biomarkers in pre-surgical specimens of expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) in this setting. RESULTS: Although EPS volume, total recovered RNA, and RNA expression biomarkers (TMPRSS2: ERG, PCA3, PSA) have been successful in both biopsy outcome prediction, and in the prediction of upstaging in active surveillance eligible patients, they were unable to predict upgrading in patients eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines...
August 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yngve Nygård, Svein A Haukaas, Ole J Halvorsen, Karsten Gravdal, Jannicke Frugård, Lars A Akslen, Christian Beisland
BACKGROUND: The standard of care in patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) is systematic prostate biopsies. This approach leads to unnecessary biopsies in patients without PCa and also to the detection of clinical insignificant PCa. Better tools are wanted. We have evaluated the performance of real-time elastography (RTE) combined with prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in an initial biopsy setting with the goal of better identifying patients in need of prostate biopsies. METHODS: 127 patients were included in this study; three were excluded because of not measureable PCA3 score leading to 124 evaluable patients...
2016: BMC Urology
Matthew J Roberts, John W Yaxley, Geoffrey D Coughlin, Troy R J Gianduzzo, Rachel C Esler, Nigel T Dunglison, Suzanne K Chambers, Robyn J Medcraft, Clement W K Chow, Horst Joachim Schirra, Renee S Richards, Nicholas Kienzle, Macy Lu, Ian Brereton, Hema Samaratunga, Joanna Perry-Keene, Diane Payton, Chikara Oyama, Suhail A Doi, Martin F Lavin, Robert A Gardiner
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin and metformin are known energy restricting mimetic agents that act synergistically to produce molecular and metabolic changes in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). This trial seeks to determine whether these drugs favourably alter selected parameters in men with clinically-localized, aggressive PCa. METHODS/DESIGN: This prospective phase II randomized, controlled window trial is recruiting men with clinically significant PCa, confirmed by biopsy following multiparametric MRI and intending to undergo radical prostatectomy...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Roger Kirby
The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test clearly provides the opportunity for clinically relevant prostate cancer to be detected at a stage when treatment options are greater and outcomes may be improved. However, in some patients the PSA test may lead to investigations which can identify clinically insignificant cancers which would not have become evident in a man's lifetime. In addition, a raised PSA may often indicate benign prostatic enlargement, and this may provide an opportunity for treatment of this condition before complications develop...
April 2016: Practitioner
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Sadhna Verma, Peter Choyke, Steven C Eberhardt, Scott E Eggener, Krishnanath Gaitonde, Masoom A Haider, Daniel J Margolis, Leonard S Marks, Peter Pinto, Geoffrey A Sonn, Samir S Taneja
PURPOSE: Following an initial negative biopsy, there is an ongoing need for strategies to improve patient selection for repeat biopsy as well as the diagnostic yield from repeat biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a collaborative Initiative of the American Urological Association and the Society of Abdominal Radiology's Prostate Cancer Disease-Focused Panel, an expert panel of urologists and radiologists conducted a literature review and formed consensus statements regarding the role of prostate MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy in patients with a negative biopsy, which are summarized in this review...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Urology
Sezgin Okcelik, Hasan Soydan, Ferhat Ates, Ufuk Berber, Hasan Saygin, Guner Sonmez, Kenan Karademir
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of multiparametric MRI and PCA3 assay, predecision of initial biopsy in PSA level between 3-10 ng/mL patients with normal digital rectal examination(DRE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PSA level 3-10 ng/mL, patients, with normal DRE results and no previous prostate biopsy history, were included in this study. Each patient underwent multiparametric MRI one week before biopsy. Urine sample taking for PCA3 examination preceded the biopsy...
May 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Stacy Loeb, Hans Lilja, Andrew Vickers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review blood and urine tests that are currently available and under investigation for a role in prostate cancer screening and detection. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone, its combination with percentage free-to-total PSA contributes greater specificity for prostate cancer, and is a component of two newer blood tests called the 4kScore and Prostate Health Index. All three tests improve the prediction of high-grade disease and are commercially available options to aid in initial or repeat prostate biopsy decisions...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Robert J Doonan, Jessica Gorgui, Jean P Veinot, Chi Lai, Efthyvoulos Kyriacou, Marc M Corriveau, Oren K Steinmetz, Stella S Daskalopoulou
BACKGROUND: Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. METHODS: Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging...
September 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Daniel J Greene, Ahmed Elshafei, Yaw A Nyame, Onder Kara, Ercan Malkoc, Tianming Gao, J Stephen Jones
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously developed PCA3-based nomogram for the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade (intermediate and/or high-grade) prostate cancer (HGPCa) at the time of initial prostate biopsy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 336 men from a large urban academic medical center. All men had serum PSA <20 ng/ml and underwent initial transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with at least 10 cores sampling for suspicious exam and/or elevated PSA...
August 2016: Prostate
Yong Cui, Wenzhou Cao, Quan Li, Hua Shen, Chao Liu, Junpeng Deng, Jiangfeng Xu, Qiang Shao
Previous studies indicate that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is highly expressed in prostatic tumors. However, its clinical value has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of the urine PCA3 test in the diagnosis of prostate cancer by pooling the published data. Clinical trials utilizing the urine PCA3 test for diagnosing prostate cancer were retrieved from PubMed and Embase. A total of 46 clinical trials including 12,295 subjects were included in this meta-analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Piruz Motamedinia, Anna N Scott, Kendall L Bate, Neda Sadeghi, Guillermo Salazar, Edan Shapiro, Jennifer Ahn, Michael Lipsky, James Lin, Greg W Hruby, Ketan K Badani, Daniel P Petrylak, Mitchell C Benson, Michael J Donovan, Wayne D Comper, James M McKiernan, Leileata M Russo
PURPOSE: The analysis of exosome/microvesicle (extracellular vesicles (EVs)) and the RNA packaged within them (exoRNA) has the potential to provide a non-invasive platform to detect and monitor disease related gene expression potentially in lieu of more invasive procedures such as biopsy. However, few studies have tested the diagnostic potential of EV analysis in humans. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The ability of EV analysis to accurately reflect prostate tissue mRNA expression was examined by comparing urinary EV TMPRSS2:ERG exoRNA from pre-radical prostatectomy (RP) patients versus corresponding RP tissue in 21 patients...
2016: PloS One
Allison H Feibus, Oliver Sartor, Krishnarao Moparty, Kevin Chagin, Michael W Kattan, Elisa Ledet, Justin Levy, Benjamin Lee, Raju Thomas, Jonathan L Silberstein
PURPOSE: Prostate specific antigen has decreased performance characteristics for the detection of prostate cancer in African-American men. We evaluated urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG in a racially diverse group of men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After institutional review board approval, post-examination urine was prospectively collected before prostate biopsy. PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG RNA copies were quantified using transcription mediated amplification assays (Hologic, San Diego, California)...
October 2016: Journal of Urology
Jörg Hänze, Peter Jakubowski, Hendrik Heers, Axel Hegele, Nina Timmesfeld, Rainer Hofmann, Peter J Olbert
CONTEXT: Blood platelets may offer as RNA biomarker source for cancer as recently described for an oncogenic transcript in glioma patients and for PCA3 in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. OBJECTIVE: Here, we elaborated on this aspect for PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCA3 and other PCa-associated RNA markers were measured in platelets of PCa patients (cases) and healthy subjects (controls) in comparison to PCa cell lines by relative quantitative RT-PCR...
November 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Stefano De Luca, Roberto Passera, Giovanni Cattaneo, Matteo Manfredi, Fabrizio Mele, Cristian Fiori, Enrico Bollito, Stefano Cirillo, Francesco Porpiglia
to determine the association among PCA3 score, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Gleason Score (GS), in a cohort of patients with elevated PSA, undergoing MRI/US fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy (TBx) after a previous negative randomized "standard" biopsy (SBx) PATIENTS AND METHODS: 282 patients, undergone to TBx after previous negative SBx and PCA3 urine assay, were enrolled. The associations PCA3 score/PI-RADS and PCA3 score/GS were investigated by K-means clustering, ROC analysis and binary logistic regression model RESULTS: PCA3 score difference for negative versus positive TBx cohorts was highly statistically significant...
April 26, 2016: BJU International
Leander Van Neste, Rianne J Hendriks, Siebren Dijkstra, Geert Trooskens, Erik B Cornel, Sander A Jannink, Hans de Jong, Daphne Hessels, Frank P Smit, Willem J G Melchers, Gisèle H J M Leyten, Theo M de Reijke, Henk Vergunst, Paul Kil, Ben C Knipscheer, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Peter F A Mulders, Inge M van Oort, Wim Van Criekinge, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: To reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment, a test is urgently needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). OBJECTIVE: To develop a multimodal model, incorporating previously identified messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers and traditional risk factors that could be used to identify patients with high-grade PCa (Gleason score ≥7) on prostate biopsy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In two prospective multicenter studies, urine was collected for mRNA profiling after digital rectal examination (DRE) and prior to prostate biopsy...
April 20, 2016: European Urology
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