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Extracellular vesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108469/blood-rna-biomarkers-in-prodromal-park4-and-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-show-role-of-complexin-1-loss-for-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Suna Lahut, Suzana Gispert, Özgür Ömür, Candan Depboylu, Kay Seidel, Jorge Antolio Domínguez-Bautista, Nadine Brehm, Hülya Tireli, Karl Hackmann, Caroline Pirkevi, Barbara Leube, Vincent Ries, Kerstin Reim, Nils Brose, Wilfred F den Dunnen, Madrid Johnson, Zsuzsanna Wolf, Marc Schindewolf, Wiebke Schrempf, Kathrin Reetz, Peter Young, David Vadasz, Achilleas S Frangakis, Evelin Schröck, Helmuth Steinmetz, Marina Jendrach, Udo Rüb, Ayşe Nazlı Başak, Wolfgang Oertel, Georg Auburger
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative process at old age. Accumulation and aggregation of the lipid-binding SNARE complex component alpha-synuclein (SNCA) underlies this vulnerability and defines stages of disease progression. Determinants of SNCA levels and mechanisms of SNCA neurotoxicity are intensely investigated. In view of physiological SNCA roles in blood to modulate vesicle release, we studied blood samples from a new large pedigree with SNCA gene duplication (PARK4 mutation), to identify effects of SNCA gain-of-function as potential disease biomarkers...
January 20, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105201/comparison-of-microrna-expression-profiles-in-k562-cells-derived-microvesicles-and-parental-cells-and-analysis-of-their-roles-in-leukemia
#2
Xiaomei Chen, Wei Xiong, Huiyu Li
Microvesicles (MVs) are 30-1,000-nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types and perform diverse cellular functions, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of proteins, messenger RNA and microRNA (also known as miR). MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in leukemia, and the overall microRNA expression profile may differentiate normal blood cells vs. leukemia cells. MVs containing microRNAs may enable intercellular cross-talk in vivo...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104825/effect-of-bovine-oviductal-extracellular-vesicles-on-embryo-development-and-quality-in-vitro
#3
Ricaurte Lopera-Vasquez, Meriem Hamdi, Veronica Maillo, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Miguel Angel Ramirez, Maria Yañez-Mo, Dimitrios Rizos
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracellular vesicles (EV) from oviductal fluid (OF), either from the ampulla or isthmus, on the development and quality of in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF+3mg/ml BSA) without calf serum (C- group), in the presence of 3x105 EV/ml from ampullary or isthmic OF at either 1x104xg (10k) and 1x105xg (100k), and compared with SOF+5% FCS (C+ group). OF-EV size and concentration were assessed by electron microscopy and nanotracking analysis system...
January 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104520/extracellular-vesicle-docking-at-the-cellular-port-extracellular-vesicle-binding-and-uptake
#4
REVIEW
Kinsley C French, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), lipid bilayer-enclosed structures that contain a variety of biological molecules shed by cells, are increasingly becoming appreciated as a major form of cell-to-cell communication. Indeed, EVs have been shown to play important roles in several physiological processes, as well as diseases such as cancer. EVs dock on to the surfaces of recipient cells where they transmit signals from the cell surface and/or transfer their contents into cells to elicit functional responses. EV docking and uptake by cells represent critical, but poorly understood processes...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102751/extracellular-vesicles-from-activated-platelets-a-semiquantitative-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-immuno-gold-labeling-study
#5
Alain R Brisson, Sisareuth Tan, Romain Linares, Céline Gounou, Nicolas Arraud
Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102737/platelet-microvesicles-in-health-and-disease
#6
Imene Melki, Nicolas Tessandier, Anne Zufferey, Eric Boilard
Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102735/bulk-immunoassays-for-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles
#7
Frank A W Coumans, Elmar L Gool, Rienk Nieuwland
There is increasing clinical interest in extracellular vesicles (EV) for diagnostic and treatment purposes. This review provides an overview of bulk immunoassays to analyse EV. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are still the two predominant bulk immunoassays. Recently, new assays have become available that can detect exposure to EV concentrations that are up to 10,000-fold lower. This is advantageous for applications that detect rare EV. Other important parameters are the detectable concentration range, the required sample volume, whether simultaneous presence of different antigens on a single EV can be detected, size selectivity of each assay and practical considerations...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102054/extracellular-vesicles-a-key-mediator-to-link-environmental-microbiota-to-airway-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Youngwoo Choi, Hanki Park, Hae Sim Park, Yoon Keun Kim
Asthma is considered the hallmark of chronic airway inflammation, in which several inflammatory cells of the innate and adaptive immune system act together. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors; however, precise mechanisms for airway inflammation remain unclear. The human microbiota provides an increasingly favored explanation for inflammatory diseases; an altered microbiota composition has been shown to regulate immune responses. However, given the complexity of the microbiota, additional research is needed to elucidate its role in the development of disease...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101591/functions-of-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-immunosuppression
#9
REVIEW
Liliana Czernek, Markus Düchler
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response...
January 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096390/modification-of-host-dendritic-cells-by-microchimerism-derived-extracellular-vesicles-generates-split-tolerance
#10
William Bracamonte-Baran, Jonathan Florentin, Ying Zhou, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, W John Haynes, Weixiong Zhong, Todd V Brennan, Partha Dutta, Frans H J Claas, Jon J van Rood, William J Burlingham
Maternal microchimerism (MMc) has been associated with development of allospecific transplant tolerance, antitumor immunity, and cross-generational reproductive fitness, but its mode of action is unknown. We found in a murine model that MMc caused exposure to the noninherited maternal antigens in all offspring, but in some, MMc magnitude was enough to cause membrane alloantigen acquisition (mAAQ; "cross-dressing") of host dendritic cells (DCs). Extracellular vesicle (EV)-enriched serum fractions from mAAQ(+), but not from non-mAAQ, mice reproduced the DC cross-dressing phenomenon in vitro...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095652/exosomal-trafficking-in-xenopus-development
#11
REVIEW
Michael Danilchik, Tess Tumarkin
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093704/extracellular-vesicles-in-multiple-sclerosis-as-possible-biomarkers-dream-or-reality
#12
Maria Magdalena Barreca, Emanuele Aliotta, Fabiana Geraci
Extracellular vesicles are recently described as specialized structures for intercellular communication. Their role in the central nervous system was diffusely studied in both physiological and pathological condition. In particular, an increased extracellular vesicle number was detected in several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. This chapter summarizes the available information on the involvement of the extracellular vesicles in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis and their possible use as biomarker of therapy efficacy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093237/transgenerational-epigenetics-integrating-soma-to-germline-communication-with-gametic-inheritance
#13
REVIEW
Abhay Sharma
Evidence supporting germline mediated epigenetic inheritance of environmentally induced traits has increasingly emerged over the past several years. Although the mechanisms underlying this inheritance remain unclear, recent findings suggest that parental gamete-borne epigenetic factors, particularly RNAs, affect post-fertilization and developmental gene regulation, ultimately leading to phenotypic appearance in the offspring. Complex processes involving gene expression and epigenetic regulation are considered to perpetuate across generations...
January 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090647/the-multifaceted-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-metastasis-priming-the-soil-for-seeding
#14
REVIEW
Brunna Dos Anjos Pultz, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz, Sara Socorro Faria, Leandro Peixoto Ferreira de Souza, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Vivian Alonso Goulart, Wagner Fontes, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, play a key role in inter and intracellular communication, promoting the proliferation and invasion of recipient cells to support tumor growth and metastasis. Metastasis comprises multiple steps that first include the detachment of tumor cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), allowing the physical dissemination to distant organs. Thereafter, cancer-derived exosomes are still critical components for preparing the tumor microenvironment by (i) enabling tumor cells to escape from the immunological surveillance and (ii) arranging the pre-metastatic site for the engraftment of detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090596/extracellular-vesicle-associated-long-non-coding-rnas-functionally-enhance-cell-viability
#15
Chris Hewson, David Capraro, Jon Burdach, Noel Whitaker, Kevin V Morris
Cells communicate with one another to create microenvironments and share resources. One avenue by which cells communicate is through the action of exosomes. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are released by one cell and taken up by neighbouring cells. But how exosomes instigate communication between cells has remained largely unknown. We present evidence here that particular long non-coding RNA molecules are preferentially packaged into exosomes. We also find that a specific class of these exosome associated non-coding RNAs functionally modulate cell viability by direct interactions with L-lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), high-mobility group protein 17 (HMG-17), and CSF2RB, proteins involved in metabolism, nucleosomal architecture and cell signalling respectively...
October 2016: Noncoding RNA Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088752/microfluidic-approaches-for-isolation-detection-and-characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-current-status-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Shima Gholizadeh, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Maryam Zarghooni, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Saeid Ghavami, Hadi Shafiee, Mohsen Akbari
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles present in body fluids that play an essential role in various cellular processes, such as intercellular communication, inflammation, cellular homeostasis, survival, transport, and regeneration. Their isolation and analysis from body fluids have a great clinical potential to provide information on a variety of disease states such as cancer, cardiovascular complications and inflammatory disorders. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest in this field, there are still no standardized procedures available for the purification, detection, and characterization of EVs...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088446/identification-and-characterization-of-cell-bound-membrane-vesicles
#17
Qisheng Tang, Xiaojun Zhang, Wendiao Zhang, Siyuan Zhao, Yong Chen
In contrast to the released/circulating membrane vesicles (extracellular vesicles), cell-bound membrane vesicles are poorly identified and characterized. In this study, cell-bound membrane vesicles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatoma HepG-2 cells were investigated. We identified that cell-bound membrane vesicles are not co-localized with the major markers for extracellular vesicles (e.g. phosphatidylserine, CD63, CD107α, CD31, and DNA fragments for the three well-known types of extracellular vesicles) and for intracellular organelles with similar sizes (e...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087406/erythrocyte-membrane-coated-nanogel-for-combinatorial-antivirulence-and-responsive-antimicrobial-delivery-against-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#18
Yue Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Wangsong Chen, Pavimol Angsantikul, Kevin A Spiekermann, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang
We reported an erythrocyte membrane-coated nanogel (RBC-nanogel) system with combinatorial antivirulence and responsive antibiotic delivery for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. RBC membrane was coated onto the nanogel via a membrane vesicle templated in situ gelation process, whereas the redox-responsiveness was achieved by using a disulfide bond-based crosslinker. We demonstrated that the RBC-nanogels effectively neutralized MRSA-associated toxins in extracellular environment and the toxin neutralization in turn promoted bacterial uptake by macrophages...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087332/exo-mfa-a-13c-metabolic-flux-analysis-to-dissect-tumor-microenvironment-secreted-exosome-contributions-towards-cancer-cell-metabolism
#19
Abhinav Achreja, Hongyun Zhao, Lifeng Yang, Tae Hyun Yun, Juan Marini, Deepak Nagrath
Dissecting the pleiotropic roles of tumor micro-environment (TME) on cancer progression has been brought to the foreground of research on cancer pathology. Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, to mediate intercellular communication between TME components and have emerged as candidates for anti-cancer therapy. We previously reported that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) derived exosomes (CDEs) contain metabolites in their cargo that are utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promote cancer growth...
January 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#20
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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