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Extracellular vesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549840/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-mediated-pathophysiological-effect-of-hiv-1-tat-protein
#1
REVIEW
Bruno Beaumelle, Petra Tóth, Olfat A Malak, Christophe Chopard, Gildas Loussouarn, Nicolas Vitale
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells actively release the transcriptional activator (Tat) viral protein that is required for efficient HIV gene transcription. Extracellular Tat is able to enter uninfected cells. We recently reported that internalized Tat escapes endosomes to reach the cytosol and is then recruited to the plasma membrane by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). As a consequence, Tat strongly impairs different critical cellular functions in several cell types. Here we will review recent evidences showing that Tat, by affecting the interaction of key cellular effectors with PtdIns(4,5)P2, blocks exocytosis from neuroendocrine cells, perturbs the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis cycle, prevents efficient phagocytosis by macrophages, and alters potassium channel activity in cardiac cells...
May 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548928/crosstalk-between-tongue-carcinoma-cells-extracellular-vesicles-and-immune-cells-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#2
Ahmed Al-Samadi, Shady Adnan Awad, Katja Tuomainen, Yue Zhao, Abdelhakim Salem, Mataleena Parikka, Tuula Salo
The crosstalk between immune cells, cancer cells, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cancer cells remains poorly understood. We created three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models using human leiomyoma discs and Myogel to study the effects of immune cells on highly (HSC-3) and less (SCC-25) invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cell lines. Additionally, we studied the effects of EVs isolated from these cell lines on the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells isolated from three healthy donors...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546080/exosomes-in-hiv-infection-a-review-and-critical-look
#3
REVIEW
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Tiago Degani Veit, José Artur Bogo Chies
Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular medium by different cell types. These vesicles carry a variety of protein and RNA cargos, and have a central role in cellular signaling and regulation. A PubMed search using the term "exosomes" finds 67 articles published in 2006. Ten years later, the same search returns approximately 1200 results for 2016 alone. The growing interest in exosomes within the scientific community reflects the different roles exerted by extracellular vesicles in biological systems and diseases...
May 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544479/drinking-problems-mechanisms-of-macropinosome-formation-and-maturation
#4
REVIEW
Catherine M Buckley, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is a mechanism for the non-specific bulk uptake and internalisation of extracellular fluid. This plays specific and distinct roles in diverse cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neurons, by allowing cells to sample their environment, extract extracellular nutrients and regulate plasma membrane turnover. Macropinocytosis has recently been implicated in several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. Uptake by macropinocytosis is also exploited by several intracellular pathogens to gain entry into host cells...
May 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542562/identification-and-characteristics-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-bovine-blastocysts-produced-in-vitro
#5
Edwin A Mellisho, Alejandra E Velásquez, María J Nuñez, Joel G Cabezas, Juan A Cueto, Claudio Fader, Fidel O Castro, Lleretny Rodríguez-Álvarez
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified within different body fluids and cell culture media. However, there is very little information on the secretion of these vesicles during early embryonic development. The aims of this work were first to demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by pre-implantation bovine embryos and second to identify and characterize the population of EVs secreted by bovine blastocysts during the period from day seven to nine of embryo culture and its correlation with further embryo development up to day 11...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542410/gla-rich-protein-function-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-monocytes-macrophages-implications-for-calcification-related-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#6
Carla S B Viegas, Rúben M Costa, Lúcia Santos, Paula A Videira, Zélia Silva, Nuna Araújo, Anjos L Macedo, António P Matos, Cees Vermeer, Dina C Simes
Calcification-related chronic inflammatory diseases are multifactorial pathological processes, involving a complex interplay between inflammation and calcification events in a positive feed-back loop driving disease progression. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a vitamin K dependent protein (VKDP) shown to function as a calcification inhibitor in cardiovascular and articular tissues, and proposed as an anti-inflammatory agent in chondrocytes and synoviocytes, acting as a new crosstalk factor between these two interconnected events in osteoarthritis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539924/therapeutic-development-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-or-their-extracellular-vesicles-to-inhibit-autoimmune-mediated-inflammatory-processes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#7
REVIEW
Juhi Sharma, Jeffrey M Hampton, Giancarlo R Valiente, Takuma Wada, Holly Steigelman, Matthew C Young, Rachel R Spurbeck, Alisa D Blazek, Steffi Bösh, Wael N Jarjour, Nicholas A Young
Since being discovered over half a century ago, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively to characterize their cellular and physiological influences. MSCs have been shown to possess immunosuppressive capacity through inhibiting lymphocyte activation/proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion while simultaneously demonstrating limited allogenic reactivity, which subsequently led to the evaluation of therapeutic feasibility to treat inflammatory diseases. Although regulatory constraints have restricted MSC development pharmacologically, limited clinical studies have shown encouraging results using MSC infusions to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); but, more trials will have to be performed to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy of MSCs to treat SLE...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539469/multiparametric-plasma-ev-profiling-facilitates-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-malignancy
#8
Katherine S Yang, Hyungsoon Im, Seonki Hong, Ilaria Pergolini, Andres Fernandez Del Castillo, Rui Wang, Susan Clardy, Chen-Han Huang, Craig Pille, Soldano Ferrone, Robert Yang, Cesar M Castro, Hakho Lee, Carlos Fernandez Del Castillo, Ralph Weissleder
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually detected late in the disease process. Clinical workup through imaging and tissue biopsies is often complex and expensive due to a paucity of reliable biomarkers. We used an advanced multiplexed plasmonic assay to analyze circulating tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) in more than 100 clinical populations. Using EV-based protein marker profiling, we identified a signature of five markers (PDAC(EV) signature) for PDAC detection. In our prospective cohort, the accuracy for the PDAC(EV) signature was 84% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69 to 93%] but only 63 to 72% for single-marker screening...
May 24, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539041/outer-membrane-vesicles-derived-from-salmonella-enteritidis-protect-against-the-virulent-wild-type-strain-infection-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Qiong Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Xiangmin Zhang, Qing Liu
Food-borne contamination and salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are a significant threat to human health and poultry enterprises. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are naturally secreted by gram-negative bacteria, could be a good vaccine option because they have many biologically active substances, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and phospholipids, as well as periplasmic components. In the present study, we purified OMVs derived from S. Enteritidis and analyzed their characteristics through silver staining and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538671/engineering-exosomes-for-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Katie E Gilligan, Róisín M Dwyer
There remains an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies to treat metastatic cancer, which results in over 8 million deaths annually worldwide. Following secretion, exosomes are naturally taken up by cells, and capable of the stable transfer of drugs, therapeutic microRNAs and proteins. As knowledge of the biogenesis, release and uptake of exosomes continues to evolve, and thus also has interest in these extracellular vesicles as potential tumor-targeted vehicles for cancer therapy. The ability to engineer exosome content and migratory itinerary holds tremendous promise...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538175/extracellular-vesicles-from-a-helminth-parasite-suppress-macrophage-activation-and-constitute-an-effective-vaccine-for-protective-immunity
#11
Gillian Coakley, Jana L McCaskill, Jessica G Borger, Fabio Simbari, Elaine Robertson, Marissa Millar, Yvonne Harcus, Henry J McSorley, Rick M Maizels, Amy H Buck
Recent studies have demonstrated that many parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet little is known about the specific interactions of EVs with immune cells or their functions during infection. We show that EVs secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are internalized by macrophages and modulate their activation. EV internalization causes downregulation of type 1 and type 2 immune-response-associated molecules (IL-6 and TNF, and Ym1 and RELMα) and inhibits expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit ST2...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536329/-multilateral-strategies-utilizing-exosomes-for-cancer-therapy
#12
Nao Nishida-Aoki, Takahiro Ochiya
Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536169/inflammatory-stroke-extracellular-vesicles-induce-macrophage-activation
#13
Yvonne Couch, Naveed Akbar, Simon Davis, Roman Fischer, Alex M Dickens, Ain A Neuhaus, Annette I Burgess, Peter M Rothwell, Alastair M Buchan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke. Our aim was to determine the inflammatory potential of stroke EVs. METHODS: EVs were quantified and analyzed in the sera of patients after an acute stroke (<24 hours; OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]). Isolated EV fractions were subjected to untargeted proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry/mass-spectrometry and then applied to macrophages in culture to investigate inflammatory gene expression...
May 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535147/mechanics-of-post-fusion-exocytotic-vesicle
#14
Thomas Stephens, Zhanghan Wu, Jian Liu
Exocytosis is an important cellular process controlled by metabolic signaling. It involves vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane, followed by the opening of a fusion pore, and the subsequent release of the vesicular lumen content into the extracellular space. While most modeling efforts focus on the events leading to membrane fusion, how the vesicular membrane remodels after fusing to plasma membrane remains unclear. This latter event dictates the nature and the efficiency of exocytotic vesicular secretions, and is thus critical for exocytotic function...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534118/exercise-induced-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-protect-against-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Yihua Bei, Tianzhao Xu, Dongchao Lv, Pujiao Yu, Jiahong Xu, Lin Che, Avash Das, John Tigges, Vassilios Toxavidis, Ionita Ghiran, Ravi Shah, Yongqin Li, Yuhui Zhang, Saumya Das, Junjie Xiao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve an important function as mediators of intercellular communication. Exercise is protective for the heart, although the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cardioprotection have not been fully elucidated. Here using nano-flow cytometry, we found a rapid increase in plasma EVs in human subjects undergoing exercise stress testing. We subsequently identified that serum EVs were increased by ~1.85-fold in mice after 3-week swimming. Intramyocardial injection of equivalent quantities of EVs from exercised mice and non-exercised controls provided similar protective effects against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530169/commensal-derived-omvs-elicit-a-mild-proinflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Daniel A Patten, Enas Hussein, Scott P Davies, Paul N Humphreys, Andrew Collett
Under normal physiological conditions, the intestinal immunity remains largely hyporesponsive to the commensal microbiota, yet also retains the inherent ability to rapidly respond to pathogenic antigens. However, immunomodulatory activities of extracellular products from commensal bacteria have been little studied, with previous investigations generally utilizing the live bacterium to study microbiota-epithelial interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that extracellular products of a commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli C25, elicit a moderate release of proinflammatory IL-8 and stimulate transcriptional up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in intestinal epithelial cell lines HT29-19A and Caco-2...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529978/emerging-applications-of-exosomes-in-cancer-therapeutics-and-diagnostics
#17
REVIEW
Sahil Inamdar, Rajeshwar Nitiyanandan, Kaushal Rege
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that are shed from different cells in the body. Exosomes encapsulate several biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and can therefore play a key role in cellular communication. These vesicles can be isolated from different body fluids and their small sizes make them attractive in various biomedical applications. Here, we review state-of-the art approaches in exosome isolation and purification, and describe their potential use in cancer vaccines, drug delivery, and diagnostics...
March 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529488/endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-promises-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Carina Hromada, Severin Mühleder, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528698/microrna-signatures-and-molecular-subtypes-of-glioblastoma-the-role-of-extracellular-transfer
#19
Jakub Godlewski, Ruben Ferrer-Luna, Arun K Rooj, Marco Mineo, Franz Ricklefs, Yuji S Takeda, M Oskar Nowicki, Elżbieta Salińska, Ichiro Nakano, Hakho Lee, Ralph Weissleder, Rameen Beroukhim, E Antonio Chiocca, Agnieszka Bronisz
Despite the importance of molecular subtype classification of glioblastoma (GBM), the extent of extracellular vesicle (EV)-driven molecular and phenotypic reprogramming remains poorly understood. To reveal complex subpopulation dynamics within the heterogeneous intratumoral ecosystem, we characterized microRNA expression and secretion in phenotypically diverse subpopulations of patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). As EVs and microRNAs convey information that rearranges the molecular landscape in a cell type-specific manner, we argue that intratumoral exchange of microRNA augments the heterogeneity of GSC that is reflected in highly heterogeneous profile of microRNA expression in GBM subtypes...
May 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#20
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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