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Extracellular vesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640648/extracellular-vesicle-transfer-from-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-macrophage-function-in-acute-lung-injury-basic-science-and-clinical-implications
#1
Michael A Matthay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636071/the-role-of-homocysteine-in-seminal-vesicles-remodeling-in-rat
#2
Adel Ghoul, Elara Moudilou, Mohamed El Hadi Cherifi, Fouzia Zerrouk, Billel Chaouad, Anissa Moulahoum, Souhila Aouichat-Bouguerra, Khira Othmani, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Yasmina Benazzoug
INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been associated with several tissue injuries including heart and liver fibrosis. In these diseases, hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) plays a major role in modulating the alteration of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), leading to the pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Since the effect of Hhcy on ECM of seminal vesicle was not studied, the aim of our research was to check if Hcy can induce a remodeling within seminal vesicles ECM...
June 21, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635292/assembly-morphology-diffusivity-and-indentation-of-hydrogel-supported-lipid-bilayers
#3
Tooba Shoaib, Prathima Chandra Nalam, Yichen He, Yuting Chen, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Recognizing the limitations of solid-supported lipid bilayers to reproduce the behavior of cell membranes, including bendability, transmembrane protein inclusion and virus entry, this study describes a novel biomimetic system for cell membranes with the potential to overcome these and other limitations. The developed strategy utilizes a hydrogel with tunable mechanical behavior that resembles those of living cells as the soft support for the phospholipid bilayer, while a polyelectrolyte multilayer film serves as an intermediate layer to facilitate the self-assembly of the lipid bilayer on the soft cushion...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634420/characterization-of-the-proinflammatory-profile-of-synovial-fluid-derived-exosomes-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#4
Rossana Domenis, Rossella Zanutel, Federica Caponnetto, Barbara Toffoletto, Adriana Cifù, Cinzia Pistis, Paolo Di Benedetto, Araldo Causero, Massimo Pozzi, Fabrizio Bassini, Martina Fabris, Kayvan R Niazi, Patrick Soon-Shiong, Francesco Curcio
The purpose of this study is to characterize synovial fluid- (SF-) derived exosomes of patients with gonarthrosis comparing two methods of isolation and to investigate their immune regulatory properties. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been isolated from inflamed SF by polymer precipitation method and quantified by Exocet kit and by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Vesicles expressed all the specific exosomal markers by immunoblot and FACS. After isolation with Exoquick, a relevant contamination by immune complexes was detected, which required further magnetic bead-based purification to remove...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634412/extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-disease-and-potential-as-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Gyongyi Szabo, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles originating from different cells in the liver. The pathophysiological role of EVs is increasingly recognized in liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. EVs, via their cargo, can provide communication between different cell types in the liver and between organs. EVs are explored as biomarkers of disease and could also represent therapeutic targets and vehicles for treatment delivery. Here, we review advances in understanding the role of EVs in liver diseases and discuss their utility in biomarker discovery and therapeutics...
June 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634130/the-inhibitory-impacts-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-the-growth-of-hepatic-cancer-cells
#6
Elham Behzadi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) have come forth into notice as possible important agent to mediate host-pathogen interactions. In this scientific research, the authors have tried to find out the effect of EVs derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LDEVs) on the apoptosis induction in HepG2 cell line. The EVs were purified from the conditioned medium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using ultrafiltration and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of purified LDEVs and the cytotoxicity and their effects on the expression of bcl-2 and bax genes were assessed by the MTT assay and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively...
June 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631889/microrna-containing-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-modulate-angiogenesis-during-ischaemic-retinopathy
#7
Margaret Dellett, Eoin D Brown, Jasenka Guduric-Fuchs, Anna O'Connor, Alan W Stitt, Reinhold J Medina, David A Simpson
Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a defined subtype of endothelial progenitors that modulate vascular repair and promote perfusion in ischaemic tissues. Their paracrine activity on resident vasculature is ill-defined, but mediated, at least in part, by the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). To evaluate the potential of isolated EVs to provide an alternative to cell-based therapies, we first performed a physical and molecular characterization of those released by ECFCs. Their effects upon endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo in a model of proliferative retinopathy were assessed...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630143/extracellular-vesicles-of-stromal-origin-target-and-support-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#8
Gregoire Stik, Simon Crequit, Laurence Petit, Jennifer Durant, Pierre Charbord, Thierry Jaffredo, Charles Durand
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently reported as crucial mediators in cell-to-cell communication in development and disease. In this study, we investigate whether mesenchymal stromal cells that constitute a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) released EVs that could affect the gene expression and function of HSPCs. By taking advantage of two fetal liver-derived stromal lines with widely differing abilities to maintain HSPCs ex vivo, we demonstrate that stromal EVs play a critical role in the regulation of HSPCs...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630101/oviduct-extracellular-vesicles-protein-content-and-their-role-during-oviduct-embryo-cross-talk
#9
Carmen Alminana, Emilie Corbin, Guillaume Tsikis, Agostinho S Alcantara-Neto, Valérie Labas, Karine Reynaud, Laurent Galio, Rustem Uzbekov, Anastasiia S Garanina, Xavier Druart, Pascal Mermillod
Successful pregnancy requires an appropriate communication between the mother and the embryo. Recently, exosomes and microvesicles, both membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the oviduct fluid have been proposed as key modulators of this unique cross-talk. However, little is known about their content and their role during oviduct-embryo dialogue. Given the known differences in secretions by in vivo and in vitro oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), we aimed at deciphering the oviduct EVs protein content from both sources...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629620/effects-of-inhibiting-vps4-support-a-general-role-for-escrts-in-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis
#10
Charles E Jackson, Benjamin S Scruggs, Jean E Schaffer, Phyllis I Hanson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are proposed to play important roles in intercellular communication. Two classes of EVs can be distinguished based on their intracellular origin. Exosomes are generated within endosomes and released when these fuse with the plasma membrane, whereas ectosomes bud directly from the plasma membrane. Studies of EV function have been hindered by limited understanding of their biogenesis. Components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery play essential roles in topologically equivalent processes at both the endosome and the plasma membrane and are consistently recovered in EVs, but whether they are generally required to produce EVs is still debated...
June 16, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627754/labeling-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-exosomes-isolated-from-adipose-stem-cells
#11
Alice Busato, Roberta Bonafede, Pietro Bontempi, Ilaria Scambi, Lorenzo Schiaffino, Donatella Benati, Manuela Malatesta, Andrea Sbarbati, Pasquina Marzola, Raffaella Mariotti
Adipose stem cells (ASC) represent a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Most biological effects of ASC are probably mediated by extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, which influence the surrounding cells. Current development of exosome therapies requires efficient and noninvasive methods to localize, monitor, and track the exosomes. Among imaging methods used for this purpose, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages: high spatial resolution, rapid in vivo acquisition, and radiation-free operation...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627516/cooperative-tumour-cell-membrane-targeted-phototherapy
#12
Heegon Kim, Junsung Lee, Chanhee Oh, Ji-Ho Park
The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623360/endothelial-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-size-dependently-exert-procoagulant-activity-detected-by-thromboelastometry
#13
Wolfgang Holnthoner, Cornelia Bonstingl, Carina Hromada, Severin Muehleder, Johannes Zipperle, Stefan Stojkovic, Heinz Redl, Johann Wojta, Herbert Schöchl, Johannes Grillari, Sylvia Weilner, Christoph J Schlimp
Endothelial cells (ECs) are major modulators of hemostasis by expressing and releasing pro- and anticoagulant mediators into the circulation. Previous studies showed that cultured ECs release procoagulant mediators into cell culture supernatants as evidenced by the reduction of viscoelastic clotting time. This effect was reversed with an anti-tissue factor antibody. Here, we aimed to investigate whether tissue factor (TF) was released by endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and which portion of the released vesicles displays the most prominent procoagulant properties...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621731/the-therapeutic-benefit-of-bacterial-membrane-vesicles
#14
REVIEW
Natalie J Bitto, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos
The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles from eukaryotes has gained strong interest in recent years. However, research into the therapeutic application of their bacterial counterparts, known as bacterial membrane vesicles, is only just beginning to be appreciated. Membrane vesicles (MVs) from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria offer significant advantages in therapeutic development, including large-scale, cost effective production and ease of molecular manipulation to display foreign antigens...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621719/the-ability-of-extracellular-vesicles-to-induce-a-pro-inflammatory-host-response
#15
REVIEW
Maike E van Hezel, Rienk Nieuwland, Robin van Bruggen, Nicole P Juffermans
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can modulate the host immune response, executing both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. As EVs increasingly gain attention as potential carriers for targeted gene and drug delivery, knowledge on the effects of EVs on the host immune response is important. This review will focus on the ability of EVs to trigger a pro-inflammatory host response by activating target cells. The overall view is that EVs can augment an inflammatory response, thereby potentially contributing to organ injury...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621531/parallels-and-distinctions-in-fgfr-vegfr-and-egfr-mechanisms-of-transmembrane-signaling
#16
Sarvenaz Sarabipour
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signal transduction is essential in human skeletal, nervous, and vascular development, in homeostasis, and in disease. RTKs are activated by dimerization in the plasma membrane. The mechanisms of receptor dimerization and activation are multifaceted and complex, and unraveling them remains challenging. Most studies of RTKs have been devoted to crystallographic analysis of their isolated extracellular domain and biochemical analysis of the catalytic domain. However, the past few years have seen direct biophysical studies of (intact) RTK dimerization in native membranes lead to significant progress in our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of their signal transduction across the plasma membrane...
June 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621431/adhesion-molecule-kirrel3-neph2-is-required-for-the-elongated-shape-of-myocytes-during-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#17
Yael Tamir-Livne, Raeda Mubariki, Eyal Bengal
Kirrel/Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion proteins. Kirrel3 is the mouse orthologue of Dumbfounded (Duf), a family member that regulates myoblast pre-fusion events in Drosophila. Yet, the role of Kirrel3 in mammalian myogenesis has not been demonstrated. Experiments performed here indicate that the mouse Kirrel3 protein regulates morphological changes of myoblasts that are required for their subsequent fusion into multinucleated myotubes. We show that Kirrel3 is transiently expressed at the tips of myocytes during early myoblast differentiation and that its expression is dependent on the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618932/intimate-cross-talk-between-cancer-cells-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-b-cell-lymphomas-the-key-role-of-exosomes
#18
REVIEW
Biyu Xu, Ting Wang
B-cell lymphomas are composed of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, which is conventionally thought to be composed of a mixture of stromal cells, blood vessels, immune cells, and non-cell components, such as extracellular matrix, cytokines, and chemokines. Exosomes, small endocytically derived vesicles that have been proved to be present in a variety of tumor niches and involved in mediating cell signaling networks, are increasingly regarded as important components of tumor microenvironment. In this review, we first focus on the biogenesis, biodistribution, transportation, and other general characteristics of exosomes and then highlight the vital roles of exosomes in lymphomagenesis and disease progression, particularly from the perspective of immune dysfunction, virus infection, and therapeutic resistance mechanisms...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618037/hydrogen-peroxide-stimulates-exosomal-cathepsin-b-regulation-of-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#19
Charles A Downs, Viet D Dang, Nicholle M Johnson, Nancy Denslow, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular environment. These vesicles contain various biological effector molecules that can regulate intracellular signaling pathways in recipient cells. The aim of this study was to examine a correlation between exosomal cathepsin B activity and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Type 1 alveolar epithelial (R3/1) cells were treated with or without hydrogen peroxide and exosomes isolated from the cell conditioned media were characterized by NanoSight analysis...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617988/mir-145-detection-in-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-increase-diagnostic-efficiency-of-prostate-cancer-based-on-hydrostatic-filtration-dialysis-method
#20
Yong Xu, Sihua Qin, Taixue An, Yueting Tang, Yiyao Huang, Lei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be detected in body fluids and may serve as disease biomarkers. Increasing evidence suggests that circulating miRNAs in serum and urine may be potential non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether hydrostatic filtration dialysis (HFD) is suitable for urinary EVs (UEVs) isolation and whether such reported PCa-related miRNAs can be detected in UEVs as PCa biomarkers. METHODS: To analyze EVs miRNAs, we searched for an easy and economic method to enrich EVs from urine samples...
June 15, 2017: Prostate
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