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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#1
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#2
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905934/estimation-of-country-specific-and-global-prevalence-of-male-circumcision
#3
Brian J Morris, Richard G Wamai, Esther B Henebeng, Aaron Ar Tobian, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Catherine A Hankins
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) status and genital infection risk are interlinked and MC is now part of HIV prevention programs worldwide. Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally. Our aim was to provide estimates for country-specific and global MC prevalence. METHODS: MC prevalence data were obtained by searches in PubMed, Demographic and Health Surveys, AIDS Indicator Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Male age was ≥15 years in most surveys...
March 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903912/the-complex-evolutionary-history-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases
#4
Anargyros Chaliotis, Panayotis Vlastaridis, Dimitris Mossialos, Michael Ibba, Hubert D Becker, Constantinos Stathopoulos, Grigorios D Amoutzias
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the faithful translation of the genetic code and have lately become a prominent target for synthetic biologists. Our large-scale analysis of >2500 prokaryotic genomes reveals the complex evolutionary history of these enzymes and their paralogs, in which horizontal gene transfer played an important role. These results show that a widespread belief in the evolutionary stability of this superfamily is misconceived. Although AlaRS, GlyRS, LeuRS, IleRS, ValRS are the most stable members of the family, GluRS, LysRS and CysRS often have paralogs, whereas AsnRS, GlnRS, PylRS and SepRS are often absent from many genomes...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902562/enhancing-themes-and-strengths-assessment-leveraging-academic-led-qualitative-inquiry-in-community-health-assessment-to-uncover-roots-of-community-health-inequities
#5
Jennifer Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer K Felner, Yvette Castañeda, Sheri Cohen
CONTEXT: Rigorous qualitative research can enhance local health departments' efforts to gain a deeper insight into residents' perceived community health inequities necessary for productive community health assessments (CHAs) and community health improvement plans (CHIPs). OBJECTIVE: The Chicago Department of Public Health and the Partnership for Healthy Chicago used the National Association of County & City Health Officials' Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model to conduct its CHA/CHIP, Healthy Chicago 2...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893384/recovering-inner-slices-of-layered-translucent-objects-by-multi-frequency-illumination
#6
Kenichiro Tanaka, Yasuhiro Mukaigawa, Hiruyuki Kubo, Yasuyuki Matsushita, Yasushi Yagi
This paper describes a method for recovering appearance of inner slices of translucent objects. The appearance of a layered translucent object is the summed appearance of all layers, where each layer is blurred by a depth-dependent point spread function (PSF). By exploiting the difference of low-pass characteristics of depth-dependent PSFs, we develop a multi-frequency illumination method for obtaining the appearance of individual inner slices. Specifically, by observing the target object with varying the spatial frequency of checker-pattern illumination, our method recovers the appearance of inner slices via computation...
November 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888060/faith-and-oscillations-recovered-on-analyzing-eeg-meg-signals-during-tacs
#7
Toralf Neuling, Philipp Ruhnau, Nathan Weisz, Christoph S Herrmann, Gianpaolo Demarchi
Despite recent success in analyzing brain oscillations recorded during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), the field still requires further research to establish standards in artifact removal methods. This includes taking a step back from the removal of the tACS artifact and thoroughly characterizing the to-be-removed artifact. A recent study by Noury et al. (2016) contributed importantly to this endeavour by showing the existence of nonlinear artefacts in the tACS signal as seen by MEG and EEG...
November 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880822/isolation-of-a-defective-prion-mutant-from-natural-scrapie
#8
Ilaria Vanni, Sergio Migliore, Gian Mario Cosseddu, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Laura Pirisinu, Claudia D'Agostino, Geraldina Riccardi, Umberto Agrimi, Romolo Nonno
It is widely known that prion strains can mutate in response to modification of the replication environment and we have recently reported that prion mutations can occur in vitro during amplification of vole-adapted prions by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification on bank vole substrate (bvPMCA). Here we exploited the high efficiency of prion replication by bvPMCA to study the in vitro propagation of natural scrapie isolates. Although in vitro vole-adapted PrPSc conformers were usually similar to the sheep counterpart, we repeatedly isolated a PrPSc mutant exclusively when starting from extremely diluted seeds of a single sheep isolate...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878060/a-retrospective-analysis-comparing-the-new-standardized-letter-of-recommendation-in-dermatology-with-the-classic-narrative-letter-of-recommendation
#9
Jessica A Kaffenberger, Joy Mosser, Grace Lee, Llana Pootrakul, Katya Harfmann, Stephanie Fabbro, Esteban Fernandez Faith, David Carr, Alisha Plotner, Matthew Zirwas, Benjamin H Kaffenberger
Background: In an effort to avoid numerous problems associated with narrative letters of recommendation, a dermatology standardized letter of recommendation was utilized in the 2014-2015 resident application cycle. Objective: A comparison of the standardized letter of recommendation and narrative letters of recommendation from a single institution and application cycle to determine if the standardized letter of recommendation met its original goals of efficiency, applicant stratification, and validity. Methods: Eight dermatologists assessed all standardized letters of recommendation/narrative letters of recommendation pairs received during the 2014-2015 application cycle...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875073/orthodox-jewish-thought-leaders-insights-regarding-brca-mutations-a-descriptive-study
#10
Toby Bressler, Beth Popp
PURPOSE: To examine the factors that influence Orthodox Jewish (OJ) thought leaders' perceptions of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) OJ thought leaders' views on genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutation status and (2) insights into this high-risk faith-based minority group and their beliefs about counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. METHODS: In-depth focus groups and demographic questionnaires were used in this descriptive, qualitative study, which was performed in the cancer center of a 750-bed community teaching hospital in Brooklyn, New York...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870999/sparse-bayesian-registration-of-medical-images-for-self-tuning-of-parameters-and-spatially-adaptive-parametrization-of-displacements
#11
Loïc Le Folgoc, Hervé Delingette, Antonio Criminisi, Nicholas Ayache
We extend Bayesian models of non-rigid image registration to allow not only for the automatic determination of registration parameters (such as the trade-off between image similarity and regularization functionals), but also for a data-driven, multiscale, spatially adaptive parametrization of deformations. Adaptive parametrizations have been used with success to promote both the regularity and accuracy of registration schemes, but so far on non-probabilistic grounds - either as part of multiscale heuristics, or on the basis of sparse optimization...
November 9, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870718/self-reported-preparedness-to-respond-to-mass-fatality-incidents-in-38-state-health-departments
#12
Jacqueline Merrill, Qi Zhi, Robyn R Gershon
CONTEXT: Public health departments play an important role in the preparation and response to mass fatality incidents (MFIs). OBJECTIVE: To describe MFI response capabilities of US state health departments. DESIGN: The data are part of a multisector cross-sectional study aimed at 5 sectors that comprise the US mass fatality infrastructure. Data were collected over a 6-week period via a self-administered, anonymous Web-based survey. SETTING: In 2014, a link to the survey was distributed via e-mail to health departments in 50 states and the District of Columbia...
January 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865398/primate-models-of-tuberculosis-faith-based-or-evidence-based-science
#13
EDITORIAL
Robert L Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863582/vehicle-of-hope-faith-based-disaster-response
#14
REVIEW
Deborah J Persell
In August 2005, the United States experienced one of the most catastrophic and costly disasters in its history: Hurricane Katrina. Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) made a major contribution to the response and recovery efforts. Whereas the activities and skill sets of FBOs vary, their core missions are very similar: they want to provide hope. As a concept, hope has been purported to be essential for health and well-being, is viewed as multidimensional and a life force, as well as is highly individualized. This mixed methods study used interviews of the phenomenology tradition and the Herth Hope Index...
December 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842544/experiences-and-perceptions-of-ghanaian-midwives-on-labour-pain-and-religious-beliefs-and-practices-influencing-their-care-of-women-in-labour
#15
Lydia Aziato, Hannah Antwi Ohemeng, Cephas N Omenyo
BACKGROUND: Beliefs surrounding pain during childbirth has biblical foundations that contribute to labour pain being viewed as a natural phenomenon. Contemporary health care promotes evidence-based labour pain management but the faith of the midwife may influence her midwifery practice regarding labour pain management. Therefore this study sought to gain in-depth insight into the experiences and perceptions of midwives regarding labour pain and the religious beliefs and practices influencing their care of women in labour in Ghana...
November 14, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842468/the-role-of-faith-based-organizations-in-the-depression-care-of-african-americans-and-hispanics-in-los-angeles
#16
Michelle Dalencour, Eunice C Wong, Lingqi Tang, Elizabeth Dixon, Aziza Lucas-Wright, Kenneth Wells, Jeanne Miranda
OBJECTIVE: This study examined use of depression care provided by faith-based organizations (FBOs) by African Americans and Hispanics and factors associated with the receipt of such care, including mental illness severity and use of traditional mental health services. METHODS: The study used baseline data from the Community Partners in Care study, a group-randomized trial comparing a community-partnered approach with a technical-assistance approach to improving depression care in underresourced communities in Los Angeles...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837454/diabetes-and-hypertension-in-marshallese-adults-results-from-faith-based-health-screenings
#17
Pearl Anna McElfish, Brett Rowland, Christopher R Long, Jonell Hudson, Michelle Piel, Bill Buron, Sheldon Riklon, Williamina Ioanna Bing, T Scott Warmack
BACKGROUND: The Pacific Islander population in the USA is growing rapidly. However, research on Pacific Islanders in the USA is limited, or sometimes misleading due to aggregation with Asian Americans. This project seeks to add to the dearth of health literature by conducting a health assessment of Marshallese in northwest Arkansas. METHODS: Using a community-based participatory research approach, nine health screening events were conducted at local Marshallese churches...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836079/availability-and-utilization-of-obstetric-and-newborn-care-in-guinea-a-national-needs-assessment
#18
Adama Baguiya, Ivlabèhiré Bertrand Meda, Tieba Millogo, Mamadou Kourouma, Halima Mouniri, Seni Kouanda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability and utilization of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) in Guinea given the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. METHODS: We used the Guinea 2012 needs assessment data collected via a national cross-sectional census of health facilities conducted from September to October 2012. All public, private, and faith-based health facilities that performed at least one delivery during the period of the study were included...
November 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834534/vestibular-balance-microvascular-and-white-matter-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-blast-injuries-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-four-case-reports
#19
Ramtilak Gattu, Faith W Akin, Anthony T Cacace, Courtney D Hall, Owen D Murnane, E Mark Haacke
BACKGROUND: Case reports are presented on four Veterans, aged 29-46 years, who complained of chronic dizziness and/or postural instability following blast exposures. Two of the four individuals were diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury and three of the four were exposed to multiple blasts. Comprehensive vestibular, balance, gait, audiometry and neuroimaging procedures were used to characterize their injuries. CASE REPORT: Vestibular assessment included videonystagmography, rotary chair and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834506/evidence-based-considerations-and-recommendations-for-athletic-trainers-caring-for-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Elizabeth S Wolfe, Kelly J Madden
CONTEXT:  Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be noncompliant, impulsive, and disruptive in an athletic training or physical rehabilitation facility. Athletic trainers (ATs) are valuable and essential health care providers for active patients with ADHD. However, for a patient with ADHD to have a successful outcome in a busy athletic training environment, the AT or health care provider must tailor the treatment setting to the patient's needs. OBJECTIVE:  To educate and raise awareness among ATs about patients with ADHD and to provide ATs with strategies and tools that will allow them to treat patients with ADHD more effectively...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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