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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447760/climatic-controls-on-later-stone-age-human-adaptation-in-africa-s-southern-cape
#1
Brian M Chase, J Tyler Faith, Alex Mackay, Manuel Chevalier, Andrew S Carr, Arnoud Boom, Sophak Lim, Paula J Reimer
Africa's southern Cape is a key region for the evolution of our species, with early symbolic systems, marine faunal exploitation, and episodic production of microlithic stone tools taken as evidence for the appearance of distinctively complex human behavior. However, the temporally discontinuous nature of this evidence precludes ready assumptions of intrinsic adaptive benefit, and has encouraged diverse explanations for the occurrence of these behaviors, in terms of regional demographic, social and ecological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440799/is-every-life-worth-saving-does-religion-and-religious-beliefs-influence-paramedic-s-end-of-life-decision-making-a-prospective-questionnaire-based-investigation
#2
Alexander Leibold, Christoph L Lassen, Nicole Lindenberg, Bernhard M Graf, Christoph Hr Wiese
Background: Paramedics, arriving on emergency cases first, have to make end-of-life decisions almost on a daily basis. Faith shapes attitudes toward the meaning and worth of life itself and therefore influences decision-making. Objective: The objective of this study was to detect whether or not religious and spiritual beliefs influence paramedics in their workday life concerning end-of-life decisions, and whether it is legally possible for them to act according to their conscience...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440308/your-health-is-your-wealth-faith-based-community-action-on-the-health-of-african-migrant-communities-in-amsterdam
#3
REVIEW
Charles Agyemang, Karlijn Meeks, Reynolds Boateng, Erik Beune
The African migrant communities in Europe face many challenges including poor health outcomes. Migrant community leaders can play a crucial role in addressing the health needs of their community members. In this paper, we described Sub-Saharan African migrant community leaders' action to improve the health of their faith-based community members in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
February 9, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438461/backpack-programs-and-the-crisis-narrative-of-child-hunger-a-critical-review-of-the-rationale-targeting-and-potential-benefits-and-harms-of-an-expanding-but-untested-model-of-practice
#4
Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436323/the-elder-abuse-and-neglect-phenomenon-in-the-ultra-orthodox-jewish-society-social-workers-perspectives
#5
Tova Band-Winterstein
BACKGROUND: In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). METHODS: A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population...
February 13, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429498/getting%C3%A2-smart-about-implementing-multi-tiered-systems-of-support-to-promote-school-mental-health
#6
Gerald J August, Timothy F Piehler, Faith G Miller
With the growing adoption and implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) in school settings, there is increasing need for rigorous evaluations of adaptive-sequential interventions. That is, MTSS specify universal, selected, and indicated interventions to be delivered at each tier of support, yet few investigations have empirically examined the continuum of supports that are provided to students both within and across tiers. This need is compounded by a variety of prevention approaches that have been developed with distinct theoretical foundations (e...
February 2018: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428188/-i-m-not-a-spiritual-person-how-hope-might-facilitate-conversations-about-spirituality-among-teens-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#7
Krysta S Barton, Tyler Tate, Nancy Lau, Karen B Taliesin, Elisha D Waldman, Abby R Rosenberg
CONTEXT: Supporting patients' spiritual needs is central to palliative care. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYAs) may be developing their spiritual identities; it is unclear how to navigate conversations concerning their spiritual needs. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe spiritual narratives among AYAs based on their self-identification as religious, spiritual, both, or neither; and, (2) identify language to support AYA spiritual needs in keeping with their self-identities...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427128/community-health-advisors-participation-in-a-dissemination-and-implementation-study-of-an-evidence-based-physical-activity-and-healthy-eating-program-in-a-faith-based-setting
#8
Patricia A Sharpe, Sara Wilcox, Deborah Kinnard, Margaret D Condrasky
Community health advisors (CHAs) have been widely involved in health promotion, but few details on role expectations, retention, and evaluation have been reported. In a dissemination and implementation (D&I) study of an evidence-based healthy eating and physical activity program, 59 churches were randomized to an intervention (n = 39) or control (delayed intervention) (n = 20) condition. In a novel approach, CHAs worked with church committees rather than congregants by providing training (n = 59) and technical assistance (n = 54) to the committees to implement a program focused on structural and policy-level changes to support congregants' behavioral changes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426924/a-biopotential-optrode-array-operation-principles-and-simulations
#9
Amr Al Abed, Hrishikesh Srinivas, Josiah Firth, François Ladouceur, Nigel H Lovell, Leonardo Silvestri
We propose an optical electrode 'optrode' sensor array for biopotential measurements. The transduction mechanism is based on deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals which realign, altering the optrode's light reflectance properties, relative to applied potential fields of biological cells and tissue. A computational model of extracellular potential recording by the optrode including the electro-optical transduction mechanism is presented, using a combination of time-domain and frequency-domain finite element analysis...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424692/lrrtm1-underlies-synaptic-convergence-in-visual-thalamus
#10
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Gail Stanton, Jonathan Van Name, Kaiwen Su, William A Mills, Kenya Swilling, Alicia Kerr, Natalie A Huebschman, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
It has long been thought that the mammalian visual system is organized into parallel pathways, with incoming visual signals being parsed in the retina based on feature (e.g. color, contrast and motion) and then transmitted to the brain in unmixed, feature-specific channels. To faithfully convey feature-specific information from retina to cortex, thalamic relay cells must receive inputs from only a small number of functionally similar retinal ganglion cells. However, recent studies challenged this by revealing substantial levels of retinal convergence onto relay cells...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424662/small-rna-omics-for-virome-reconstruction-and-antiviral-defense-characterization-in-mixed-infections-of-cultivated-solanum-plants
#11
Silvia Turco, Victor Golyaev, Jonathan Seguin, Céline Gilli, Laurent Farinelli, Thomas Boller, Oliveir Schumpp, Mikhail Pooggin
In plants, RNA silencing-based antiviral defense generates viral small RNAs (sRNAs) faithfully representing the viral genomes. We employed sRNA sequencing and bioinformatics (sRNA-omics) to characterize antiviral defense and to reconstruct the full genomic sequences and their variants in the evolving viral quasispecies in cultivated solanaceous plants carrying mixed infections. In naturally-infected Solanum tuberosum (potato), one case study revealed a virome comprising Potato virus Y (genus Potyvirus) and Potato virus X (genus Potexvirus), which was reconstructed by de novo assembling separate genome-size sRNA contigs...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422705/does-free-public-health-care-increase-utilization-and-reduce-spending-heterogeneity-and-long-term-effects
#12
Peter Hangoma, Bjarne Robberstad, Arild Aakvik
Zambia removed user fees in publicly supported-government and faith based- health facilities in 54 out of 72 districts in 2006. This was extended to rural areas of previously unaffected districts in 2007. The natural experiment provided by the step-wise implementation of the removal policy and five waves of nationally representative household survey data enables us to study the impact of the removal policy on utilization and household health expenditure. We find that the policy increased overall use of health services in the short term and the effects were sustained in the long term...
January 2018: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421465/rethinking-health-sector-procurement-as-developmental-linkages-in-east-africa
#13
Maureen Mackintosh, Paula Tibandebage, Mercy Karimi Njeru, Joan Kariuki Kungu, Caroline Israel, Phares G M Mujinja
Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417860/an-insight-into-frequency-and-predictors-leading-psychiatric-patients-to-visit-faith-healers-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-survey-karachi-pakistan
#14
Aneeta Khoso, Rafiq Ahmed Soomro, Ayesha Muquim Quraishy, Hammad Ali Khan, Saba Ismail, Mehrunnisa Nazaz, Sana Younus, Saima Zainab
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illnesses have recently escalated in numbers, with patients resorting to various forms of healthcare providers, including faith healers. This delays early psychiatric treatment, resulting in further mental health deterioration of the patient. Various factors impact the mode of treatment preferred by psychiatric patients. AIMS: To determine the frequency of psychiatric patients visiting faith healers, presenting at the outpatient department of Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and to explore the predictors that direct them toward visiting faith healers...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415229/military-personnel-who-seek-health-and-mental-health-services-outside-the-military
#15
Howard Waitzkin, Mario Cruz, Bryant Shuey, Daniel Smithers, Laura Muncy, Marylou Noble
Background: Although research conducted within the military has assessed the health and mental health problems of military personnel, little information exists about personnel who seek care outside the military. The purpose of this study is to clarify the personal characteristics, mental health diagnoses, and experiences of active duty U.S. military personnel who sought civilian sector services due to unmet needs for care. Materials and Methods: This prospective, multi-method study included 233 clients, based in the United States, Afghanistan, South Korea, and Germany, who obtained care between 2013 and 2016 from a nationwide network of volunteer civilian practitioners...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411074/bridging-the-divide-challenges-and-opportunities-for-public-sector-agricultural-professionals-working-with-amish-and-mennonite-producers-on-conservation
#16
Caroline Brock, Jessica D Ulrich-Schad, Linda Prokopy
As Amish and Old Order and Conservative Mennonite (i.e., Plain) farmers increase their presence in the agricultural sector, it is crucial for public sector agricultural professionals to effectively work with them to mediate nonpoint source pollution and address issues like the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. However, there is a dearth of research on how public sector agricultural professionals can better work with Plain producers on environmental management. There are also few training resources for those working with this key, yet hard to reach, population...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408376/hictmap-detection-and-analysis-of-chromosome-territory-structure-and-position-by-high-throughput-imaging
#17
Ziad Jowhar, Prabhakar Gudla, Sigal Shachar, Darawalee Wangsa, Jill L Russ, Gianluca Pegoraro, Thomas Ried, Armin Raznahan, Tom Misteli
The spatial organization of chromosomes in the nuclear space is an extensively studied field that relies on measurements of structural features and 3D positions of chromosomes with high precision and robustness. However, no tools are currently available to image and analyze chromosome territories in a high-throughput format. Here, we have developed High-throughput Chromosome Territory Mapping (HiCTMap), a method for the robust and rapid analysis of 2D and 3D chromosome territory positioning in mammalian cells...
February 2, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396266/rescue-of-gsdiii-phenotype-with-gene-transfer-requires-liver-and-muscle-targeted-gde-expression
#18
Patrice Vidal, Serena Pagliarani, Pasqualina Colella, Helena Costa Verdera, Louisa Jauze, Monika Gjorgjieva, Francesco Puzzo, Solenne Marmier, Fanny Collaud, Marcelo Simon Sola, Severine Charles, Sabrina Lucchiari, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Alban Vignaud, Bernard Gjata, Isabelle Richard, Pascal Laforet, Edoardo Malfatti, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Giacomo Pietro Comi, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Federico Mingozzi
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of glycogen-debranching enzyme (GDE), which results in profound liver metabolism impairment and muscle weakness. To date, no cure is available for GSDIII and current treatments are mostly based on diet. Here we describe the development of a mouse model of GSDIII, which faithfully recapitulates the main features of the human condition. We used this model to develop and test novel therapies based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer...
December 28, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396220/access-to-emergency-hospital-care-provided-by-the-public-sector-in-sub-saharan-africa-in-2015-a-geocoded-inventory-and-spatial-analysis
#19
Paul O Ouma, Joseph Maina, Pamela N Thuranira, Peter M Macharia, Victor A Alegana, Mike English, Emelda A Okiro, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: Timely access to emergency care can substantially reduce mortality. International benchmarks for access to emergency hospital care have been established to guide ambitions for universal health care by 2030. However, no Pan-African database of where hospitals are located exists; therefore, we aimed to complete a geocoded inventory of hospital services in Africa in relation to how populations might access these services in 2015, with focus on women of child bearing age. METHODS: We assembled a geocoded inventory of public hospitals across 48 countries and islands of sub-Saharan Africa, including Zanzibar, using data from various sources...
January 25, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392680/power-of-peer-support-to-change-health-behavior-to-reduce-risks-for-heart-disease-and-stroke-for-african-american-men-in-a-faith-based-community
#20
Sohye Lee, Erica Schorr, Niloufar Niakosari Hadidi, Robin Kelley, Diane Treat-Jacobson, Ruth Lindquist
INTRODUCTION: Peer support has powerful potential to improve outcomes in a program of health behavior change; yet, how peer support is perceived by participants, its role, and how it contributes to intervention efficacy is not known, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to identify the subjectively perceived experience and potential contributions of peer support to the outcomes of a peer group behavioral intervention designed to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke in African American men in a faith-based community...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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