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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935195/the-dimensionalities-of-lesion-deficit-mapping
#1
Tianbo Xu, Ashwani Jha, Parashkev Nachev
Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930710/at-the-intersection-of-faith-culture-and-family-dynamics-a-complex-case-of-refusal-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer
#2
Amy E Caruso Brown
Refusing treatment for potentially curable childhood cancers engenders much discussion and debate. I present a case in which the competent parents of a young Amish child with acute myeloid leukemia deferred authority for decision making to the child's maternal grandfather, who was vocal in his opposition to treatment. I analyze three related concerns that distinguish this case from other accounts of refused treatment. First, I place deference to grandparents as decision makers in the context of surrogate decision making more generally...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926592/polish-physicians-cooperation-with-the-pharmaceutical-industry-and-its-potential-impact-on-public-health
#3
Marta Makowska
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. METHODS: It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922387/epistemic-beliefs-role-in-promoting-misperceptions-and-conspiracist-ideation
#4
R Kelly Garrett, Brian E Weeks
Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts), importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence), and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922075/factors-associated-with-optimal-antenatal-care-use-in-northern-region-ghana
#5
Abdulai Abubakari, Faith Agbozo, Gilbert Abotisem Abiiro
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors associated with optimal use of antenatal care (ANC), that is, four or more times during pregnancy. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and August 2014 among nursing mothers (n = 578) attending postnatal and child welfare clinics in three districts in Northern Ghana, representing urban, peri-urban and rural zones. The developed questionnaire aided the collection of information on maternal demographic characteristics, health status, household assets, and ANC attendance...
September 18, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919760/attitudes-toward-antipsychotic-treatment-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-and-their-clinicians-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Martha Sajatovic, Faith DiBiasi, Susan N Legacy
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics are recommended as first-line therapy for acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder; however, published literature suggests their real-world use remains limited. Understanding attitudes toward these medications may help identify barriers and inform personalized therapy. This literature review evaluated patient and clinician attitudes toward the use of antipsychotics for treating bipolar disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews identified English language articles published between January 1, 2000, and June 15, 2016, that reported attitudinal data from patients, health care professionals, or caregivers; treatment decision-making; or patient characteristics that predicted antipsychotic use for bipolar disorder...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912557/a-nmda-receptor-calcium-influx-assay-sensitive-to-stimulation-by-glutamate-and-glycine-d-serine
#7
Hongqiu Guo, L Miguel Camargo, Fred Yeboah, Mary Ellen Digan, Honglin Niu, Yue Pan, Stephan Reiling, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Wilhelm A Weihofen, Hao-Ran Wang, Y Gopi Shanker, Travis Stams, Anke Bill
N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that function in synaptic transmission, plasticity and cognition. Malfunction of NMDARs has been implicated in a variety of nervous system disorders, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Overexpression of functional NMDAR in non-neuronal cells results in cell death by excitotoxicity, hindering the development of cell-based assays for NMDAR drug discovery. Here we report a plate-based, high-throughput approach to study NMDAR function...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905305/a-systematic-review-of-promising-strategies-of-faith-based-cancer-education-and-lifestyle-interventions-among-racial-ethnic-minority-groups
#8
REVIEW
Su-I Hou, Xian Cao
Church-based interventions have been used to reach racial/ethnic minorities. In order to develop effective programs, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of faith-based cancer prevention studies (2005~2016) to examine characteristics and promising strategies. Combination terms "church or faith-based or religion," "intervention or program," and "cancer education or lifestyle" were used in searching the five major databases: CINAHL; ERIC; Health Technology Assessments; MEDLINE; and PsycInfo. A total of 20 studies met study criteria...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902053/welcome-day-a-community-interprofessional-model-for-meeting-the-needs-of-migrant-workers
#9
Lora Wyss, Rosanna F Hess
Welcome Day, one specific day in the life of Hartville Migrant Ministry (HMM), a faith-based ministry in Ohio, illustrates the organization's vision, mission, and community collaboration. Migrant and seasonal farm workers, the Migrant Head Start program, HMM and Welcome Day, interprofessional collaboration, and Malone University School of Nursing faculty and students support are discussed. Programs and activities presented here could be reproduced in other communities.
October 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902051/hypertension-in-the-faith-community-a-four-week-nurse-led-diet-exercise-intervention
#10
Saphie S Bangurah, Shellye A Vardaman, Kelli K Cleveland
Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control in hypertension carries a major financial and public health burden. This study examined the efficacy of behavioral and lifestyle changes on BP control among African American adults, aged 55 years and older in a faith-based setting. The study was supported by clergy who helped to engage participants in interventions. Nurse-led diet and exercise teaching with BP monitoring led to lower BP readings over a 4-week intervention.
October 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899010/modelling-apoe-%C3%A9-3-4-allele-associated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-an-induced-neuron
#11
Hongwon Kim, Junsang Yoo, Jaein Shin, Yujung Chang, Junghyun Jung, Dong-Gyu Jo, Janghwan Kim, Wonhee Jang, Christopher J Lengner, Byung-Soo Kim, Jongpil Kim
The recent generation of induced neurons by direct lineage conversion holds promise for in vitro modelling of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report the generation of induced neuron-based model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice and humans, and used this system to explore the pathogenic mechanisms resulting from the sporadic Alzheimer's disease risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ3/4 allele. We show that mouse and human induced neurons overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein in the background of APOE ɛ3/4 allele exhibit altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, abnormally increased production of amyloid-β42 and hyperphosphorylation of tau...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893845/highly-efficient-rapid-and-co-crispr-independent-genome-editing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Harriet Prior, Ali K Jawad, Lauren MacConnachie, Asim A Beg
We describe a rapid and highly efficient method to generate point mutations in C. elegans using direct injection of CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. This versatile method does not require sensitized genetic backgrounds or co-CRISPR selection-based methods, and represents a single strategy that can used for creating genomic point mutations, regardless of location. As proof-of-principle, we show that knock-in mutants more faithfully report variant-associated phenotypes compared to transgenic overexpression. Data for nine knock-in mutants across five genes are presented that demonstrate high editing efficiencies (60%), a reduced screening workload (24 F1 progeny), and a rapid timescale (4-5 days)...
September 11, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893337/optimization-of-three-dimensional-3d-chemical-imaging-by-soft-x-ray-spectro-tomography-using-a-compressed-sensing-algorithm
#13
Juan Wu, Mirna Lerotic, Sean Collins, Rowan Leary, Zineb Saghi, Paul Midgley, Slava Berejnov, Darija Susac, Juergen Stumper, Gurvinder Singh, Adam P Hitchcock
Soft X-ray spectro-tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) chemical mapping based on natural X-ray absorption properties. Since radiation damage is intrinsic to X-ray absorption, it is important to find ways to maximize signal within a given dose. For tomography, using the smallest number of tilt series images that gives a faithful reconstruction is one such method. Compressed sensing (CS) methods have relatively recently been applied to tomographic reconstruction algorithms, providing faithful 3D reconstructions with a much smaller number of projection images than when conventional reconstruction methods are used...
September 12, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891402/you-do-what-a-qualitative-investigation-into-the-motivation-to-volunteer-with-circles-of-support-and-accountability
#14
Giulia Lowe, Gwenda Willis, Kerry Gibson
Most community members are not accepting of individuals convicted for sexual offenses living in their communities, let alone having regular contact with them. However, a select number of community members choose to give their time to assist these individuals reintegrate from prison into the community. Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) was developed as a way to address the issues that many individuals convicted of sex offenses face, that is, little to no prosocial support in the community. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 CoSA volunteers in New Zealand to gain a more thorough understanding of volunteers' motivation to be involved with CoSA...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886258/a-questionnaire-survey-of-general-practitioners-in-japan-s-kanagawa-prefecture-for-the-japanese-society-of-hypertension-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hypertension-2014
#15
Kazuo Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi Sato, Nobuo Hatori, Masaaki Miyakawa
To evaluate the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension 2014 (JSH2014) among Japanese general practitioners (GPs), we used a questionnaire survey with 209 GPs from the Kanagawa Physicians Society. Overall, 93.6% of GPs felt that the contents of the JSH2014 were useful. Based on the results showing that 81.8% of GPs instructed the measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the early morning at home to most patients, GP's acceptance of home BP methods and their penetration among patients with hypertension were considerably high...
September 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880809/urban-ministry-workers-positive-experiences-of-interpersonal-and-religious-support-during-crisis
#16
Ashley Wilkins, Cynthia Eriksson, Ann Gottuso, Christin Fort
Research on faith-based urban workers is limited despite the chronic and traumatic exposure inherent in their work. This study details the perception of positive interpersonal relationships during a time of trauma or crisis as described in semistructured 2- to 3-hour interviews with 13 faith-based urban workers in Los Angeles, California. Using strategies consistent with Consensual Qualitative Research, categories and subcategories defining positive interpersonal relationships were identified. Resulting categories suggested that there are specific characteristics, products, and types of relationships that urban workers experience as important during the time of trauma or crisis...
October 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877208/surveillance-for-falsified-and-substandard-medicines-in-africa-and-asia-by-local-organizations-using-the-low-cost-gphf-minilab
#17
Albert Petersen, Nadja Held, Lutz Heide
BACKGROUND: Substandard and falsified medical products present a serious threat to public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Their identification using pharmacopeial analysis is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Simple, low-cost technologies are required in addition to full pharmacopeial analysis in order to accomplish widespread routine surveillance for poor-quality medicines in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Ten faith-based drug supply organizations in seven countries of Africa and Asia were each equipped with a Minilab of the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF, Frankfurt, Germany), suitable for the analysis of about 85 different essential medicines by thin-layer chromatography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875532/axin2-mturquoise2-a-novel-reporter-mouse-model-for-the-detection-of-canonical-wnt-signalling
#18
Jolanda J D de Roo, Cor Breukel, Amiet R Chhatta, Margot M Linssen, Sandra A Vloemans, Daniela Salvatori, Harald M M Mikkers, Sjef J Verbeek, Frank J T Staal
The canonical Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in organogenesis and self-renewal of essentially all stem cell systems. In vivo reporter systems are crucial to assess the role of Wnt signalling in the biology and pathology of stem cell systems. We set out to develop a Turquoise (TQ) fluorescent protein based Wnt reporter. We used a CRISPR-Cas9 approach to insert a turquoise fluorescent protein encoding gene into the general Wnt target gene Axin2, thereby establishing a Wnt reporter mouse similar to previously generated Wnt reporter mice but with the mTurquoise2 gene instead of E...
September 5, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871512/decision-making-and-priority-setting-the-evolving-path-towards-universal-health-coverage
#19
Francesco Paolucci, Ken Redekop, Ayman Fouda, Gianluca Fiorentini
Health technology assessment (HTA) is widely viewed as an essential component in good universal health coverage (UHC) decision-making in any country. Various HTA tools and metrics have been developed and refined over the years, including systematic literature reviews (Cochrane), economic modelling, and cost-effectiveness ratios and acceptability curves. However, while the cost-effectiveness ratio is faithfully reported in most full economic evaluations, it is viewed by many as an insufficient basis for reimbursement decisions...
September 4, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870617/spatial-vs-non-spatial-eco-evolutionary-dynamics-in-a-tumor-growth-model
#20
Li You, Joel S Brown, Frank Thuijsman, Jessica J Cunningham, Robert A Gatenby, Jingsong Zhang, Kateřina Staňková
Metastatic prostate cancer is initially treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, resistance typically develops in about 1 year - a clinical condition termed metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We develop and investigate a spatial game (agent based continuous space) of mCRPC that considers three distinct cancer cell types: (1) those dependent on exogenous testosterone (T(+)), (2) those with increased CYP17A expression that produce testosterone and provide it to the environment as a public good (T(P)), and (3) those independent of testosterone (T(-))...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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