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Neo natal

Silvia Nistri, Chiara Sassoli, Daniele Bani
Notch signaling is a major intercellular coordination mechanism highly conserved throughout evolution. In vertebrates, Notch signaling is physiologically involved in embryo development, including mesenchymal cell commitment, formation of heart tissues and angiogenesis. In post-natal life, Notch signaling is maintained as a key mechanism of cell-cell communication and its dysregulations have been found in pathological conditions such as ischemic and fibrotic diseases. In the heart, Notch takes part in the protective response to ischemia, being involved in pre- and post-conditioning, reduction of reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and myocardial damage, and cardiomyogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
M E T Silva, S Brandão, M P L Parente, T Mascarenhas, R M Natal Jorge
Pelvic disorders can be associated with changes in the biomechanical properties in the muscle, ligaments and/or connective tissue form fascia and ligaments. In this sense, the study of their mechanical behavior is important to understand the structure and function of these biological soft tissues. The aim of this study was to establish the biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor muscles of continent and incontinent women, using an inverse finite element analysis (FEA). The numerical models, including the pubovisceral muscle and pelvic bones were built from magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired at rest...
March 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Fumiaki Itoi, Yukiko Asano, Masashi Shimizu, Rika Nagai, Kanako Saitou, Hiroyuki Honnma, Yasutaka Murata
In this study the clinical and neo-natal outcomes after transfer of blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were compared between IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Clinical and neo-natal outcomes of blastocysts in cycles with at least one SER metaphase II oocyte (SER + MII; SER + cycles) did not significantly differ between the two insemination methods. When SER + MII were cultured to day 5/6, fertilization, embryo cleavage and blastocyst rates were not significantly different between IVF and ICSI cycles...
April 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Purificación Navas, Alessio Paffoni, Giulia Intra, Antonio González-Utor, Ana Clavero, Maria Carmen Gonzalvo, Rocío Díaz, Rocío Peña, Liliana Restelli, Edgardo Somigliana, Enrico Papaleo, Jose A Castilla, Paola Viganò
Pentoxifylline (PF) represents an effective tool in stimulating motility and identifying viable spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients presenting exclusively with immotile spermatozoa. However, its use is not universally accepted for its possible detrimental effects on oocytes, embryos or newborns. To evaluate whether PF use may affect obstetrical/neo-natal outcomes, 102 patients achieving a clinical pregnancy after a PF-ICSI in four IVF units in Spain and Italy were followed up after delivery...
January 24, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Heather Mason-Suares, Diana Toledo, Jean Gekas, Katherine A Lafferty, Naomi Meeks, M Cristina Pacheco, David Sharpe, Thomas E Mullen, Matthew S Lebo
Gain-of-function variants in some RAS-MAPK pathway genes, including PTPN11 and NRAS, are associated with RASopathies and/or acquired hematological malignancies, most notably juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). With rare exceptions, the spectrum of germline variants causing RASopathies does not overlap with the somatic variants identified in isolated JMML. Studies comparing these variants suggest a stronger gain-of-function activity in the JMML variants. As JMML variants have not been identified as germline defects and have a greater impact on protein function, it has been speculated that they would be embryonic lethal...
April 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Elizabeth E Smith, Weibo Zhang, Nathan R Schiele, Ali Khademhosseini, Catherine K Kuo, Pamela C Yelick
A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Daniele L Ignacio, Diego H S Silvestre, Elena Anne-Palmer, Barbara M L C Bocco, Tatiana L Fonseca, Miriam O Ribeiro, Balázs Gereben, Antonio C Bianco, Joao P Werneck-de-Castro
BACKGROUND: Myogenesis is positively regulated by thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine [T3]), which is amplified by the type 2 deiodinase (D2) activation of thyroxine to T3. Global inactivation of the Dio2 gene impairs skeletal muscle (SKM) differentiation and regeneration in response to muscle injury. Given that newborn and adult mice with late developmental SKM Dio2 disruption do not develop a significant phenotype, it was hypothesized that D2 plays an early role in this process. METHODS: This was tested in mice with SKM disruption of Dio2 driven by two early developmental promoters: MYF5 and MYOD...
April 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Christina L Nicholas
OBJECTIVES: The midface of extant Homo sapiens is known to undergo shape changes through fetal and neo-natal ontogeny; however, little work has been done to quantify these shape changes. Further, while midfacial traits which vary in frequency between populations of extant humans are presumed to develop prenatally, patterns of population-specific variation maxillary shape across ontogeny are not well documented. Only one study of fetal ontogeny which included specific discussion of the midface has taken a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, and that study was limited to one population (Japanese)...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Marianne Jacques, Thomas Freour, Paul Barriere, Stéphane Ploteau
To assess the impact of endometriosis on obstetric outcomes and to determine whether the severity, location and surgical treatment of the disease before the pregnancy had an impact on the prevalence of these disorders, a monocentric, case-control study was performed. In total, 113 pregnancies obtained by assisted reproductive treatment among patients with endometriosis were matched with control selected among assisted reproductive treatment pregnancies due to male infertility. The main result measures were pregnancy outcome at the obstetrical and neo-natal levels...
June 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
S Zelmat, F Mazour, D D Atouche
OBJECTIFS: Hémolysis, Elevated Liver enzyme, Löw Platelets ou HELLP Syndrome est une complication de la pré-éclampsie dans 10 à 20 %. Le HELLP Syndrome n'a pas d'influence sur la morbidité néonatale. Les complications sont essentiellement imputables à la prématurité induite. La mortalité périnatale est évaluée à 22,6 %. Le but de cette étude est d'étudier l'incidence de la prématurité dans le HELLP Syndrome. MéTHODES: Étude prospective mono-centrique réalisée au Service de Gynéco-Obstetrique de EHUO...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
David K Gardner
Extended culture has facilitated the move to single blastocyst transfer, resulting in significant increases in implantation and live birth rate, while concomitantly reducing fetal loss during pregnancy. However, concerns have been raised regarding subsequent neo-natal outcomes following extended culture. Analysis of the literature reveals differences in outcomes according to geographical region and between individual clinics. A common factor amongst reports of potentially adverse outcomes following blastocyst transfer appears to be that atmospheric (~20%) oxygen was typically employed for embryo culture...
February 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Frauke Bergmann, Werner Rath
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is, after anemia, the second most common abnormality of the complete blood count in pregnancy, with a reported frequency of 6.6% to 11.2%. It has many causes. Thrombocytopenia should be diagnostically evaluated as early as possible in pregnancy, so that the obstetrical management can be accordingly planned to minimize harm to the mother and child. As the various underlying diseases share clinical features and laboratory findings, the differential diagnosis is often a difficult interdisciplinary challenge...
November 20, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Sarmistha Pal
New medical inventions for saving young lives are not enough if these do not reach the children and the mother. The present paper provides new evidence that institutional delivery can significantly lower child mortality risks, because it ensures effective and timely access to modern diagnostics and medical treatments to save lives. We exploit the exogenous variation in community's access to local health facilities (both traditional and modern) before and after the completion of the 'Women's Health Project' in 2005 (that enhanced emergency obstetric care in women friendly environment) to identify the causal effect of hospital delivery on various mortality rates among children...
October 2015: Social Science & Medicine
P Joly, L Restier, M Bouchecareilh, P Lacan, F Cabet, C Chapuis-Cellier, A Francina, A Lachaux
INTRODUCTION: The alpha-1 antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency, most frequently caused by homozygosity for the Z variant (SERPINA1: c.1096 G>A; Glu342Lys), can give rise to two clinical patterns: (i) respiratory impairment with emphysema (mainly in adulthood) because of a pulmonary quantitative defect in anti-elastase activity; (ii) hepatic impairment (mainly in childhood) due to the misfolding of the PiZ protein which accumulates in hepatocytes thus providing cytotoxicity. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: To date, the clinical and genetic factors responsible for the development of major hepatic injuries (fibrosis and portal hypertension) during childhood in PiZ patients are not known...
September 2015: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Yoko Murphy, Elliot M Goldner, Benedikt Fischer
BACKGROUND: Canada has featured the second-highest levels of prescription opioid (PO) use globally behind the United States, and reported extensive PO-related harms (e.g., non-medical PO use [NMPOU], PO-related morbidity and mortality). A recent comprehensive review synthesized key data on PO use, PO-related harms, and interventions in Canada, yet a substantive extent of new studies and data have emerged. OBJECTIVE: To conduct and present a comprehensive review update on PO use, PO-related harms, and interventions in Canada since 2010...
July 2015: Pain Physician
Angela Romano, Michele Grassia, Amalia Rosaria Rita Rossetti, Giuseppe Esposito, Bartolomeo Braccio, Modestino Pezzella, Francesco Torelli, Giuseppe Izzo, Roberto Alfano, Natale Di Martino
INTRODUCTION: Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare, biphasic tumor characterized by a combination of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Limited data showed that most cases occurred with advanced local disease and metastasis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a rare case of a 60-year-old man with three small intestinal intussusceptions due to metastatic pulmonary carcinosarcoma. He was explored for chest pain and hemoptysis in Emergency room. Due to his chest symptoms he had a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest which showed a lesion about 60mm in diameter in the inferior lobe of the left lung...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Teegwendé Valérie Porgo, Vladimir Gilca, Gaston De Serres, Michèle Tremblay, Danuta Skowronski
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HB) prevention in the low-endemicity province of Quebec Canada, (population: ~8.2 million; birth cohort ~85,000/year), includes two decades of pre-adolescent school-based immunization, as well as catch-up immunization for those born since 1983 and pre-natal maternal HBsAg screening. To estimate the potential added benefit of routine infant HB immunization, notifiable disease reports were analyzed (1990-2013). Clinical and demographic information about cases was retrieved from standard questionnaires used by local public health units to investigate HB cases...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Pedro A L S Martins, Francisca Ferreira, Renato Natal Jorge, Marco Parente, Agostinho Santos
After the death phenomenon, the rigor mortis development, characterized by body stiffening, is one of the most evident changes that occur in the body. In this work, the development of rigor mortis was assessed using a skinfold caliper in human cadavers and in live people to measure the deformation in the biceps brachii muscle in response to the force applied by the device. Additionally, to simulate the measurements with the finite element method, a two-dimensional model of an arm section was used. As a result of the experimental procedure, a decrease in deformation with increasing postmortem time was observed, which corresponds to an increase in rigidity...
May 2015: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
V Dhanalakshmi, E Suguna Sivakumar
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the pathogenic bacteria in neo-natal septicemia by using various diagnostic techniques. SETTING AND DESIGN: Our study was designed to evaluate a feasible method to diagnose neonatal septicemia even at primary health centre level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected aseptically from 70 neonates. The specimens were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth and subcultures were performed with specific media...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Joël Mossong, Peter Byass, Kobus Herbst
BACKGROUND: For public health purposes, it is important to see whether men and women in different age groups die of the same causes in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: We explored sex- and age-specific patterns of causes of deaths in a rural demographic surveillance site in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa over the period 2000-2011. DESIGN: Deaths reported through the demographic surveillance were followed up by a verbal autopsy (VA) interview using a standardised questionnaire...
2014: Global Health Action
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