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Insulin Resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346793/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-non-obese-neurologically-impaired-children-association-with-unfavorable-cardiometabolic-risk-profile
#1
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Pietro Mariano Casali, Gianluca Iacobellis, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Annalisa de Silvestri, Calogero Comparato, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published. OBJECTIVE: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. METHODS: Clinical data, body composition estimation, biochemical profile, and ultrasound-measured EFT were performed in 32 disabled patients (12...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346712/synergetic-effects-of-prenatal-and-postnatal-high-sucrose-intake-on-glucose-tolerance-and-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-offspring
#2
Pengjie Zhang, Di Zhu, Yueming Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xionghui Chen, Wenna Zhang, Ruixiu Shi, Jianying Tao, Bing Han, Zhice Xu
SCOPE: High sucrose intake during pregnancy is linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and altered insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study attempted to ascertain whether prenatal high sucrose intake (20% sucrose) alleviates the detrimental effects of high postnatal sugar consumption in the offspring, and the molecular mechanisms were investigated using a rat model. High prenatal sucrose exposure increased the body weight of the offspring at 1 to 3 weeks of age...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346609/decreased-serum-levels-of-ghrelin-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-premenopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Masoumeh Jabbari, Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh
Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. Methods: 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346216/obesity-and-pancreatic-cancer-overview-of-epidemiology-and-potential-prevention-by-weight-loss
#4
Mu Xu, Xiaoman Jung, O Joe Hines, Guido Eibl, Yijun Chen
Currently, there are no effective preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer. Obesity has been increasingly recognized as a strong but modifiable risk factor of pancreatic cancer. In this article, we aim to review the literature regarding weight loss on prevention of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer and potentially worse cancer outcome. Whereas the underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered intestinal microbiota are all implicated in the carcinogenic effect of obesity...
February 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345164/a-positive-association-between-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-and-insulin-resistance-in-postmenopausal-women
#5
Chii-Min Hwu, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Chung-Jen Lee, Bang-Gee Hsu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether higher circulating interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We measured IL-1Ra concentrations in 160 naturally postmenopausal women without a history of diabetes mellitus. A Pearson coefficient was computed to assess the relationship between plasma IL-1Ra and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)...
January 18, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344438/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344202/metformin-in-combination-with-cisplatin-inhibits-cell-viability-and-induces-apoptosis-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-inactivating-erk-1-2
#7
Jian-Hong Dang, Zhi-Jun Jin, Xiao-Jun Liu, Dian Hu, Jing Wang, Yan Luo, Ling-Ling Li
Metformin protects against insulin resistance by restoring insulin sensitivity and may also possess anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of metformin alone or combined with cisplatin (DDP) on the cell viability and apoptosis of HO-8910 human ovarian cancer cells, and to investigate metformin as a potential novel therapeutic for treating ovarian cancer. The viability of HO-8910 cells was assessed using a cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay following treatment with different concentrations of metformin (0...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344052/manidipine-an-antihypertensive-drug-with-positive-effects-on-metabolic-parameters-and-adrenergic-tone-in-patients-with-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Margarita SaizSatjes, Francisco Javier Martinez-Martin
Antihypertensive treatment of patients with diabetes should include those drugs with a positive effect on metabolic parameters. Most patients with diabetes require at least two antihypertensive agents. Combining a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor is a rational approach. However, not all dihydropyridines are equal with respect to their effects on metabolic parameters. Thus, manidipine exerts a positive effect on insulin resistance. However, this effect has not been observed with amlodipine...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344030/optimal-cutoff-points-for-anthropometric-variables-to-predict-insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Hossein Hatami, Seyed Ali Montazeri, Nazanin Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a major cardiometabolic risk factor in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The euglycemic clamp is the gold standard method to measure IR. However, considering the time and cost that it takes, surrogate markers of IR are now widely used. The current study aimed at evaluating the cutoff points of even less invasive anthropometric and body composition variables to predict IR in females with PCOS. Methods: The current cross sectional study selected 224 females with PCOS, using Rotterdam criteria, referred to reproductive endocrinology research center; 88 of which were diagnosed with insulin resistance...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344025/insulin-resistance-in-kidney-disease-is-there-a-distinct-role-separate-from-that-of-diabetes-or-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343740/modifiable-lifestyle-behaviors-but-not-a-genetic-risk-score-associate-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-evening-chronotypes
#11
Beatriz Vera, Hassan S Dashti, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, Antonio M Hernández-Martínez, Alberto Esteban, Frank A J L Scheer, Richa Saxena, Marta Garaulet
Evening chronotype associates with health complications possibly via lifestyle factors, while the contribution of genetics is unknown. The aim was to study the relative contributions of genetics, lifestyle, and circadian-related physiological characteristics in metabolic risk of evening chronotype. In order to capture a biological contribution to chronotype, a genetic-risk-score (GRS), comprised of 15 chronotype-related variants, was tested. Moreover, a wide range of behavioral and emotional eating factors was studied within the same population...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343256/the-effects-of-green-cardamom-supplementation-on-blood-glucose-lipids-profile-oxidative-stress-sirtuin-1-and-irisin-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Mohadeseh Aghasi, Shohreh Ghazi-Zahedi, Fariba Koohdani, Fereydoun Siassi, Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani, Ali Keshavarz, Mostafa Qorbani, Hoorieh Khoshamal, Asma Salari-Moghaddam, Gity Sotoudeh
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activities of cardamom may improve diabetes. However, the effect of this spice has not been investigated in diabetic subjects. This study was planned to determine the effects of green cardamom on blood glucose, lipids and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS/DESIGN: Eighty overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected. They will be randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d green cardamom or placebo for 10 weeks...
January 17, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342981/current-evidence-on-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-children-what-does-the-evidence-from-saudi-arabia-tell-us
#13
Asma M Alaklabi, Naser A Alsharairi
Obesity and vitamin D deficiency represent major health problems among Saudi children, and have been linked to chronic diseases. Obese children are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency, which appears to have negative influences on energy homeostasis, impeded bone mineralisation, insulin resistance and inflammation. Evidence supporting the association between vitamin D deficiency of obese children and metabolic syndrome has not specifically been studied in early childhood. The mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome in obese children needs further elucidation...
January 15, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342898/associations-between-zinc-deficiency-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Takashi Himoto, Tsutomu Masaki
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver, results in the impairment of Zn metabolism, and subsequently Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency causes plenty of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic encephalopathy...
January 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342488/the-effects-of-folate-supplementation-on-diabetes-biomarkers-among-patients-with-metabolic-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Maryam Akbari, Reza Tabrizi, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Maryam Karamali, Maryam Kashanian, Fariba Keneshlou, Kayvan Niknam, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah Asemi
Although several studies have evaluated the effect of folate supplementation on diabetes biomarkers among patients with metabolic diseases, findings are inconsistent. This review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the evidence on the effects of folate supplementation on diabetes biomarkers among patients with metabolic diseases. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases up to 1 September 2017 were searched. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias of included studies...
January 17, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342295/empagliflozin-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-beta-cell-function-in-t2dm
#16
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. Research Design and Methods: 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Results: Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342166/effects-of-vitamin-d-on-insulin-resistance-and-myosteatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Elisa Benetti, Raffaella Mastrocola, Fausto Chiazza, Debora Nigro, Giuseppe D'Antona, Valentina Bordano, Roberto Fantozzi, Manuela Aragno, Massimo Collino, Marco Alessandro Minetto
Epidemiological studies pointed out to a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes prevalence. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the skeletal muscle, a tissue that play a crucial role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, has been scarcely investigated so far. On this basis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance with particular attention to the effects evoked on the skeletal muscle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342149/low-expression-of-il-18-and-il-18-receptor-in-human-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-systemic-and-intramuscular-lipid-metabolism-role-of-hiv-lipodystrophy
#18
Birgitte Lindegaard, Thine Hvid, Helene Wolsk Mygind, Ole Hartvig-Mortensen, Thomas Grøndal, Julie Abildgaard, Jan Gerstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Marcin Baranowski
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-18 is involved in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Mice lacking whole-body IL-18 signalling are prone to develop weight gain and insulin resistance, a phenotype which is associated with impaired fat oxidation and ectopic skeletal muscle lipid deposition. IL-18 mRNA is expressed in human skeletal muscle but a role for IL-18 in muscle has not been identified. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy (LD) are characterized by lipid and glucose disturbances and increased levels of circulating IL-18...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342130/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-are-positively-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#19
Ping Zhu, Xinliang Liu, Xiaoming Mao
BACKGROUND It has been reported that overt and mild thyroid dysfunctions are associated with insulin resistance (IR). We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the relationships between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the reference range and IR. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 447 outpatients were enrolled in this study: 298 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 149 nondiabetic individuals. Based on a cutoff HbA1c value of 7%, diabetic patients were additionally divided into 2 groups: a high-HbA1c group (n=240) and a low-HbA1c group (n=58)...
January 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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