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Insulin Resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149184/health-effects-of-saturated-and-trans-fatty-acid-intake-in-children-and-adolescents-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Lisa Te Morenga, Jason M Montez
BACKGROUND: Elevated cholesterol has been linked to cardiovascular disease in adults and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in children, thus reducing saturated (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake from an early age may help to reduce cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for health effects associated with reducing SFA and TFA intake in free-living children, adolescents and young adults between 2 to 19 years of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148930/use-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsion-to-improve-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-case-report
#2
Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients who are not able to use their gastrointestinal tract. There are a number of complications associated with HPN, including metabolic bone disease, intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and catheter-related bloodstream infections. We present a case of a 32-year-old HPN patient who initially developed biopsy-proven IFALD (total bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dL) while on long-term HPN. His HPN was initiated due to myopathic intestinal dysmotility and pseudo-obstruction when he was 15 years old...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148123/donohue-syndrome-a-review-of-literature-case-series-and-anesthetic-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Alana Kirkwood, Grant Stuart, Louise Harding
BACKGROUND: Donohue syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of insulin resistance, causing a functional defect in insulin receptor function, and affecting the ability of the insulin to bind the receptor. Features include severe hyperinsulinism and fasting hypoglycemia, along with severe failure to thrive despite feeding. An accelerated fasting state results in muscle wasting, decreased subcutaneous fat, and an excess of thick skin. A reduced thoracic diameter is accentuated by increased abdominal distension, which impacts on respiratory reserve...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#4
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147484/berberis-integerrima-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-in-high-fructose-fed-insulin-resistant-rats
#6
Hossein Fallah, Hamed Akbari, Moslem Abolhassani, Abbas Mohammadi, Ahmad Gholamhosseinian
Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Berberis integerrima (B. integerrima) extract on insulin sensitivity in high-fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed a regular chow diet while other group fed with a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. After the first six weeks, the animals were treated with B. integerrima extract or pioglitazone for two weeks...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#7
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146760/blepharitis-as-an-early-sign-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#8
Chia-Yi Lee, Hung-Chi Chen, Hui-Wen Lin, Jing-Yang Huang, Shih-Chun Chao, Chao-Bin Yeh, Hung-Yu Lin, Shun-Fa Yang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between blepharitis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the LHID for the period from 2009 to 2013. This study enrolled patients who received a diagnosis of blepharitis according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic code. The exclusion criteria were legal blindness, eyeball removal, ocular tumours prior to the diagnosis of blepharitis, and patients diagnosed with blepharitis and initiated antibiotic treatment concurrently...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146412/skeletal-muscle-overexpression-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-mice-coupled-with-voluntary-exercise-augments-exercise-endurance
#9
Sheila R Costford, Bram Brouwers, Meghan E Hopf, Lauren M Sparks, Mauro Dispagna, Ana P Gomes, Heather H Cornnell, Chris Petucci, Peter Phelan, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Glenn A Walter, Timothy F Osborne, David A Sinclair, Randall L Mynatt, Julio E Ayala, Stephen J Gardell, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145541/variations-in-adipor1-but-not-adipor2-are-associated-with-hypertriglyceridemia-and-diabetes-in-an-admixed-latin-american-population
#10
Gustavo Gustavo Mora-García, María S Ruiz-Díaz, Fabian Espitia-Almeida, Doris Gómez-Camargo
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It regulates glycolysis and lipolysis and is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and related disorders. Its activity is mainly mediated by the transmembrane receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are encoded by ADIPOR1 (1q32.1) and ADIPOR2 (12p13.33) genes, respectively. In genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near these genes have been associated with metabolic alterations. However, these relationships are still controversial...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145540/inverse-association-of-peripheral-orexin-a-with-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Mitra Zarifkar, Sina Noshad, Mona Shahriari, Mohsen Afarideh, Elias Khajeh, Zahra Karimi, Alireza Ghajar, Alireza Esteghamati
AIMS: To investigate the association between serum orexin concentrations and insulin resistance/sensitivity in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the effects of anti-hyperglycemic treatment on orexin concentrations over three months. METHODS: This study was designed as a randomized, open-label, clinical trial. Before allocation, sixty medication-naïve, newly-diagnosed, type 2 diabetes patients underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145148/honokiol-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-against-high-glucose-and-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-injury-by-activating-nrf2-are-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Chen-Guang Li, Chang-Lin Ni, Min Yang, Yun-Zhao Tang, Zhu Li, Yan-Juan Zhu, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Bei Sun, Chun-Jun Li
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although several studies have revealed that intermittent hypoxia (IH) in OSAHS may further aggravate pancreatic β cell damage and promote the evolution of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by increasing oxidative stress, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Honokiol, a potent radical scavenger, has been demonstrated to ameliorate oxidative stress in many cases. The present study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of IH and diabetes synergistically damage and destruct the pancreatic β cell, examine the effects of honokiol on ameliorating pancreatic β cell injury in this context and explore the mechanism of such effects...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145032/intravenous-immunoglobulin-improves-glucose-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-human-iapp-transgenic-mice-by-attenuating-islet-inflammation-and-reducing-iapp-oligomers
#13
Yue Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yu, Jie Zhu, Shu-Ying Liu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Quan-Xiu Dong, Jia-Qian Chai, Rui-Tian Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by β-cell loss, insulin resistance, islet inflammation and amyloid deposits derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Reducing toxic IAPP oligomers and inhibiting islet inflammation may provide therapeutic benefit in treating T2DM. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an efficient anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory neurological diseases. However, whether IVIg has therapeutic potential on T2DM remains unclear...
November 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144993/evaluate-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-reproductive-endocrine-system-in-newly-diagnosed-female-epileptic-patients-receiving-either-valproate-or-lamotrigine-monotherapy-a-prospective-study
#14
Harpreet Singh Sidhu, R Srinivasa, Akshay Sadhotra
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development of reproductive endocrine changes in Indian women with epilepsy initiating on either Valproate (VPA) or Lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy. METHODS: Reproductive hormonal profiles, hirsutism, ovarian morphology by ultrasonography and menstrual cycle data in newly diagnosed women with epilepsy taking VPA (n=34) or LTG (n=32) monotherapy were compared. None of the women were receiving hormonal contraception. Patients gave details of seizure type and frequency, medical and drug history...
October 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#15
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144802/lipid-accumulation-product-visceral-adiposity-index-and-chinese-visceral-adiposity-index-as-markers-of-cardiometabolic-risk-in-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Xin Xie, Qing Li, Lingmin Zhang, Wei Ren
OBJECTIVE: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the AGHD population, there is a need for alternative, non-invasive methods of assessing cardiometabolic risk in this population. Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is a new marker of visceral fat dysfunction that is based on age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic parameters...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144438/bioactive-components-in-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protect-against-chronic-disease
#17
REVIEW
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, Maria Luz Fernandez
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation...
November 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144030/the-role-of-glucagon-in-weight-loss-mediated-metabolic-improvement-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
M P Silvestre, J P Goode, P Vlaskovsky, C McMahon, A Tay, S D Poppitt
Aims This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the role of glucagon suppression in regulating glucose homeostasis following diet or bariatric surgery. Methods A comprehensive search of intervention and observational studies was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and Embase. Random effects model meta-analysis was performed. Primary outcomes were (i) body weight change, (ii) fasting glucagon, (iii) fasting glucose and (iv) fasting insulin concentrations. Results Twenty articles reporting data from 29 interventions were eligible for analysis...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143803/use-of-novel-high-protein-functional-food-products-as-part-of-a-calorie-restricted-diet-to-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-lean-body-mass-in-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Carol S Johnston, Barry Sears, Mary Perry, Jessica R Knurick
Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR) can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day) using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day) with a similar level of calorie restriction...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143290/increased-free-testosterone-levels-in-men-with-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-five-years-after-randomization-to-bariatric-surgery
#20
Nathan H Pham, James Bena, Deepak L Bhatt, Laurence Kennedy, Philip R Schauer, Sangeeta R Kashyap
Hypogonadism frequently occurs in male patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is linked to insulin resistance and inflammation. Testosterone levels rise acutely in obese patients following bariatric surgery, though long-term changes have not been investigated in a randomized controlled trial. This study evaluated obese men with T2DM randomized to either bariatric surgery or medical therapy. Testosterone, gonadotropins, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in 32 patients at baseline and at 5 years...
November 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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