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Insulin Resistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926857/the-amelioration-of-insulin-resistance-in-salt-loading-subjects-by-potassium-supplementation-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-plasma-il-17a-levels
#1
Wen Wen, Zhaofei Wan, Dong Zhou, Juan Zhou, Zuyi Yuan
Background High dietary salt intake contributes to the development of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS) which potassium supplementation can potentially reverse. T helper (Th) 17 cells as well as its production interleukin (IL)-17A are involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. The polarization of Th17 cells and enhanced IL-17A production induced by high salt might increase the risk of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Methods 45 normotensive subjects (aged 29 to 65 years) were enrolled from a rural community of Northern China at random...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926842/pharmacotherapy-with-thymoquinone-improved-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-integrity-and-functional-activity-enhanced-islets-revascularization-and-alleviated-metabolic-and-hepato-renal-disturbances-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#2
Adel Galal El-Shemi, Osama Adnan Kensara, Aiman Alsaegh, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
AIMS: This study is aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats, and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared STZ (65 mg/kg). After disease induction, 42 rats were equally assigned to: controls, STZ-diabetic group, and STZ-diabetic group treated with oral TQ (35 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#3
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925900/effects-of-apelin-peptides-on-diabetic-complications
#4
Hong Chen, Chengyu Liu, Cheng Cheng, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiple complications, including cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Diabetic complications are the major cause of disability and death in diabetic patients. Apelin, a recently identified adipokine peptide, has been found to play important roles in diabetic complications. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of different diabetic complications. We also propose that similar to insulin resistance or leptin resistance, diabetics may also show apelin resistance...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#5
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925406/abdominal-fat-deposits-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-leptin-and-vaspin-levels-as-well-as-insulin-resistance-in-the-general-adult-population
#6
F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Various fat depots including visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) or liver fat content (LFC) were supposed to have different influences on various entities including adipokine levels as well as insulin resistance/sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the associations of SAT, VAT and LFC with the levels of leptin and vaspin as well as insulin resistance in a general non-diabetic population. METHODS: In total, 1825 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized according to body fat compartments and LFC determined by magnetic resonance imaging...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925048/the-association-between-insulin-resistance-metabolic-variables-and-depressive-symptoms-in-mexican-american-elderly-a-population-based-study
#7
Breno S Diniz, Susan Fisher-Hoch, Joseph McCormick
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among older adults with obesity and diabetes. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for this association are not clear but may involve changes in the insulin cascade signaling. We aimed to investigate the association, and potential mediators, between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms among older adults from a homogenous cohort of Mexican-Americans. METHODS: We included a total of 500 Mexican-American older adults assessed in the Cameron County Health Study...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924543/effect-of-the-pro12ala-polymorphism-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-2-gene-on-lipid-profile-and-adipokines-levels-in-obese-subjects
#9
E Becer, A Çırakoğlu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of metabolism, adipokines production and secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels. The study included 160 obese and 140 non obese subjects. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
June 30, 2017: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924380/intracellular-insulin-and-impaired-autophagy-in-a-zebrafish-model-and-a-cell-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Xiang-Hui Meng, Bo Chen, Jing-Pu Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance. However, the complete molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, zebrafish were fed a long-term high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes, which resulted in a higher body weight, body mass index, more lipid vacuoles in liver, increased insulin transcription level in liver, brain and muscle, and high fasting blood glucose in the high-fat diet zebrafish. Oppositely, the transcription levels of insulin substrate-2 and glucose transporter 2 were significantly decreased, indicating insulin signaling pathway and glucose transport impaired in the insulin-targeting tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924165/manf-regulates-hypothalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#11
Su Yang, Huiming Yang, Renbao Chang, Peng Yin, Yang Yang, Weili Yang, Shanshan Huang, Marta A Gaertig, Shihua Li, Xiao-Jiang Li
The hypothalamus has a vital role in controlling food intake and energy homeostasis; its activity is modulated by neuropeptides and endocrine factors. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a neurotrophic factor that is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neurons. Here we show that MANF is highly enriched in distinct nuclei of the mouse hypothalamus, and that MANF expression in the hypothalamus is upregulated in response to fasting. Increasing or decreasing hypothalamic MANF protein levels causes hyperphagia or hypophagia, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923931/endothelial-insulin-receptors-differentially-control-insulin-signaling-kinetics-in-peripheral-tissues-and-brain-of-mice
#12
Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Samuel M Lockhart, Weikang Cai, Mengyao Ella Li, Erica P Homan, Christian Rask-Madsen, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin receptors (IRs) on endothelial cells may have a role in the regulation of transport of circulating insulin to its target tissues; however, how this impacts on insulin action in vivo is unclear. Using mice with endothelial-specific inactivation of the IR gene (EndoIRKO), we find that in response to systemic insulin stimulation, loss of endothelial IRs caused delayed onset of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, brown fat, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex but not in liver or olfactory bulb...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923478/reduction-of-non-enzymatic-antioxidants-in-plasma-during-ecmo-treatment-in-ards-by-influence-a-h1n1
#13
Marco Ciapetti, Paola Mancinelli, Andrea Cecchi, Emma Borrelli, Velio Bocci, Adriano Peris
PURPOSE: In critically ill patient it is observed a severe oxidative stress, not only due to the acute pathology but also for some therapeutic treatments. The aim of the present study was to analyze the variations of non-enzymatic antioxidants in plasma during veno-venous ECMO-treatment in a homogeneous population of critical patients with ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study enrolling all patients with ARDS by influence A H1N1 treated with veno-venous ECMO...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923179/drugs-and-hyperglycemia-a-practical-guide
#14
REVIEW
Vandana Jain, Ronak Kumar Patel, Zaureen Kapadia, Sneha Galiveeti, Maryann Banerji, Lisel Hope
Drug-induced diabetes is one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide. This review considers the frequency, pathogenesis and treatment of drug-induced diabetes. Drugs that induce diabetes include hormonal therapy, especially glucocorticoids and androgen blockers, cardiovascular drugs, especially statins, beta-blockers and diuretics, antipsychotics, especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, antiretrovirals (protease inhibitors and non-reverse transcriptase inhibitors - NRTIs) and other drugs (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors -mTORs, post organ transplantation drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and interferon-alpha)...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923095/genetic-and-epigenetic-studies-of-adiposity-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#15
Michael V Holmes, Sara L Pulit, Cecilia M Lindgren
Over 300 million adults are obese, but little is known about the impact of obesity on cardiovascular health. We discuss recent genetic and epigenetic studies of adiposity that indicate a causal role for general and central adiposity in cardiometabolic disease, and highlight potential mechanisms including insulin resistance and gene expression.
September 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922661/lysophosphatidic-acid-inhibits-insulin-signaling-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes-via-the-lpa3-receptor-subtype-and-is-increased-in-obesity
#16
Susann Fayyaz, Lukasz Japtok, Fabian Schumacher, Dominik Wigger, Tim Julius Schulz, Kathrin Haubold, Erich Gulbins, Heinz Völler, Burkhard Kleuser
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is a main risk factor for the development of hepatic insulin resistance and it is accompanied by adipocyte hypertrophy and an elevated expression of different adipokines such as autotaxin (ATX). ATX converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acts as the main producer of extracellular LPA. This bioactive lipid regulates a broad range of physiological and pathological responses by activation of LPA receptors (LPA1-6). METHODS: The activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling (Akt and GSK-3ß) was analyzed via western blotting in primary rat hepatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922096/the-effects-of-ramadan-fasting-on-body-composition-blood-pressure-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-nafld-patients-an-observational-trial
#17
Fereshteh Aliasghari, Azimeh Izadi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Sara Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease and is a serious global health problem. Regarding the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, finding various strategies to prevent and manage the disease is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of caloric restriction during Ramadan fasting on anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) in patients with NAFLD...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922017/effects-of-chronic-and-intermittent-calorie-restriction-on-adropin-levels-in-breast-cancer
#18
Bilge G Tuna, Pinar B Atalay, Mine Altunbek, Batuhan M Kalkan, Soner Dogan
Adropin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in insulin resistance and as a potential regulator of growth. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of calorie restriction on circulating levels of adropin in the MMTV-TGFα breast cancer mouse model and investigate the effects of adropin peptide on the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-231 breast cancer cells in culture. Ten-week-old mice were assigned to either ad libitum-fed (AL), chronic calorie-restricted, or intermittent calorie-restricted groups...
September 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#19
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920721/-changes-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation-and-their-effects-on-cardiovascular-risk
#20
Bernadett Borda, Edit Szederkényi, Zoltán Hódi, Aurél Ottlakán, Viktor Szabó, György Lázár
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of deaths after transplantation, with diabetes mellitus being the main risk factor in development. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus in connection with the cardiovascular risk predicted by the HEART Score. METHOD: 44 patients were involved in our study; after overview of baseline data, OGTT was performed, followed by patient classification into the following groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and new onset diabetes mellitus...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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