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Serrated polyp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639142/serrated-polyps-of-colon-and-rectum-a-clinicopathologic-review
#1
REVIEW
Bita Geramizadeh, Scott Robertson
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, there have been significant changes in the classification and nomenclature of colorectal polyps. Previously, only two groups of lesions were widely recognized, the adenoma and the hyperplastic polyp. Adenomas were considered the only precursor of colorectal cancer, and hyperplastic polyps were considered innocent with no malignant potential. However, recent discoveries about molecular pathways of colorectal cancers have significantly changed our understanding of these neoplasms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627675/distinctive-crypt-shape-in-a-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyp-distribution-of-ki67-p16ink4a-wnt5a-positive-cells-and-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#2
Kenji Hisamatsu, Kei Noguchi, Hiroyuki Tomita, Aoi Muto, Natsumi Yamada, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Akihiro Hirata, Tomohiro Kanayama, Ayumi Niwa, Kazuhisa Ishida, Takayuki Nakashima, Yuichiro Hatano, Natsuko Suzui, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Akira Hara
Serrated lesions in the colorectum are currently predominantly classified as hyperplastic polyps (HPs), sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) according to their morphology. However, the histological morphology and the molecular changes in the serrated lesions are still unclear. We performed immunohistochemistry for Ki67, p16INK4a, and WNT5A in human HPs (n=22), SSA/Ps (n=41), and TSAs (n=19). The distribution of Ki67 and p16INK4a positive cells in TSAs was different from that in HPs and SSA/Ps...
June 15, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614199/wnt-pathway-gene-mutations-are-associated-with-the-presence-of-dysplasia-in-colorectal-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyps
#3
Taiki Hashimoto, Satoshi Yamashita, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Toshikazu Ushijima, Tesshi Yamada, Yutaka Saito, Atsushi Ochiai, Shigeki Sekine, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are believed to be the major precursor of serrated pathway-derived colorectal carcinomas. To better characterize the process of progression from SSA/Ps to carcinomas, we analyzed 46 SSA/Ps with dysplasia and 45 SSA/Ps without dysplasia using targeted next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Among the WNT pathway genes analyzed, protein-truncating mutations of RNF43, APC, and ZNRF3 were identified in 23 (50%), 4 (9%), and 3 (7%) SSA/Ps with dysplasia, respectively...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600398/unmetabolized-folic-acid-tetrahydrofolate-and-colorectal-adenoma-risk
#4
Judy R Rees, Carolyn B Morris, Janet L Peacock, Per Magne Ueland, Elizabeth L Barry, Gail McKeown-Eyssen, Jane C Figueiredo, Dale C Snover, Baron A John
In a randomized trial of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas, we previously found indications of increased risk during later treatment and follow-up. This could have been due to the unmetabolized folic acid or natural reduced and methylated folates to which it is metabolized. In post hoc analyses, we measured methylated folates (mF, the sum of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and 4-alfa-hydroxy-5-methyl-THF) and unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) concentrations in the serum of 924 participants...
June 9, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596985/linked-color-imaging-improves-the-visibility-of-colorectal-polyps-a-video-study
#5
Naohisa Yoshida, Yuji Naito, Takaaki Murakami, Ryohei Hirose, Kiyoshi Ogiso, Yutaka Inada, Osamu Dohi, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kewin Tien Ho Siah, Nobuaki Yagi, Yasuko Fujita, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Akio Yanagisawa, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND/STUDY AIM:  Linked color imaging (LCI) by a laser endoscope (Fujifilm Co, Tokyo, Japan) is a novel narrow band light observation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether LCI could improve the visibility of colorectal polyps using endoscopic videos. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  We prospectively recorded videos of consecutive polyps 2 - 20 mm in size diagnosed as neoplastic polyps. Three videos, white light (WL), blue laser imaging (BLI)-bright, and LCI, were recorded for each polyp by one expert...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583826/risk-stratification-for-covert-invasive-cancer-among-patients-referred-for-colonic-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-a-large-multi-center-cohort
#6
Nicholas G Burgess, Luke F Hourigan, Simon A Zanati, Gregor J Brown, Rajvinder Singh, Stephen J Williams, Spiro C Raftopoulos, Donald Ormonde, Alan Moss, Karen Byth, Hema Mahajan, Duncan McLeod, Michael J Bourke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Among patients with large colorectal sessile polyps or laterally spreading lesions, it is important to identify those at risk for submucosal invasive cancer (SMIC). Lesions with overt endoscopic evidence of SMIC are referred for surgery, although those without these features might still contain SMIC that is not visible on endoscopic inspection (covert SMIC). Lesions with a high covert SMIC risk might be better suited for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) than for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)...
June 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573495/rnf43-is-mutated-less-frequently-in-lynch-syndrome-compared-with-sporadic-microsatellite-unstable-colorectal-cancers
#7
Lochlan J Fennell, Mark Clendenning, Diane M McKeone, Saara H Jamieson, Samanthy Balachandran, Jennifer Borowsky, John Liu, Futoshi Kawamata, Catherine E Bond, Christophe Rosty, Matthew E Burge, Daniel D Buchanan, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall
The WNT signaling pathway is commonly altered during colorectal cancer development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF43, negatively regulates the WNT signal through increased ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Frizzled receptor. RNF43 has recently been reported to harbor frequent truncating frameshift mutations in sporadic microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers. This study assesses the relative frequency of RNF43 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancers arising in the setting of Lynch syndrome...
June 1, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569401/macrophage-inhibitory-cytokine-1-growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-predictor-of-colonic-neoplasia
#8
M Danta, D A Barber, H P Zhang, M Lee-Ng, S W L Baumgart, V W W Tsai, Y Husaini, M Saxena, C P Marquis, W Errington, S Kerr, S N Breit, D A Brown
BACKGROUND: Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) concentration has been associated with colonic adenomas and carcinoma. AIMS: To determine whether circulating MIC-1/GDF15 serum concentrations are higher in the presence of adenomas and whether the level decreases after excision. METHODS: Patients were recruited prospectively from a single centre and stratified into five groups: no polyps (NP); hyperplastic polyps (HP); sessile serrated ademona (SSA); adenomas (AP); and colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
June 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543708/comprehensive-characterization-of-rspo-fusions-in-colorectal-traditional-serrated-adenomas
#9
Shigeki Sekine, Reiko Ogawa, Taiki Hashimoto, Motohiro Kojima, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Yutaka Saito, Yasuhiro Ohno, Atsushi Ochiai, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
AIMS: Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) is a rare but distinct type of colorectal polyp. Our previous study showed that PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions are frequent and characteristic genetic alterations in TSAs. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the prevalence and variability of RSPO fusions in colorectal TSAs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined RSPO expression and explored novel RSPO fusions in 129 TSAs, including 66 lesions previously analyzed for WNT pathway gene mutations...
May 24, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539293/-comparison-of-risk-factors-for-serrated-polyps-and-conventional-adenoma-and-the-suitable-age-to-start-colorectal-cancer-screening
#10
Qian Dai, Jiang Liu, Mu-Xiao Zhong, Wei Zhu, Ya-Li Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk factors associated with serrated polyps (SPs) and conventional adenoma (CA). METHODS: One hundred and three healthy control subjects, 100 patients with pathologically confirmed SPs and 115 with CA were randomly selected from individuals undergoing colonoscopy in Nanfang Hospital from 2012 to 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected from the subjects, including age, gender, height, weight, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, alcohol use, family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) and blood lipids...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533659/braf-inhibitor-treatment-of-melanoma-causing-colonic-polyps-an-alternative-hypothesis
#11
EDITORIAL
Fergal C Kelleher, Grainne Callaghan, Catriona Gallagher, Hazel O'Sullivan
Colonic polyps may arise from BRAF inhibitor treatment of melanoma, possibly due to paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase pathway. In an alternative evidence based scenario, tubular colonic adenomas with APC gene mutations have also been identified in the context of BRAF inhibitor treatment, in the absence of mutations of MAPK genes. A minority of colorectal cancers develop by an alternative "serrated polyp pathway". This article postulates a novel hypothesis, that the established phenotypic and molecular characteristics of serrated colonic polyps/CRC offer an intriguing insight into the pathobiology of BRAF inhibitor induced colonic polyps...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507755/ethnic-variations-in-the-occurrence-of-colonic-neoplasms
#12
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With the exception of African Americans and Hispanics, few studies have dealt with the influence of other types of ethnicity on the prevalence of colon polyps and colorectal cancer. The present study was undertaken to compare the ethnic and socioeconomic distributions of colonic neoplasms among different ethnic groups in the United States. METHODS: A total of 813,057 patients, who underwent colonoscopy during 2008-2014, were recruited from an electronic database of histopathology reports (Miraca Life Sciences) for a cross-sectional study...
April 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507754/significantly-higher-rates-of-multiple-and-proximally-located-adenomas-among-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#13
Sander de Kort, Mariëlle We Bouwens, Matty P Weijenberg, Maryska Lg Janssen-Heijnen, Adriaan P de Bruïne, Robert Riedl, Ad Am Masclee, Silvia Sanduleanu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a greater risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the endoscopic phenotype and histopathology of colorectal polyps in patients with vs without DM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients who underwent colonoscopy at our university hospital and who completed a questionnaire. We collected endoscopy and histopathology data regarding colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps...
April 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501592/endoscopic-and-molecular-characterization-of-colorectal-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyps-with-cytological-dysplasia
#14
Yoshihito Tanaka, Hiro-O Yamano, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Hiro-O Matushita, Hironori Aoki, Kenjiro Yoshikawa, Ryo Takagi, Eiji Harada, Michiko Nakaoka, Yuko Yoshida, Makoto Eizuka, Tamotsu Sugai, Hiromu Suzuki, Hiroshi Nakase
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), which are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC) with BRAF mutation and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), develop cytological dysplasia (CD) during the progression of colorectal tumorigenesis. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the endoscopic and molecular signatures of SSA/Ps, with and without CD. METHODS: A series of 208 serrated lesions, including 41 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 90 SSA/Ps, 33 SSA/Ps with CD and 44 traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), were observed and resected using magnifying endoscopy...
May 10, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494577/sessile-serrated-adenomas-how-to-detect-characterize-and-resect
#15
REVIEW
Michael X Ma, Michael J Bourke
Serrated polyps are important contributors to the burden of colorectal cancers (CRC). These lesions were once considered to have no malignant potential, but currently up to 30% of all CRC are recognized to arise from the serrated neoplasia pathway. The primary premalignant lesions are sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), although traditional serrated adenomas are relatively uncommon. Compared to conventional adenomas, SSA/Ps are morphologically subtle with indistinct borders, may be difficult to detect endoscopically, are more prevalent than previously thought, are associated with synchronous and metachronous advanced neoplasia, and have a higher risk of incomplete resection...
May 11, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494511/the-ethnic-distribution-of-sessile-serrated-polyps-in-the-united-states-is-inversely-associated-with-h-pylori-prevalence
#16
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of sessile serrated polyps (SSP). Our study was aimed to investigate the influence of H. pylori gastritis and demographic patient characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity) on the prevalence of sessile serrated polyps, using a large national database of patients undergoing bi-directional endoscopy. METHODS: De-identified patient data were extracted from the Miraca Life Sciences electronic database of histopathologic reports...
May 11, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488129/loss-of-the-association-between-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-contribute-to-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#17
Hyunsu Lee, Ji-Hyoung Cho, Won-Jin Park, Soo-Jung Jung, In-Jang Choi, Jae-Ho Lee
Positive association between telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number were introduced in healthy and patients with psychiatric disorder. Based on frequent genetic changes of telomere and mitochondria in colorectal carcinomas (CRC), we studied their clinical characteristics and their association in colorectal carcinogenesis. DNA was extracted from 109 CRCs, 64 colorectal tubular adenomas (TAs), and 28 serrated polyps (SPs), and then, telomere length and mtDNA copy number were analyzed in these legions by using a real-time PCR assay...
May 9, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474162/-hereditary-colorectal-cancer-an-update-on-genetics-and-entities-in-terms-of-differential-diagnosis
#18
REVIEW
T T Rau, H Dawson, A Hartmann, J Rüschoff
The pathologist can contribute to recognizing hereditary causes of colorectal cancer via morphology. By identifying so-called index patients, it is possible to take preventive measures in affected families. The precise definition of the clinical presentation and the histopathological phenotype help to narrow the spectrum of expected genetic alterations. Novelties within Lynch syndrome include the recognition of EPCAM as a fifth gene locus, as well as the newly defined Lynch-like syndrome with evidence of somatic mismatch repair (MMR) mutations...
May 4, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470092/the-sept9-gene-methylation-assay-is-capable-of-detecting-colorectal-adenoma-in-opportunistic-screening
#19
Lele Song, Xiumei Peng, Yuemin Li, Wenhua Xiao, Jia Jia, Cheng Dong, Yuan Gong, Guangpeng Zhou, Xiaoliang Han
AIM: This study validated the detection of colorectal adenoma in opportunistic screening using the SEPT9 gene methylation assay. MATERIALS & METHODS: Plasma samples including 85 colorectal cancers, 364 adenomas, 216 hyperplastic polyps, 372 other gastrointestinal diseases and 324 normal subjects, were obtained and tested using the Epi proColon 2.0 CE assay. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The SEPT9 assay detected 38.7% of all types of adenoma, including 27...
May 4, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450390/british-society-of-gastroenterology-position-statement-on-serrated-polyps-in-the-colon-and-rectum
#20
James E East, Wendy S Atkin, Adrian C Bateman, Susan K Clark, Sunil Dolwani, Shara N Ket, Simon J Leedham, Perminder S Phull, Matt D Rutter, Neil A Shepherd, Ian Tomlinson, Colin J Rees
Serrated polyps have been recognised in the last decade as important premalignant lesions accounting for between 15% and 30% of colorectal cancers. There is therefore a clinical need for guidance on how to manage these lesions; however, the evidence base is limited. A working group was commission by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) Endoscopy section to review the available evidence and develop a position statement to provide clinical guidance until the evidence becomes available to support a formal guideline...
July 2017: Gut
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