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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#1
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772067/dna-content-analysis-of-colorectal-serrated-lesions-detects-an-aneuploid-subset-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-serrated-epithelial-change-and-traditional-serrated-adenomas
#2
Won-Tak Choi, Kwun Wah Wen, Peter S Rabinovitch, Danning Huang, Aras N Mattis, Ryan M Gill
AIMS: Serrated lesions (SLs), including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), are important premalignant lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although a small subset of SLs are known to harbor TP53 mutations and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, suggesting that they may develop dysplasia or CRC via a 'chromosomal instability (CIN)-like' pathway, it is unclear if aneuploidy (characteristic of conventional adenoma) ever develops in SLs and is associated with development of dysplasia or CRC, in this context...
May 17, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763272/colorectal-cancer-screening-and-prevention
#3
Thad Wilkins, Danielle McMechan, Asif Talukder
Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of age. Randomized controlled trials show evidence of reduced colorectal cancer-specific mortality with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests and flexible sigmoidoscopy. There are no randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of colonoscopy to reduce colorectal cancer-specific mortality; however, several randomized controlled trials comparing colonoscopy with other strategies are in progress...
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747061/serrated-epithelial-colorectal-polyps-hyperplastic-polyps-sessile-serrated-adenomas-with-perineurial-stroma-clinicopathological-and-molecular-analysis-of-a-new-series
#4
Katharina Erlenbach-Wünsch, Michel Bihl, Arndt Hartmann, Gabriel M Groisman, Michael Vieth, Abbas Agaimy
Serrated colorectal fibroblastic polyps (FPs) are rare benign mucosal lesions composed of serrated epithelial crypts separated and distorted by intimately associated bland spindle cell proliferations with perineurial-like phenotype. We herein describe 21 new FPs affecting 10 females and 9 males aged 45 to 80 yrs. (mean, 62 yrs). Lesions originated in the sigmoid colon/rectosigmoid junction (n = 16), rectum (n = 2), and other parts of the colon (n = 3). Most patients had additional synchronous or metachronous polyps: classical adenomas (12 patients), sessile serrated adenoma/SSA (1 patient), hyperplastic polyps/HPs (7 patients), both HPs and adenomas (6 patients) and colorectal cancer (2 patients)...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742770/resection-of-large-sessile-serrated-polyps-by-cold-piecemeal-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-serrated-cold-piecemeal-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-scope
#5
Rajaratnam Rameshshanker, Zacharias Tsiamoulos, Andrew Latchford, Morgan Moorghen, Brian P Saunders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739023/the-clinical-significance-and-synchronous-polyp-burden-of-large-%C3%A2-20-mm-sessile-serrated-polyps-in-patients-without-serrated-polyposis-syndrome
#6
Lobke Desomer, David J Tate, Mahesh Jayanna, Maria Pellise, Halim Awadie, Nicholas G Burgess, Duncan McLeod, Hema Mahajan, Eric Y T Lee, Stephen J Williams, Michael J Bourke
BACKGROUND:  Sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) are important precursors of colorectal carcinoma and interval cancer. Large SSPs (≥ 20 mm) outside the definition of serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) have not been studied in comparison with SPS. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with large SSPs in this context. METHODS:  Patients with at least one SSP (≥ 20 mm) were eligible. Data from three consecutive colonoscopies were used to compare clinical and endoscopic characteristics in three patient groups: SPS, a solitary large SSP, and patients with at least two SSPs without fulfilling the criteria for SPS (oligo-SSP)...
May 8, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738362/colonic-adenomatous-polyps-involving-submucosal-lymphoglandular-complexes-a-diagnostic-pitfall
#7
Hee Eun Lee, Tsung-Teh Wu, Vishal S Chandan, Michael S Torbenson, Taofic Mounajjed
Lymphoglandular complexes (LGCs) are lymphoid nodules containing intestinal mucosa, present in close apposition to muscularis mucosae or submucosa. Rarely, colorectal adenomas involve submucosal LGCs, simulating invasive adenocarcinoma with associated submucosal lymphoid aggregates, and presenting a diagnostic pitfall. We aimed to identify distinctive histologic features between submucosal LGCs and true invasion. Seven adenomas (tubular/tubulovillous adenomas [n=6], including 4 with high-grade dysplasia and 1 with focal intramucosal adenocarcinoma, and sessile serrated adenoma [n=1]) were in the right (n=5) and left colon (n=2)...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736838/predictive-chromoendoscopy-of-serrated-polyps-is-the-pendulum-swinging-toward-the-pit-pattern
#8
EDITORIAL
Joseph C Anderson, Amitabh Srivastava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736830/comparison-of-small-versus-large-volume-split-dose-preparation-for-colonoscopy-a-study-of-colonoscopy-outcomes
#9
Hassan Siddiki, Sreya Ravi, Mohanad T Al-Qaisi, Ayman R Fath, Francisco Ramirez, Michael D Crowell, Rahul Pannala, Douglas O Faigel, Suryakanth R Gurudu
BACKGROUND: Split dose bowel preparations (SDP) have superior outcomes for colonoscopy as compared to evening before regimens. However, the association of the actual volume of the SDP to colonoscopy outcome measures has not been well studied. AIMS: Compare adenoma detection rate (ADR), sessile serrated polyp detection rate (SDR), mean bowel cleanse score, and predictors of inadequate exams between small volume SDP and large volume SDP. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective study in patients undergoing colonoscopy with small volume SDP versus large volume SDP between July 2014 and December 2014...
May 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727905/detection-of-clinically-relevant-serrated-polyps-during-screening-colonoscopy-results-from-seven-cooperating-centers-within-the-german-colorectal-screening-program
#10
Christoph Schramm, Katharina Janhsen, Jan-Hinnerk Hofer, Hans Toermer, Annette Stelzer, Frank Stenschke, Michael Stollenwerk, Ingo Scheller, Sonja Lang, Tobias Goeser, Hans-Michael Steffen
BACKGROUND:  Serrated polyps have been recognized as precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC) via the serrated pathway. Endoscopic detection and histopathological evaluation of serrated polyps are challenging. The aims of this study were to determine detection rates of the recently proposed entity of clinically relevant serrated polyps (crSPs) and to identify factors that influence their detection in a primary colonoscopy screening cohort. METHODS:  We retrospectively analyzed average-risk screening colonoscopies performed at a tertiary academic hospital and six community-based private practices in Germany between 01/01/2012 and 14/12/2016...
May 4, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721374/ppar%C3%AE-activation-increases-intestinal-m1-macrophages-and-mitigates-formation-of-serrated-adenomas-in-mutant-kras-mice
#11
Tobias Gutting, Christian A Weber, Philip Weidner, Frank Herweck, Sarah Henn, Teresa Friedrich, Shuiping Yin, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Timo Gaiser, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Wolfgang Reindl, Matthias P A Ebert, Elke Burgermeister
To identify novel hubs for cancer immunotherapy, we generated C57BL/6 J mice with concomitant deletion of the drugable transcription factor PPARγ and transgenic overexpression of the mutant KRASG12V oncogene in enterocytes. Animals developed epithelial hyperplasia, transmural inflammation and serrated adenomas in the small intestine with infiltration of CD3+ FOXP3+ T-cells and macrophages into the lamina propria of the non-malignant mucosa. Within serrated polyps, CD3+ CD8+ T-cells and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were reduced and the senescence marker P21 and macrophage counts up-regulated, indicative of an immunosuppressive tissue microenvironment...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720120/telomere-length-differences-between-colorectal-polyp-subtypes-a-colonoscopy-based-case-control-study
#12
Sheetal Hardikar, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Amanda I Phipps, Melissa P Upton, Lee-Ching Zhu, Polly A Newcomb
BACKGROUND: Short telomeres have been associated with increased risk of many cancers, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract including esophagus and stomach. However, the association between telomere length (TL) and colorectal cancer and its precursors, colorectal polyps, is not clear. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between TL and risk of colorectal polyp subtypes in a colonoscopy-based study in western Washington. Participants were 35-79 year-old enrollees at an integrated health care system, who underwent a colonoscopy between 1998 and 2007 (n = 190), completed a self-administered questionnaire, provided blood samples, and were distinguished as having adenomas, serrated polyps, or as polyp-free controls through a standardized pathology review...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715117/micropapillary-structures-in-colorectal-cancer-an-anoikis-resistant-subpopulation
#13
Madhura Patankar, Sara Väyrynen, Anne Tuomisto, Markus Mäkinen, Sinikka Eskelinen, Tuomo J Karttunen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Micropapillary structures (MIPs) are focal piles of columnar cells without extracellular matrix contact, and common in serrated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In order to characterize biology of MIPs in colorectal cancer (CRC), the proliferation and apoptosis rates, and survivin expression were compared between MIPs and other cancer epithelial cells of CRC (non-MIPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 46 samples of normal colorectal mucosa, 62 carcinomas and 54 polyps for proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (M30), and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702117/association-between-risk-factors-for-colorectal-cancer-and-risk-of-serrated-polyps-and-conventional-adenomas
#14
Xiaosheng He, Kana Wu, Shuji Ogino, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan, Mingyang Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serrated polyps (SPs) and conventional adenomas are precursor lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC) but believed to arise via distinct pathways. We characterized risk factor profiles for SPs and conventional adenomas in a post-hoc analysis of data from 3 large prospective studies. METHODS: We collected data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), the NHS2, and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) on subjects who developed SPs or conventional adenomas...
April 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699379/endoscopic-features-of-mucous-cap-polyps-a-way-to-predict-serrated-polyps
#15
Brian T Moy, Faripour Forouhar, Chia-Ling Kuo, Thomas J Devers
Background/Aims: The aims of the study were to identify whether a mucous-cap predicts the presence of serrated polyps, and to determine whether additional endoscopic findings predict the presence of a sessile serrated adenomas/polyp (SSA/P). Methods: We analyzed 147 mucous-capped polyps with corresponding histology, during 2011-2014. Eight endoscopic features (presence of borders, elevation, rim of debris, location in the colon, size ≥10 mm, varicose vessels, nodularity, and alteration in mucosal folds) of mucous-capped polyps were examined to see if they can predict SSA/Ps...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696479/natural-language-processing-accurately-calculates-adenoma-and-sessile-serrated-polyp-detection-rates
#16
Jennifer Nayor, Lawrence F Borges, Sergey Goryachev, Vivian S Gainer, John R Saltzman
BACKGROUND: ADR is a widely used colonoscopy quality indicator. Calculation of ADR is labor-intensive and cumbersome using current electronic medical databases. Natural language processing (NLP) is a method used to extract meaning from unstructured or free text data. AIMS: (1) To develop and validate an accurate automated process for calculation of adenoma detection rate (ADR) and serrated polyp detection rate (SDR) on data stored in widely used electronic health record systems, specifically Epic electronic health record system, Provation® endoscopy reporting system, and Sunquest PowerPath pathology reporting system...
April 26, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695244/impact-of-differences-in-adenoma-and-proximal-serrated-polyp-detection-rate-on-the-long-term-effectiveness-of-fit-based-colorectal-cancer-screening
#17
Maxime E S Bronzwaer, Marjolein J E Greuter, Arne G C Bleijenberg, Joep E G IJspeert, Evelien Dekker, Veerle M H Coupé
BACKGROUND: Both the adenoma detection rate (ADR) and proximal serrated polyp detection rate (PSPDR) vary among endoscopists. It is unclear how these variations influence colorectal cancer (CRC) screening effectiveness. We evaluated the effect of variation in these detection rates on the long-term impact of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) based screening. METHODS: The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model was set up to simulate the Dutch national biennial FIT-based CRC screening program between 2014 and 2044...
April 25, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689571/endoscopist-factors-that-influence-serrated-polyp-detection-a-multicenter-study
#18
Seth D Crockett, Rebecca A Gourevitch, Michele Morris, David S Carrell, Sherri Rose, Zhuo Shi, Julia B Greer, Robert E Schoen, Ateev Mehrotra
BACKGROUND:  Serrated polyps are important colorectal cancer precursors that are variably detected during colonoscopy. We measured serrated polyp detection rate (SPDR) in a large, multicenter, cross-sectional study of colonoscopy quality to identify drivers of SPDR variation. METHODS:  Colonoscopy and pathology reports were collected for a 2-year period (10/2013-9/2015) from four sites across the United States. Data from reports, including size, location, and histology of polyps, were abstracted using a validated natural language processing algorithm...
April 24, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652830/colorectal-cancer-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-progression-tumor-heterogeneity-clonal-evolution-and-tumor-initiating-cells
#19
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Elvira Pelosi, Germana Castelli
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations...
April 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590112/active-braf-v600e-is-the-key-player-in-generation-of-a-sessile-serrated-polyp-specific-dna-methylation-profile
#20
Somaye Dehghanizadeh, Vahid Khoddami, Timothy L Mosbruger, Sue S Hammoud, Kornelia Edes, Therese S Berry, Michelle Done, Wade S Samowitz, James A DiSario, Daniel G Luba, Randall W Burt, David A Jones
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) have emerged as important precursors for a large number of sporadic colorectal cancers. They are difficult to detect during colonoscopy due to their flat shape and the excessive amounts of secreted mucin that cover the polyps. The underlying genetic and epigenetic basis for the emergence of SSPs is largely unknown with existing genetic studies confined to a limited number of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. A full characterization of the genetic and epigenetic landscape of SSPs would provide insight into their origin and potentially offer new biomarkers useful for detection of SSPs in stool samples...
2018: PloS One
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