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Serrated polyp

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308085/could-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-cause-crohn-s-disease-ulcerative-colitis%C3%A2-and-colorectal-cancer
#1
Ellen S Pierce
Infectious agents are known causes of human cancers. Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni cause a percentage of colorectal cancers in countries where the respective Schistosoma species are prevalent. Colorectal cancer is a complication of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease, the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IIBD). Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of a chronic intestinal disease in domestic and wild ruminants, is one suspected cause of IIBD...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284484/platform-independent-gene-expression-signature-differentiates-sessile-serrated-adenomas-polyps-and-hyperplastic-polyps-of-the-colon
#2
Yasir Rahmatallah, Magomed Khaidakov, Keith K Lai, Hannah E Goyne, Laura W Lamps, Curt H Hagedorn, Galina Glazko
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps are distinguished from hyperplastic colonic polyps subjectively by their endoscopic appearance and histological morphology. However, hyperplastic and sessile serrated polyps can have overlapping morphological features resulting in sessile serrated polyps diagnosed as hyperplastic. While sessile serrated polyps can progress into colon cancer, hyperplastic polyps have virtually no risk for colon cancer. Objective measures, differentiating these types of polyps would improve cancer prevention and treatment outcome...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282495/detection-rate-and-proximal-shift-tendency-of-adenomas-and-serrated-polyps-a-retrospective-study-of-62-560-colonoscopies
#3
Shuling Chen, Kaiyu Sun, Kang Chao, Yuli Sun, Liru Hong, Zijin Weng, Yi Cui, Minhu Chen, Shenghong Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to estimate the detection rates of adenomas and serrated polyps and to identify proximalization and associate risk factors in patients from Southern China. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy from 2004 to 2013 in Guangzhou were included. The proportions of proximal adenomas to advanced adenomas and serrated polyps were compared and potential predictors were evaluated. RESULTS: Colonoscopies (n = 62,560) were performed, and 11,427 patients were diagnosed with polyps...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250580/a-prospective-comparison-of-cold-snare-polypectomy-using-traditional-or-dedicated-cold-snares-for-the-resection-of-small-sessile-colorectal-polyps
#4
Jeremy P Dwyer, Jonathan Y C Tan, Paul Urquhart, Robyn Secomb, Catherine Bunn, John Reynolds, Richard La Nauze, William Kemp, Stuart Roberts, Gregor Brown
Background and study aims:  The evidence for efficacy and safety of cold snare polypectomy is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of resection and safety of cold snare polypectomy, using either traditional or dedicated cold snares. Patients and methods:  This was a prospective, non-randomized study performed at a single tertiary hospital. Adult patients with at least one colorectal polyp (size ≤ 10 mm) removed by cold snare were included...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235923/oncogenic-braf-mutation-induces-dna-methylation-changes-in-a-murine-model-for-human-serrated-colorectal-neoplasia
#5
Catherine E Bond, Cheng Liu, Futoshi Kawamata, Diane M McKeone, Winnie Fernando, Saara Jamieson, Sally-Ann Pearson, Alexandra Kane, Susan L Woods, Tamsin R M Lannagan, Roshini Somashekar, Young Lee, Troy Dumenil, Gunter Hartel, Kevin J Spring, Jennifer Borowsky, Lochlan Fennell, Mark Bettington, Jason Lee, Daniel L Worthley, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death and approximately 20% arises within serrated polyps, which are under-recognized and poorly understood. Human serrated colorectal polyps frequently exhibit both oncogenic BRAF mutation and widespread DNA methylation changes, which are important in silencing genes restraining neoplastic progression. Here, we investigated whether in vivo induction of mutant Braf is sufficient to result in coordinated promoter methylation changes for multiple cancer-related genes...
December 13, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233671/endoscopic-detection-rate-of-sessile-serrated-lesions-in-lynch-syndrome-patients-is-comparable-to-an-age-and-gender-matched-control-population-case-control-study-with-expert-pathology-review
#6
Jasper L A Vleugels, Husna Sahin, Yark Hazewinkel, Lianne Koens, Jose G van den Berg, Monique E van Leerdam, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) due to microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare endoscopic detection rates and distribution of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients to a matched control population. METHODS: We collected data of Lynch syndrome patients with a proven germline mutation who underwent colonoscopy between January 2011 and April 2016 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals...
December 9, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231190/lesions-of-all-types-exist-in-colon-polyps-of-all-sizes
#7
Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta, Amnon Sonnenberg
OBJECTIVES: Although large polyps are known to harbor more advanced neoplasia than small polyps, the extent of the relationship between size and type is not fully known. The study aim was to establish benchmarks for the prevalence of different histologic polyp types among varying size categories. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is an electronic repository of histopathologic patient records from private practices throughout the United States. We extracted the records of 483,998 unique patients who underwent colonoscopy with polypectomy between January 2008 and December 2014...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216529/sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyp-leading-to-acute-appendicitis-with-multiple-pyogenic-liver-abscesses-a-case-report
#8
Koki Sato, Masataka Banshodani, Masahiro Nishihara, Junko Nambu, Yasuo Kawaguchi, Fumio Shimamoto, Kiyohiko Dohi, Keizo Sugino, Hideki Ohdan
INTRODUCTION: Although appendicitis is a common disease, appendicitis concurrent with liver abscesses and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 69-year-old man presented with symptoms of abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple liver abscesses and an enlarged appendix with a pseudotumoral appearance, which suggested acute appendicitis. In the emergency operation, ileocecal resection was performed for the perforated appendicitis with an inflammatory mass in the ileocecum...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213343/exome-sequencing-characterizes-the-somatic-mutation-spectrum-of-early-serrated-lesions-in-a-patient-with-serrated-polyposis-syndrome-sps
#9
Sukanya Horpaopan, Jutta Kirfel, Sophia Peters, Michael Kloth, Robert Hüneburg, Janine Altmüller, Dmitriy Drichel, Margarete Odenthal, Glen Kristiansen, Christian Strassburg, Jacob Nattermann, Per Hoffmann, Peter Nürnberg, Reinhard Büttner, Holger Thiele, Philip Kahl, Isabel Spier, Stefan Aretz
Background: Serrated or Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (SPS, HPS) is a yet poorly defined colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition characterised by the occurrence of multiple and/or large serrated polyps throughout the colon. A serrated polyp-CRC sequence (serrated pathway) of CRC formation has been postulated, however, to date only few molecular signatures of serrated neoplasia (BRAF, KRAS, RNF43 mutations, CpG Island Methylation, MSI) have been described in a subset of SPS patients and neither the etiology of the syndrome nor the distinct genetic alterations during tumorigenesis have been identified...
2017: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210901/smoking-habits-are-strongly-associated-with-colorectal-polyps-in-a-population-based-case-control-study
#10
Naomi Fliss-Isakov, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Muriel Webb, Zamir Halpern, Revital Kariv
GOALS: The goal of this study is to test the association between lifetime smoking habits and colorectal polyps of different classifications. BACKGROUND: Smoking is an established risk factor for several cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, the association between lifetime smoking habits including intensity, duration, and cessation, and premalignant colorectal polyps is yet to be established. STUDY: A case-control study among 828 consecutive subjects aged 40 to 70 years, undergoing screening or diagnostic colonoscopy...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202003/implementation-of-an-optical-diagnosis-strategy-saves-costs-and-does-not-impair-clinical-outcomes-of-a-fecal-immunochemical-test-based-colorectal-cancer-screening-program
#11
Jasper L A Vleugels, Marjolein J E Greuter, Yark Hazewinkel, Veerle M H Coupé, Evelien Dekker
Background and study aims:  In an optical diagnosis strategy, diminutive polyps that are endoscopically characterized with high confidence are removed without histopathological analysis and distal hyperplastic polyps are left in situ. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of optical diagnosis. Methods:  Using the Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model, we simulated biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening in individuals aged 55 - 75 years...
December 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195676/alcohol-smoking-and-the-risk-of-premalignant-and-malignant-colorectal-neoplasms
#12
REVIEW
Ifewumi O Fagunwa, Maurice B Loughrey, Helen G Coleman
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and has a complex aetiology consisting of environmental and genetic factors. In this review, we evaluate the roles of alcohol and tobacco smoking in colorectal neoplasia. Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking are associated with modest, but significantly, increased risks of CRC, adenomatous and serrated polyps. There is consistent evidence of dose-response relationships for both alcohol and smoking, and risk of these neoplasms. Alcohol and smoking appear to be more strongly associated with colorectal polyp than CRC development, suggesting roles in the initiation of neoplastic growths...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181128/telomere-shortening-in-non-tumorous-and-tumor-mucosa-is-independently-related-to-colorectal-carcinogenesis-in-precancerous-lesions
#13
Won-Jin Park, Sung Uk Bae, Yu-Ran Heo, Soo-Jung Jung, Jae-Ho Lee
Telomere shortening is associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and recent studies have focused on its characteristics in both normal mucosa and tumor tissues. To clarify the role of telomeres in colorectal carcinogenesis, we analyzed telomere shortening in normal and tumor regions of 93 colorectal precursor lesions. Telomere length was examined in 61 tubular adenomas (TAs) and 32 serrated polyps (SPs), and PIK3CA expression, KRAS mutation, BRAF mutation, and MSI were also analyzed. Telomere length was similar in normal and tumor tissues of TAs and SPs...
2017: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174953/signature-celebration-of-gastroenterology-colorectal-cancer
#14
Andrew T Chan, Paul Moayyedi
Gastroenterology has published many seminal articles that have transformed our understanding of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as being influential in promoting colorectal cancer screening which has saved many people from developing the disease. CRC has a hereditary component most notably highlighted in Lynch syndrome. A key paper reported that the majority of mutations in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer harbored mutations in the MLH1 or MSH2 mismatch repair proteins. Continuing on the gene mutation theme, another paper...
November 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174927/computed-tomography-colonography-vs-colonoscopy-for-colorectal-cancer-surveillance-after-surgery
#15
David S Weinberg, Perry J Pickhardt, David H Bruining, Kristin Edwards, J G Fletcher, Marc J Gollub, Eileen M Keenan, Sonia S Kupfer, Tianyu Li, Sam J Lubner, Arnold J Markowitz, Eric A Ross
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recommendations for surveillance after curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) include a 1 year post-resection abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan and optical colonoscopy (OC). CT colonography (CTC), when used in CRC screening, effectively identifies colorectal polyps ≥10 mm and cancers. We performed a prospective study to determine whether CTC, concurrent with CT, could substitute for OC in CRC surveillance. METHODS: Our study enrolled 231 patients with resected stage 0-III CRC, identified at 5 tertiary care academic centers...
November 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169633/pathology-and-genetics-of-hereditary-colorectal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Huiying Ma, Lodewijk A A Brosens, G Johan A Offerhaus, Francis M Giardiello, Wendy W J de Leng, Elizabeth A Montgomery
Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for over 8% of all deaths annually worldwide. Between 2 and 5% of all CRCs occur due to inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis and Cowden/PTEN hamartoma syndrome. In addition, serrated polyposis is a clinically defined condition characterised by multiple colorectal serrated polyps and an increased risk of CRC but the genetics are not known. In most hereditary CRC syndromes, polyps undergo carcinogenesis, but the exact route to carcinoma seems to differ between the conditions...
November 20, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169195/wide-field-piecemeal-cold-snare-polypectomy-of-large-sessile-serrated-polyps-without-a-submucosal-injection-is-safe
#17
David J Tate, Halim Awadie, Farzan F Bahin, Lobke Desomer, Ralph Lee, Steven J Heitman, Kathleen Goodrick, Michael J Bourke
Background and study aims Large series suggest endoscopic mucosal resection is safe and effective for the removal of large (≥ 10 mm) sessile serrated polyps (SSPs), but it exposes the patient to the risks of electrocautery, including delayed bleeding. We examined the feasibility and safety of piecemeal cold snare polypectomy (pCSP) for the resection of large SSPs. Methods Sequential large SSPs (10 - 35 mm) without endoscopic evidence of dysplasia referred over 12 months to a tertiary endoscopy center were considered for pCSP...
November 23, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168233/progression-to-invasive-cancer-from-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyp
#18
Satoshi Kinoshita, Toshihiro Nishizawa, Toshio Uraoka
A 86-year-old female had a positive fecal immunochemical test, and a subsequent colonoscopy revealed a whitish, flat elevated lesion (Paris class IIa) 10 mm in diameter in the ascending colon (Figure 1, A). Biopsy was performed and histology confirmed sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P). At 2 years, the lesion changed into a flat elevated lesion with depression (Paris class IIa+IIc) 12 mm in diameter (Figure 1, B). However, she refused endoscopic resection because of older age. At 4 years, the lesion increased to 15 mm in diameter, and the right side of the lesion was reddish (Figure 1, C)...
November 23, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148927/flat-serrated-polyps-at-ct-colonography-relevance-appearance-and-optimizing-interpretation
#19
David H Kim, Meghan G Lubner, Ashley R Cahoon, B Dustin Pooler, Perry J Pickhardt
Serrated polyps are a recently recognized family of colonic polyps with subgroups that harbor future malignant potential. In the past, the significance of these lesions to the colorectal cancer carcinogenesis pathway was not recognized nor well understood. It is now known that serrated polyps account for approximately one-fourth of all sporadic colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated polyp (SSP) (also known as a sessile serrated adenoma [SSA]) is the main lesion of interest given its prevalence and subtle presentation...
November 17, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148535/the-role-of-apc-in-wnt-pathway-activation-in-serrated-neoplasia
#20
Jennifer Borowsky, Troy Dumenil, Mark Bettington, Sally-Ann Pearson, Catherine Bond, Lochlan Fennell, Cheng Liu, Diane McKeone, Christophe Rosty, Ian Brown, Neal Walker, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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