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Masato Yamadera, Hideki Ueno, Hirotoshi Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Fumio Ishida, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Takao Hinoi, Yasuhiro Inoue, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Naohiro Tomita, Hideyuki Ishida, Kenichi Sugihara
PURPOSE: We conducted this study to clarify the current clinical practice of prophylactic colectomy for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in Japan. METHODS: This retrospective multi-center cohort study involved 23 specialized institutions for colorectal disease in Japan. We analyzed the records of 147 patients who underwent prophylactic surgical treatment between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into Group 1 (2000-2006) and Group 2 (2007-2012) based on their date of surgery...
October 21, 2016: Surgery Today
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Wenzel M Hackeng, Elizabeth A Montgomery, Francis M Giardiello, Aatur D Singhi, Marija Debeljak, James R Eshleman, Michael Vieth, G Johan A Offerhaus, Laura D Wood, Lodewijk A A Brosens
BACKGROUND: Gastric pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) are rare epithelial polyps that are more commonly found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Little is known about the morphology and genetics of PGAs in familial adenomatous polyposis. AIMS: PGAs in familial adenomatous polyposis are studied morphologically and genetically. Findings in FAP associated PGAs are compared to sporadic PGAs and related lesions such as oxyntic gland adenoma (OGA) to increase our understanding of these rare polyps...
October 21, 2016: Histopathology
Frank G J Kallenberg, Barbara A J Bastiaansen, Evelien Dekker
Background and study aims: Guidelines recommend surveillance endoscopy with both forward- and side-viewing endoscopes to identify duodenal and ampullary adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We hypothesized that both the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater can be completely visualized during cap-assisted forward-viewing endoscopy. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with FAP underwent forward-viewing endoscopy with a short cap attached to the tip of the gastroscope, with the aim of visualizing both the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater...
October 19, 2016: Endoscopy
Juan Wang, Yuki Shibayama, Daisuke Nakano, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
OBJECTIVE: Constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer; however, recent studies have also indicated that elevated Wnt levels are essential. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of (pro) renin receptor in the pathophysiology of colon cancer. DESIGN AND METHOD: (P) RR expression in human colon tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Human colon cancer cell lines DLD-1 with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) truncated mutation, and HCT116 withβ-catenin activating mutation, were transfected with scramble siRNA and siRNA against (pro) renin receptor...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hari Ram, Hardik Makadia, Gagan Mehta, Shadab Mohammad, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Nimisha Singh, Geeta Singh
INTRODUCTION: The term oro-antral fistula is understood to mean of fistular canal covered with epithelia which may or may not be filled with granulation tissue or polyposis of the sinus mucous membrane. With the presence of a fistula the sinus is permanently open, which enables the passage of microbial flora of the oral cavity into the maxillary sinus and the occurrence of inflammation with all possible consequences. Every now and then various researchers have proposed innumerable techniques to treat this defect...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Mohammad A Khasawneh, Nicholas P McKenna, Zaid M Abdelsattar, Angela Johnson, Eric J Dozois, John H Pemberton, Kellie L Mathis
BACKGROUND: IPAA is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis. Limited data exist on how obesity impacts the ability of the surgeon to successfully create an IPAA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine how BMI affects the ability to successfully complete the operation. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary care center. PATIENTS: We included all of the patients undergoing an IPAA for ulcerative colitis between January 2002 and August 2013 at our institution...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Dinesh Singh Tekcham, Satish S Poojary, Shushruta Bhunia, Mustafa Ahmed Barbhuiya, Sanjeev Gupta, Braj Raj Shrivastav, Pramod Kumar Tiwari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Loss of function of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been reported in cancer. The two promoters of APC, 1A and 1B also have roles in cancer. But, the epigenetic role of APC promoters is not yet clear in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and gallstone diseases (GSD). We undertook this study to determine the epigenetic role of APC in GBC and GSD. METHODS: Methylation-specific (MS)-PCR was used to analyze the methylation of APC gene. The expression of APC gene was studied by semi-quantitative PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GBC, GSD and adjacent normal tissues...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Liseth Rivero-Sanchez, Maria Lopez-Ceron, Sabela Carballal, Leticia Moreira, Xavier Bessa, Anna Serradesanferm, Angels Pozo, Josep Maria Augé, Teresa Ocaña, Ariadna Sánchez, María Liz Leoz, Míriam Cuatrecasas, Jaume Grau, Josep Llach, Antoni Castells, Francesc Balaguer, Maria Pellisé
Background and study aims: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a high risk condition for colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance strategies for patients with serrated lesions remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate a diagnostic strategy to detect SPS consistently during reassessment colonoscopy in patients with proximal serrated lesions. Methods: This was a retrospective study of all individuals from a fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based CRC screening program (2010 - 2013) with one or more serrated lesions of ≥ 5 mm proximal to the sigmoid colon on baseline colonoscopy...
October 14, 2016: Endoscopy
Jantina C de Groot, Huib Storm, Marijke Amelink, Selma B de Nijs, Edwin Eichhorn, Bennie H Reitsma, Elisabeth H D Bel, Anneke Ten Brinke
Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Jaan Soplepmann, Piret Laidre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Sami Belhadj, Pilar Mur, Matilde Navarro, Sara González, Victor Moreno, Gabriel Capellá, Laura Valle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Selahattin Tugrul, Remzi Dogan, Erol Senturk, Ilker Kocak, Seda Sezen, Mefkur Bakan, Orhan Ozturan
: OBJECTıVE: The objective of this randomized double blind study was to evaluate effect of the premedication with oral clonidine on blood pressure, cleaning of surgical site and bleeding in the ESS performed due to advanced NP. METHODS: A total of 52 patients who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) due to Kennedy grade 4 nasal polyposis (NP) were included. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n=26) received 0.2mg oral clonodine one hour before the operation in addition to standard anesthesia procedure...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Kohei Yamakawa, Takuya Yoshino, Kotaro Watanabe, Koichiro Kawano, Akira Kurita, Naomi Matsuzaki, Yoshiaki Yuba, Shujiro Yazumi
BACKGROUND: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-inherited disorder, characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes. The pathophysiology remains unclear. Treatment with corticosteroids is considered the mainstay treatment because of its high efficacy. However, some patients have steroid-resistant CCS. The therapeutic strategy for steroid-resistant CCS is not yet established. We report two cases with steroid-resistant CCS that were effectively treated with cyclosporine (CyA)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Peter Broderick, Sara E Dobbins, Daniel Chubb, Ben Kinnersley, Malcolm G Dunlop, Ian Tomlinson, Richard S Houlston
High-throughput sequencing analysis has accelerated searches for genes associated with risk for colorectal cancer (CRC); germline mutations in NTHL1, RPS20, FANCM, FAN1, TP53, BUB1, BUB3, LRP6, and PTPN12 have been recently proposed to increase CRC risk. We attempted to validate the association between variants in these genes and development of CRC in a systematic review of 11 publications, using sequence data from 863 familial CRC cases and 1604 individuals without CRC (controls). All cases were diagnosed at an age of 55 years or younger and did not carry mutations in an established CRC predisposition gene...
October 3, 2016: Gastroenterology
Laura Valle
The development of genome-wide massively parallel sequencing, i.e. whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, and copy number approaches had raised high expectations for the identification of novel hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Although relatively successful for genes causing adenomatous polyposis syndromes, both autosomal dominant and recessive, the identification of genes associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer has proven extremely challenging, mainly due to the absence of major high penetrance genes and the difficulty in demonstrating the functional impact of the identified variants and their causal association with tumor development...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andrew R Parker, Andrew G Ayars, Matthew C Altman, William R Henderson
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome of severe asthma and rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis with exacerbations of baseline eosinophil-driven and mast cell-driven inflammation after nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ingestion. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, dysregulation of the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism is thought to be key. Central features of AERD pathogenesis are overproduction of proinflammatory and bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin (PG) D2 and inhibition of bronchoprotective and antiinflammatory PGE2...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Jeremy D Waldram, Ronald A Simon
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
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