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2018: PloS One
Yue Yi, Beizhen Xie, Ting Zhao, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cell based biosensors (MFC-biosensors) utilize anode biofilms as biological recognition elements to monitor biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biotoxicity. However, the relatively poor sensitivity constrains the application of MFC-biosensors. To address this limitation, this study provided a systematic comparison of sensitivity between the MFC-biosensors constructed with two inocula. Higher biomass density and viability were both observed in the anode biofilm of the mixed culture MFC, which resulted in better sensitivity for BOD assessment...
June 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Bengt Gårdlund, Natalia O Dmitrieva, Carl F Pieper, Simon Finfer, John C Marshall, B Taylor Thompson
PURPOSE: Septic shock is a highly heterogeneous condition which is part of the challenge in its diagnosis and treatment. In this study we aim to identify clinically relevant subphenotypes of septic shock using a novel statistic al approach. METHODS: Baseline patient data from a large global clinical trial of septic shock (n = 1696) was analysed using latent class analysis (LCA). This approach allowed investigators to identify subgroups in a heterogeneous population by estimating a categorical latent variable that detects relatively homogeneous subgroups within a complex phenomenon...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Evan M Mistur, Gordon Kingsley, Daniel C Matisoff, Yehyun An
Employing a case of a state transportation agency, we examine how complex institutions which integrate outsourcing within a bureaucratic process adapt to environmental regulatory changes. In 2012, two endangered species of bats were located outside of their established ranges in northern Georgia. These discoveries required the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) to comply with a new set of federal regulations relating to those species when developing its projects. This article examines how GDOT adapted to new and unforeseen regulations in the face of environmental uncertainty...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shuyan Wu, Pak-Lam Yu, Dave Wheeler, Steve Flint
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression associated with the persistence of a Listeria monocytogenes stationary phase population when facing lethal nisin treatment METHODS: RNA Seq analysis was used for gene expression profiling of the persister cells in rich medium (persister TN) compared with untreated cells (non-persister).The results were confirmed using RT PCR. RESULTS: Functional genes associated with the persister populations were identified in multiple systems, such as heat shock related stress response, cell wall synthesis, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, phosphotransferase system (PTS system), and SOS/DNA repair...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
In-Sung Song, Yu Jeong Jeong, Seung Hun Jeong, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Nam-Chul Ha, MyungGeun Shin, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Sungbo Shim, Sung-Wuk Jang, Jin Han
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder with high disease recurrence rates. Novel therapeutic approaches capable of improving outcomes in patients with MM are urgently required. The AKT signalling plays a critical regulatory role in MM pathophysiology, including survival, proliferation, metabolism, and has emerged as a key therapeutic target. Here, we identified a novel AKT inhibitor, HS1793, and defined its mechanism of action and clinical significance in MM. HS1793 disrupted the interaction between AKT and heat shock protein 90, resulting in protein phosphatase 2A-modulated phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) reduction...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Letters
Catrina A Calub, Sharon C Furtak, Thomas H Brown
Rats emit 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in association with pain, fear, or distress. Whereas the capacity to produce USVs is innate, reactivity to them appears to require experience. Specifically, 22 kHz USVs fail to elicit freezing behavior in naïve laboratory rats. However, these "alarm calls" do elicit freezing in rats that previously experienced foot shocks. These findings led to the hypothesis that acquired reactivity is based on "autoconditioning"-learning in which self-generated 22 kHz USVs serve as Pavlovian cues that become associated with foot shocks...
June 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sašo Grozdanov, Koenraad Schalm, Vincenzo Scopelliti
We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sandeep Gupta, Susanta Kumar Das, Dilip Kumar Pal
OBJECTIVE: The ultra-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for treating low-volume renal nephrolithiasis is being used as an alternative modality to the conventional PCNL. However its use in the supine position has been scarcely reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients who underwent ultra-mini PCNL in the supine position within the time frame of January 2017 to July 2017 were studied. All these patients had this as their first-line treatment. The patients had calculus limited to either a single calyx or just extending to the pelvis and the stone size was less than 2 cm in its maximal dimension...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Belinda Elisabeth Rotta, Brenna Kirkpatrick, Jean Guibourdenche, Marie Cohen
The glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone that is responsible for protein folding, which belongs to the heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSPA/HSP70). Because of the conjunction of GRP78 transcription with endoplasmic reticulum stress, the chaperone plays an important role in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced after the accumulation of misfolded proteins. In the last years, a significant body of research concentrated on interplay between GRP78 and sexual steroid hormones...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David Murphy, Pedro Reche, Darren R Flower
Dengue virus affects approximately 130 countries. 25% of infections result in febrile, self-limiting illness; heterotypic infection results in potentially fatal Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever or Dengue Shock Syndrome. Only one vaccine is currently available. Its efficacy is very variable. Thus, to target Dengue, we used an innovative immunoinformatic protocol to design a putative epitope ensemble vaccine by selecting an optimal set of highly-conserved epitopes with experimentally-verified immunogenicity. From 1597 CD4+ and MHC II epitopes, 6 MHC Class I epitopes (RAVHADMGYW, GPWHLGKLEM, GLYGNGVVTK, NMIIMDEAHF, KTWAYHGSY, WAYHGSYEV) and 9 MHC Class II epitopes (LAKAIFKLTYQNKVV, GKIVGLYGNGVVTTS, AAIFMTATPPGSVEA, AAIFMTATPPGTADA, GKTVWFVPSIKAGND, KFWNTTIAVSMANIF, RAIWYMWLGARYLEF, VGTYGLNTFTNMEVQ, WTLMYFHRRDLRLAA) were selected; this candidate vaccine achieved a world population coverage of 92...
June 21, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Vivi S Frydensberg, Søren J Skovbakke, Susanne S Pedersen, Robin N Kok
BACKGROUND: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) retain a scar and a bump at the site of implant. This may lead to body image concerns (BICs) that influence patients' quality of life. Few studies have examined the prevalence and impact of BICs post implant, prompting us to conduct a scoping review of the field. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cinahl databases in August 2016 and repeated May 2017. Included were studies reporting on patients ≥ 18 years, an ICD implant (transvenous, subcutaneous, or ICD with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D), reporting on BICs, and published in peer-reviewed English-language journals...
June 22, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Kevin K Chung, Elsa C Coates, William L Hickerson, Angela L Arnold-Ross, Daniel M Caruso, Marlene Albrecht, Brett D Arnoldo, Christina Howard, Laura S Johnson, Melissa M McLawhorn, Bruce Friedman, Amy M Sprague, Michael J Mosier, Peggie F Conrad, David J Smith, Rachel A Karlnoski, James K Aden, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Steven E Wolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after severe burns is historically associated with a high mortality. Over the past two decades, various modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) have been utilized in this population. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate demographic, treatment and outcomes data among severe burn patients treated with RRT collectively at various burn centers around the United States. After institutional review board approval, a multicenter observational study was conducted. All adult patients 18 or older, admitted with severe burns who were placed on RRT for acute indications but not randomized into a concurrently enrolling interventional trial were included...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Jonathan Lin, Stephanie Falwell, David Greenhalgh, Tina Palmieri, Soman Sen
High dose ascorbic acid (HDAA) has been touted to ameliorate inflammation and reduce fluid requirements during burn shock resuscitation (BSR). Whether this leads to improved outcomes is not known. The authors' aim for this study was to compare ventilator days, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and mortality between patients who did and did not receive HDAA during BSR.The authors performed a retrospective case control study from 2012 to 2015. They identified 38 patients (HDAA) who received HDAA during BSR. Using age and %TBSA, the authors identified and matched 42 control patients (CTL) who did not receive HDAA for BSR during that same time period...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Mark S Roe, Ben Wahab, Zsolt Török, Ibolya Horváth, László Vigh, Chrisostomos Prodromou
Chaperones play a pivotal role in protein homeostasis, but with age their ability to clear aggregated and damaged protein from cells declines. Tau pathology is a driver of a variety of neurodegenerative disease and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) it appears to be precipitated by the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates. Aβ-peptide appears to trigger Tau hyperphosphorylation, formation of neurofibrillary tangles and neurotoxicity. Recently, dihydropyridine derivatives were shown to upregulate the heat shock response (HSR) and provide a neuroprotective effect in an APPxPS1 AD mouse model...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Alina D Nikotina, Lidia Koludarova, Elena Y Komarova, Elena R Mikhaylova, Nikolay D Aksenov, Roman Suezov, Viktor G Kartzev, Boris A Margulis, Irina V Guzhova
Combinational anticancer therapy demonstrates increased efficiency, as it targets different cell-survival mechanisms and allows the decrease of drug dosages that are often toxic to normal cells. Inhibitors of the heat shock response (HSR) are known to reduce the efficiency of proteostasis mechanisms in many cancerous cells, and therefore, may be employed as anti-tumor drug complements. However, the application of HSR inhibitors is limited by their cytotoxicity, and we suggested that milder inhibitors may be employed to sensitize cancer cells to a certain drug...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
S Wang, Y Zhang, Y Y Zhao, S Lu
Cornual pregnancy is one of the diseases caused by embryo embedment at abnormal site. Since few women with cornual pregnancy continue to a middle or late gestation are at a relatively increased risk of uterus rupture,placenta accrete,postpartum hemorrhage and some other severe obstetric complications. We reported two cases of cornual pregnancy at the third trimester, including their clinical symptoms, diagnoses, treatments and obstetric outcomes. Patient 1 had regular prenatal examination. The ultrasound scan at the second trimester showed that the placenta was located at the right fundus of uterus and the myometrium was thin...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Mahek Shah, Brijesh Patel, Byomesh Tripathi, Manyoo Agarwal, Soumya Patnaik, Pradhum Ram, Shantanu Patil, Jooyoung Shin, Ulrich P Jorde
BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) in absence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has significant morbidity and mortality. This population of patients has been excluded from prior major randomized trials and observational studies. METHODS: We included patients with CS in absence of AMI from the 2013-14 HCUP's National Readmission Database. 30-day readmissions were studied and etiology for readmission was identified by using ICD-9CM codes in primary diagnosis field...
June 10, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Steven T Laing, David Merriam, Barbara C Shock, Sarah Mills, Abbie Spinner, Rachel Reader, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a common ailment affecting captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta). ICD cases are characterized by diarrhea in the absence of commonly identified diarrheal pathogens and multiple recurrences even after supportive therapy. Histologically, the disease is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic colitis. We identified 35 rhesus macaques euthanized for ICD during a 7-month period and described demographic, clinical, histologic, and immunologic commonalities. We found a trend of historic Campylobacter spp...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Yuki Kato, Yusaku Masago, Chiaki Kondo, Erika Yogo, Mikinori Torii, Atsuko Hishikawa, Takeshi Izawa, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
To identify the molecular profiles of islets from alloxan (ALX)- and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats, a microarray-based global gene expression analysis was performed on frozen islets isolated via laser capture microdissection. At 6 weeks old, rats were injected with ALX (40 mg/kg) or STZ (50 or 100 mg/kg) and then euthanized 24 hr later. Histopathological analysis showed β-cell necrosis, macrophage infiltration, and islet atrophy. The extent of these changes was more notable in the STZ groups than in the ALX group...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
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