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P J Zarco-Tejada, A Hornero, R Hernández-Clemente, P S A Beck
The operational monitoring of forest decline requires the development of remote sensing methods that are sensitive to the spatiotemporal variations of pigment degradation and canopy defoliation. In this context, the red-edge spectral region (RESR) was proposed in the past due to its combined sensitivity to chlorophyll content and leaf area variation. In this study, the temporal dimension of the RESR was evaluated as a function of forest decline using a radiative transfer method with the PROSPECT and 3D FLIGHT models...
March 2018: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
L C Hewitt, I Z Inam, Y Saito, T Yoshikawa, A Quaas, A Hoelscher, E Bollschweiler, G E Fazzi, V Melotte, R E Langley, M Nankivell, D Cunningham, W Allum, G G Hutchins, H I Grabsch
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal (OeC) and gastric (GC) cancer patients are treated with similar multimodal therapy and have poor survival. There remains an urgent clinical need to identify biomarkers to individualise patient management and improve outcomes. Therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown promising results in other cancers. Proposed biomarkers to predict potential response to immune checkpoint inhibitors include DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and/or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Shelley N Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Aurelie Roux, Berk Oktem, Eugene Moskovets, Vladimir M Doroshenko, Amina S Woods
Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is widely used as a unique tool to record the distribution of a large range of biomolecules in tissues. 2,6-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHA) matrix has been shown to provide efficient ionization of lipids, especially gangliosides. The major drawback for DHA as it applies to MS imaging is that it sublimes under vacuum (low pressure) at the extended time necessary to complete both high spatial and mass resolution MSI studies of whole organs...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
David Bonnel, Raphaël Legouffe, André H Eriksson, Rasmus W Mortensen, Fabien Pamelard, Jonathan Stauber, Kim T Nielsen
Generation of skin distribution profiles and reliable determination of drug molecule concentration in the target region are crucial during the development process of topical products for treatment of skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Imaging techniques like mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) offer sufficient spatial resolution to generate meaningful distribution profiles of a drug molecule across a skin section. In this study, we use matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to generate quantitative skin distribution profiles based on tissue extinction coefficient (TEC) determinations of four different molecules in cross sections of human skin explants after topical administration...
March 15, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Karol Polom, Christine Böger, Elizabeth Smyth, Daniele Marrelli, Hans-Michael Behrens, Luigi Marano, Thomas Becker, Florian Lordick, Christoph Röcken, Franco Roviello
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that metastatic gastric cancer should not be treated with surgery unless this is required for symptom control. We hypothesized that patients with mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd) gastric cancer and metastatic disease detected at the timepoint of surgical resection would have superior survival compared to patients with MMRd cancers in the same setting. METHODS: Clinicopathological details and survival data were collected from prospective databases at two large European centers on patients who had undergone surgery and were diagnosed with synchronous stage IV gastric cancer (distant lymph nodes, positive peritoneal cytology, peritoneal, and distant metastases) at the timepoint of surgery...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Qiong Zheng, Wenjiang Huang, Ximin Cui, Yue Shi, Linyi Liu
Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI), a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Satoshi Kuroki, Takamasa Yoshida, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Mizuho Iwama, Reiko Ando, Takayuki Michikawa, Atsushi Miyawaki, Toshio Ohshima, Shigeyoshi Itohara
Multisensory integration (MSI) is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60) expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
F Pietrantonio, F Di Nicolantonio, A B Schrock, J Lee, F Morano, G Fucà, P Nikolinakos, A Drilon, J F Hechtman, J Christiansen, K Gowen, G M Frampton, P Gasparini, D Rossini, C Gigliotti, S T Kim, M Prisciandaro, J Hodgson, A Zaniboni, V K Chiu, M Milione, R Patel, V Miller, A Bardelli, L Novara, L Wang, S Pupa, G Sozzi, J Ross, M Di Bartolomeo, A Bertotti, S Ali, L Trusolino, A Falcone, F de Braud, C Cremolini
Background: Recognition of rare molecular subgroups is a challenge for precision oncology and may lead to tissue-agnostic approval of targeted agents. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the clinical, pathological and molecular landscape of RET rearranged metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and methods: In this case series, we compared clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of 24 RET rearranged mCRC patients with those of a control group of 291 patients with RET negative tumors...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Ellen A G Chernoff, Kazuna Sato, Hai V N Salfity, Deborah A Sarria, Teri Belecky-Adams
The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis , and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum , the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Marina A Pereira, Marcus F K P Ramos, Sheila F Faraj, Andre R Dias, Osmar K Yagi, Bruno Zilberstein, Ivan Cecconello, Venancio A F Alves, Evandro S de Mello, Ulysses Ribeiro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer (GC) has recently been categorized in molecular subtypes, which include Epstein-Barr (EBV)-positive and microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors. This distinction may provide prognostic information and identifies therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate EBV, MSI, and PD-L1 immunoexpression in GC and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and patient's prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated 287 GC patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy through immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins and PD-L1, and in situ hybridization for EBV detection utilizing tissue microarray...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Mehrdad Zeinalian, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Rasoul Salehi, Mohammad Hassan Emami
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular hallmark for some colorectal cancers (CRCs) in which short tandem repeats are prone to mutations along with DNA sequences. It is due to DNA-mismatch-repair system deficiency because of a germline/somatic mutation in mismatch-repair (MMR) genes. The germline mutations lead to Lynch syndrome (LS) while epigenetic gene silencing results in sporadic CRC tumors. We discuss in our paper the most important clinical aspects of MSI testing in CRCs. We reviewed the most reliable relevant studies and clinical trials according to their high-quality methods, particularly within two recent decades...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Jiuming He, Luojiao Huang, Runtao Tian, Tiegang Li, Chenglong Sun, Xiaowei Song, Yiwei Lv, Zhigang Luo, Xin Li, Zeper Abliz
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a powerful tool to probe molecule events in biological tissue. However, it is a widely held viewpoint that one of the biggest challenges is an easy-to-use data processing software for discovering the underlying biological information from complicated and huge MSI dataset. Here, a user-friendly and full-featured MSI software including three subsystems, Solution, Visualization and Intelligence, named MassImager, is developed focusing on interactive visualization, in-situ biomarker discovery and artificial intelligent pathological diagnosis...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Veronica L Cox, Anas A Saeed Bamashmos, Wai Chin Foo, Shiva Gupta, Sireesha Yedururi, Naveen Garg, Hyunseon Christine Kang
Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary cancer syndrome, the most common cause of heritable colorectal cancer, and the only known heritable cause of endometrial cancer. Other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome include cancers of the ovary, stomach, urothelial tract, and small bowel, and less frequently, cancers of the brain, biliary tract, pancreas, and prostate. The oncogenic tendency of Lynch syndrome stems from a set of genomic alterations of mismatch repair proteins. Defunct mismatch repair proteins cause unusually high instability of regions of the genome called microsatellites...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Mohamed E Salem, Alberto Puccini, Axel Grothey, Derek Raghavan, Richard M Goldberg, Joanne Xiu, W Michael Korn, Benjamin A Weinberg, Jimmy J Hwang, Anthony F Shields, John L Marshall, Philip A Philip, Heinz-Josef Lenz
The efficacy of immunotherapy varies widely among different gastrointestinal cancers. Response to immune checkpoint inhibitors is shown to correlate with tumor mutation load (TML), mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) status, and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Herein, we quantify TML, dMMR, and PD-L1 expression and determine their interrelationship in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, a total of 4125 tumors from 14 different gastrointestinal cancer sites were studied using validated assays. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on genomic DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens using the NextSeq platform...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Soo Jung Lee, Sun-Young Jun, In Hee Lee, Byung Woog Kang, Su Yeon Park, Hye Jin Kim, Jun Seok Park, Gyu-Seog Choi, Ghilsuk Yoon, Jong Gwang Kim
PURPOSE: This study attempted to reveal the prognostic impact of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colon cancer with tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and immune checkpoint protein expression, which are good candidates for immunotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 89 patients with MSI-H colon cancer who underwent curative surgery at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital. The expression status of specific inhibitory receptors, such as CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1, PD-L1), PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and indolamine 2'3'-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), was retrospectively analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Xianda Zhao, Audre May, Emil Lou, Subbaya Subramanian
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy (ICBT) has resulted in extended overall survival for some patients with certain types of cancer, most prominently including colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, most patients with CRC whose phenotypes have microsatellite stability (MSS) are unresponsive to ICBT. In efforts to understand the responsiveness of CRC tumors to ICBT, genotypic and phenotypic signatures of CRC tumors are now being investigated. The MSI and MSS classification has been clinically validated as helpful in predicting response vs nonresponse to ICBT in patients with CRC...
February 12, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
J Smeby, A Sveen, M A Merok, S A Danielsen, I A Eilertsen, M G Guren, R Dienstmann, A Nesbakken, R A Lothe
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAFV600E mutations in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) varies with microsatellite instability (MSI) status. The gene expression-based consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) of CRC define molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups, and represent a novel stratification framework in biomarker analysis. We investigated the prognostic value of these mutations within the CMS groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Totally 1197 primary tumors from a Norwegian series of CRC stage I-IV were analyzed for MSI and mutation status in hotspots in KRAS (codons 12, 13 and 61) and BRAF (codon 600)...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Yun Sol Jo, Min Sung Kim, Nam Jin Yoo, Sug Hyung Lee
MYH11 functions as a contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. In cancers, an oncogenic fusion CBFB/MYH11 and frameshift mutations have been reported. Truncating mutants of MYH11 exhibited increased ATPase and motor activity, suggesting their roles in energy balance and movement of cancer cells. MYH11 gene has a mononucleotide repeat (C8) in the coding sequences that could be a mutational target in the cancers exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI)...
March 6, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Kirill Veselkov, Jonathan Sleeman, Emmanuelle Claude, Johannes P C Vissers, Dieter Galea, Anna Mroz, Ivan Laponogov, Mark Towers, Robert Tonge, Reza Mirnezami, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy K Nicholson, James I Langridge
Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) holds significant promise in augmenting digital histopathologic analysis by generating highly robust big data about the metabolic, lipidomic and proteomic molecular content of the samples. In the process, a vast quantity of unrefined data, that can amount to several hundred gigabytes per tissue section, is produced. Managing, analysing and interpreting this data is a significant challenge and represents a major barrier to the translational application of MSI. Existing data analysis solutions for MSI rely on a set of heterogeneous bioinformatics packages that are not scalable for the reproducible processing of large-scale (hundreds to thousands) biological sample sets...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Catherine S Grasso, Marios Giannakis, Daniel K Wells, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Michael Quist, Jonathan A Nowak, Reiko Nishihara, Zhi Rong Qian, Kentaro Inamura, Teppei Morikawa, Katsuhiko Nosho, Gabriel Abril-Rodriguez, Charles Connolly, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Milan S Geybels, William M Grady, Li Hsu, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Jeroen R Huyghe, Yeon Joo Kim, Paige E Krystofinski, Mark Dm Leiserson, Dennis J Montoya, Brian B Nadel, Matteo Pellegrini, Colin C Pritchard, Cristina Puig-Saus, Elleanor H Quist, Benjamin J Raphael, Stephen J Salipante, Daniel Sanghoon Shin, Eve Shinbrot, Brian Shirts, Sachet Shukla, Janet L Stanford, Wei Sun, Jennifer Tsoi, Alexander Upfill-Brown, David A Wheeler, Catherine J Wu, Ming Yu, Syed H Zaidi, Jesse M Zaretsky, Stacey B Gabriel, Eric S Lander, Levi A Garraway, Thomas J Hudson, Charles S Fuchs, Antoni Ribas, Shuji Ogino, Ulrike Peters
To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer (CRC), we analyzed 1,211 CRC primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas CRC cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of CRC, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH)...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Discovery
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