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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922790/the-balance-between-cytotoxic-t-cell-lymphocytes-and-immune-checkpoint-expression-in-the-prognosis-of-colon-tumors
#1
Laetitia Marisa, Magali Svrcek, Ada Collura, Etienne Becht, Pascale Cervera, Kristell Wanherdrick, Olivier Buhard, Anastasia Goloudina, Vincent Jonchère, Janick Selves, Gerard Milano, Dominique Guenot, Romain Cohen, Chrystelle Colas, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Sylviane Olschwang, Jérémie H Lefèvre, Yann Parc, Valérie Boige, Côme Lepage, Thierry André, Jean-François Fléjou, Valentin Dérangère, François Ghiringhelli, Aurélien de Reynies, Alex Duval
Background: Immune checkpoint (ICK) expression might represent a surrogate measure of tumor-infiltrating T cell (CTL) exhaustion and therefore be a more accurate prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients than CTL enumeration as measured by the Immunoscore. Methods: The expression of ICKs, Th1, CTLs, cytotoxicity-related genes, and metagenes, including Immunoscore-like metagenes, were evaluated in three independent cohorts of CRC samples (260 microsatellite instable [MSI], 971 non-MSI)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921583/associations-of-alcohol-intake-smoking-physical-activity-and-obesity-with-survival-following-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis-by-stage-anatomic-site-and-tumor-molecular-subtype
#2
Harindra Jayasekara, Dallas R English, Andrew Haydon, Allison M Hodge, Brigid M Lynch, Christophe Rosty, Elizabeth J Williamson, Mark Clendenning, Melissa C Southey, Mark A Jenkins, Robin Room, John L Hopper, Roger L Milne, Daniel D Buchanan, Graham G Giles, Robert J MacInnis
The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-94) and wave 2 (2003-07). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stage I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915720/pseudoprogression-in-microsatellite-instability-high-colorectal-cancer-during-treatment-with-combination-t-cell-mediated-immunotherapy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Young Kwang Chae, Si Wang, Halla Nimeiri, Aparna Kalyan, Francis J Giles
Evading tumor-mediated immunosuppression through antibodies to immune checkpoints has shown clinical benefit in patients with select solid tumors. There is a heterogeneity of responses in patients receiving immunotherapy, including pseudoprogression in which the tumor burden increases initially before decreasing to reach disease control. The characteristics and basis of pseudoprogression, however, remains poorly understood. We hereby report a case of microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer treated with combination of OX40 agonist and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antagonist that demonstrated pseudoprogression reaching 163% increase from baseline tumor burden...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903902/single-cell-gene-variation-analysis-method-for-single-gland
#4
Yan Zhou, Chao-Jie Wang, Chun-Chao Zhu, Jiang-Rong Chen, Ming Cheng, Yu-Liang Deng, Yan Guo
Single-cell analysis of heterogeneity has become the cutting-edge technology for profound understandings of relationships between cell populations. At present, common methods used in single cellular genomic research are mainly microfluidic technologies (Fluidigm) or based on microwells, both requiring a uniform size of cells at the entrance. However, the size of cells in specific tissues can vary from type to type. To address this issue, we need to establish a method to identify genomic features of individual cells of different sizes...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900264/measuring-spectral-inconsistency-of-multispectral-images-for-detection-and-segmentation-of-retinal-degenerative-changes
#5
Jian Lian, Yuanjie Zheng, Peiyong Duan, Wanzhen Jiao, Bojun Zhao, Yanju Ren, Dinggang Shen
Multispectral imaging (MSI) creates a series of en-face fundus spectral sections by leveraging an extensive range of discrete monochromatic light sources and allows for an examination of the retina's early morphologic changes that are not generally visible with traditional fundus imaging modalities. An Ophthalmologist's interpretation of MSI images is commonly conducted by qualitatively analyzing the spectral consistency between degenerated areas and normal ones, which characterizes the image variation across different spectra...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895526/molecular-testing-for-lynch-syndrome-in-people-with-colorectal-cancer-systematic-reviews-and-economic-evaluation
#6
Tristan Snowsill, Helen Coelho, Nicola Huxley, Tracey Jones-Hughes, Simon Briscoe, Ian M Frayling, Chris Hyde
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) genes lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), gynaecological cancers and other cancers, known as Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk-reducing interventions can be offered to individuals with known LS-causing mutations. The mutations can be identified by comprehensive testing of the MMR genes, but this would be prohibitively expensive in the general population. Tumour-based tests - microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC) - are used in CRC patients to identify individuals at high risk of LS for genetic testing...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893315/heterogeneous-drug-penetrance-of-veliparib-and-carboplatin-measured-in-triple-negative-breast-tumors
#7
Imke H Bartelink, Brendan Prideaux, Gregor Krings, Lisa Wilmes, Pei Rong Evelyn Lee, Pan Bo, Byron Hann, Jean-Philippe Coppé, Diane Heditsian, Lamorna Swigart-Brown, Ella F Jones, Sergey Magnitsky, Ron J Keizer, Niels de Vries, Hilde Rosing, Nela Pawlowska, Scott Thomas, Mallika Dhawan, Rahul Aggarwal, Pamela N Munster, Laura J Esserman, Weiming Ruan, Alan H B Wu, Douglas Yee, Véronique Dartois, Radojka M Savic, Denise M Wolf, Laura van 't Veer
BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi), coupled to a DNA damaging agent is a promising approach to treating triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, not all patients respond; we hypothesize that non-response in some patients may be due to insufficient drug penetration. As a first step to testing this hypothesis, we quantified and visualized veliparib and carboplatin penetration in mouse xenograft TNBCs and patient blood samples. METHODS: MDA-MB-231, HCC70 or MDA-MB-436 human TNBC cells were implanted in 41 beige SCID mice...
September 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886275/preclinical-rationale-for-combination-of-crizotinib-with-mitomycin-c-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#8
Avital Lev, Safoora Deihimi, Elena Shagisultanova, Joanne Xiu, Amriti R Lulla, David T Dicker, Wafik S El-Deiry
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. We analyzed 26 MSI-High and 558 non-MSI-High CRC tumors. BRCA2 mutations were highly enriched (50%) in MSI-High CRC. Immunohistochemistry showed that BRCA2-mutated MSI-High CRC had high c-MET (64%) expression compared to BRCA-WT (17%). We hypothesized a mechanistic link between BRCA2-deficiency and c-MET overexpression and synergistic interaction between drugs that treat BRCA-deficient tumors (mitomycin C (MMC) or PARP inhibitors) and c-MET inhibitors (crizotinib)...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881434/prevalence-and-causes-of-musculoskeletal-impairment-in-fundong-district-north-west-cameroon-results-of-a-population-based-survey
#9
Tracey Smythe, Islay Mactaggart, Hannah Kuper, Joseph Oye, Nana Christopher Sieyen, Christopher Lavy, Sarah Polack
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological data on musculoskeletal conditions such as degenerative joint diseases and bone fractures are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. METHODS: Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected by compact segment sampling...
September 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877378/the-spatial-distribution-of-alkaloids-in-psychotria-prunifolia-kunth-steyerm-and-palicourea-coriacea-cham-k-schum-leaves-analysed-by-desorption-electrospray-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#10
Lucilia Kato, Aline Pereira Moraes, Cecília Maria Alves de Oliveira, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves, Elienai Cândida E Silva, Christian Janfelt
INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attractive due to its simplicity and high selectivity compared to traditional histochemical techniques. OBJECTIVES: To apply DESI-MSI to visualise the alkaloid distribution on the leaf surface of Psychotria prunifolia and Palicourea coriacea and to compare the distributions with HPLC-MS and histochemical analyses...
September 6, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877075/microsatellite-instability-a-predictive-biomarker-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
Liisa Chang, Minna Chang, Hanna M Chang, Fuju Chang
Immunotherapy has shown promising results in various types of cancers. Checkpoint inhibitor drugs developed for cancer immunotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancers, and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. In the latest announcement, the FDA has granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab for pediatric and adult patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair-deficient solid tumors...
September 4, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876982/preoperative-predicting-malignancy-in-breast-mass-like-lesions-value-of-adding-histogram-analysis-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-maps-to-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-improving-confidence-level
#12
Hong-Li Liu, Min Zong, Han Wei, Jian-Juan Lou, Si-Qi Wang, Qi-Gui Zou, Hai-Bin Shi, Yan-Ni Jiang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to find out the benefits of adding histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps onto dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting breast malignancy. METHODS: This study included 95 patients who were found with breast mass-like lesions from January 2014 to March 2016 (47 benign and 48 malignant). These patients were estimated by both DCE-MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and classified into two groups, namely, the benign and the malignant...
September 6, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876398/remote-sensing-of-the-chlorophyll-a-based-on-oli-landsat-8-and-msi-sentinel-2a-barra-bonita-reservoir-brazil
#13
Fernanda Watanabe, Enner Alcântara, Thanan Rodrigues, Luiz Rotta, Nariane Bernardo, Nilton Imai
In this present research, we assessed the performance of band algorithms in estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration based on bands of two new sensors: Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat-8 satellite (OLI/Landsat-8), and MultiSpectral Instrument onboard Sentinel-2A (MSI/Sentinel-2A). Band combinations designed for Thematic Mapper onboard Landsat-5 satellite (TM/Landsat-5) and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard Envisat platform (MERIS/Envisat) were adapted for OLI/Landsat-8 and MSI/Sentinel-2A bands...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874631/the-prognostic-role-of-microsatellite-instability-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#14
Bogdan V Micu, Octavian Andercou, Stefan C Vesa, Carmen M Micu, Tudor R Pop, Nicolae Constantea
BACKGROUND: Data from the literature regarding the prognostic role of DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) in colorectal cancer are still controversial. AIM: The aim of the study was to identify the prognostic role of different phenotypic, clinical and pathological characteristics in microsatellite unstable vs. microsatellite stable colorectal cancer in terms of survival and disease free interval. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that included a total of 103 patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer...
July 28, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872679/potential-use-of-multispectral-imaging-technology-to-identify-moisture-content-and-water-holding-capacity-in-cooked-pork-sausages
#15
Fei Ma, Bin Zhang, Wu Wang, Peijun Li, Xiangli Niu, Conggui Chen, Lei Zheng
BACKGROUND: The traditional detection methods for moisture content (MC) and water-holding capacity (WHC) in cooked pork sausages (CPS) are destructive, time-consuming, and require skilled personnel and not suitable for on-line industry applications. The goal of this work was to explore the potential of multispectral imaging (MSI) in combination with multivariate analysis for the identification of MC and WHC in CPS. RESULTS: Spectra and textures of 156 CPS treated by six salt concentrations (0-2...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871103/lipidomic-dysregulation-within-the-lung-parenchyma-following-whole-thorax-lung-irradiation-markers-of-injury-inflammation-and-fibrosis-detected-by-maldi-msi
#16
Claire L Carter, Jace W Jones, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure that can limit curative cancer treatment therapies and cause lethality following high-dose whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). To date, the exact mechanisms of injury development following insult remain ill-defined and there are no FDA approved pharmaceutical agents or medical countermeasures. Traditionally, RILI development is considered as three phases, the clinically latent period, the intermediate acute pneumonitis phase and the later fibrotic stage...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871000/low-levels-of-microsatellite-instability-at-simple-repeated-sequences-commonly-occur-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Claire Goumard, Christele Desbois-Mouthon, Dominique Wendum, Claire Calmel, Fatiha Merabtene, Olivier Scatton, Françoise Praz
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the inÔidence of MSI in a large series of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) with various etiologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MSI status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 5 mononucleotide and 13 CAn dinucleotide repeats. RESULTS: None of the 122 HCC samples displayed an MSI-High phenotype, as defined by the presence of alterations at more than 30% of the microsatellite markers analyzed...
September 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866551/bastet-shareable-and-reproducible-analysis-and-visualization-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-data-via-openmsi
#18
Oliver Rubel, Benjamin P Bowen
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a transformative imaging method that supports the untargeted, quantitative measurement of the chemical composition and spatial heterogeneity of complex samples with broad applications in life sciences, bioenergy, and health. While MSI data can be routinely collected, its broad application is currently limited by the lack of easily accessible analysis methods that can process data of the size, volume, diversity, and complexity generated by MSI experiments. The development and application of cutting-edge analytical methods is a core driver in MSI research for new scientific discoveries, medical diagnostics, and commercial-innovation...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860410/next-generation-sequencing-for-patients-with-sarcoma-a-single-center-experience
#19
Gregory M Cote, Jie He, Edwin Choy
BACKGROUND: Sarcomas comprise over 50 subtypes of mesenchymal cancers. For the majority of sarcomas, the driver mutations remain unknown. In this article, we describe our experience with a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform in clinic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed results of NGS using 133 tumor samples from patients diagnosed with a variety of sarcomas that were analyzed with targeted NGS covering over 400 cancer-related genes (405 DNA, 265 RNA) on a commercially available platform...
August 31, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859918/vital-sign-based-shock-scores-are-poor-at-triaging-south-african-trauma-patients
#20
Robert Barnes, Damian Clarke, Zane Farina, Benn Sartorius, Petra Brysiewicz, Grant Laing, John Bruce, Victor Kong
BACKGROUND: Traumatic shock cannot be diagnosed by a single physiological measurement and a number of vital sign based combined shock scores (CSS) have been proposed to identify and triage trauma patients with shock. This audit uses data from a prospectively entered electronic trauma registry to compare the ability of these CSS to predict in-hospital mortality, need for surgery, need for blood transfusion and ICU admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data used in the study was obtained from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Record (HEMR) in Pietermaritzburg from January 2012-September 2015...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
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