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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#1
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650390/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-exocrine-pancreatic-cell-line
#2
Neil C Talbot, Amy E Shannon, Caitlin E Phillips, Wesley M Garrett
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify an epithelial cell line isolated from the spontaneous differentiation of totipotent pig epiblast cells. METHODS: PICM-31 and its colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, were established from the culture and differentiation of an epiblast mass isolated from an 8-day-old pig blastocyst. The cell lines were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, marker gene expression, and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648835/effect-of-glp-1-receptor-agonist-on-gastrointestinal-tract-motility-and-residue-rates-as-evaluated-by-capsule-endoscopy
#3
Y Nakatani, M Maeda, M Matsumura, R Shimizu, N Banba, Y Aso, T Yasu, H Harasawa
AIM: This study evaluated the effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility and residue rates by examining GI transit time and lumen using capsule endoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GI motility and lumen were assessed by capsule endoscopy before and after liraglutide administration in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESULTS: Gastric transit time in the group with diabetic neuropathy (DN) was 1:12:36±1:04:30h before liraglutide administration and 0:48:40±0:32:52h after administration (nonsignificant difference, P=0...
June 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648646/antroduodenectomy-with-gastro-duodenostomy-billroth-i-technique-for-perforated-duodenal-peptic-ulcer
#4
N Haythem, G Godiris-Petit, S Noullet, F Menegaux, C Trésallet, F Varcus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647710/perforated-duodenal-diverticulum-a-rare-complication-in-a-common-condition
#5
Cláudio Branco, Teresa Carneiro, Dina Luis, António Gomes
The authors present a rare case of perforated duodenal diverticulum diagnosed in an 80-year-old Caucasian woman with vomiting and abdominal pain localised to the epigastrium. CT scan showed thickening of the second portion of the duodenum with retroperitoneal fat stranding and perihepatic free fluid, with a presumptive diagnosis of a duodenal perforation. A laparotomy was performed which showed a perforated diverticulum in the second portion of the duodenum. A diverticulectomy with single-layer closure was performed, without complications...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647410/reoperative-bariatric-surgery-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Jingliang Yan, Ricardo Cohen, Ali Aminian
Primary bariatric surgery has been proven to be effective in weight loss and improvement of weight-related metabolic co-morbidities. However, a small proportion of patients after bariatric surgery either have persistent hyperglycemia or relapse after initial remission of their metabolic disease. Revisional bariatric surgery has been evaluated extensively for weight recidivism and postoperative complications. However, there has not been any high-level evidence validating the utility of revisional bariatric surgery on recurrent metabolic diseases, especially diabetes...
April 25, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645636/theobromine-does-not-affect-postprandial-lipid-metabolism-and-duodenal-gene-expression-but-has-unfavorable-effects-on-postprandial-glucose-and-insulin-responses-in-humans
#7
Lotte Smolders, Ronald P Mensink, Mark V Boekschoten, Rogier J J de Ridder, Jogchum Plat
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644352/elevated-serum-tissue-transglutaminase-antibodies-in-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#8
Anna K Le Fevre, Marjorie M Walker, Amir Hadjiashrafy, Rani Bhatia, Joerg Mattes, Nicholas J Talley, Scott Nightingale
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the clinical and histopathological characteristics of children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and elevated anti-transglutaminase (TTG Ab) with those with EoE and normal TTG Ab titres. METHODS: Single-center chart and blinded histopathological review of patients diagnosed with EoE for a 4-year period, who had esophageal and duodenal biopsies taken at time of endoscopy, and TTG Ab measured within 6 months of biopsy. Patients with histology-proven CD were excluded...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644351/adherence-to-celiac-disease-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis-biopsy-guidelines-is-poor-in-children
#9
Thomas Wallach, Robert M Genta, Benjamin Lebwohl, Peter H R Green, Norelle R Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are underdiagnosed gastrointestinal conditions, which adversely affect children's health. Previous studies have shown that diagnostic guidelines for CD are not consistently followed in adults. The aims of the present study are to assess the frequency with which endoscopists comply with diagnostic guidelines for CD and EoE in children, and to determine whether an association exists between adherence to biopsy guidelines and disease detection in pediatric patients...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644345/yield-of-endoscopy-in-pediatric-gastroparesis
#10
Tara A Altepeter, Stephen Shaffer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to quantify the diagnostic yield of upper endoscopy in children with gastroparesis and to develop a clinical model for gastroparesis using common symptoms and screening blood tests. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 196 patients of age 4 to 18 years evaluated for gastroparesis between 2009 and 2013. All patients completed a standard solid-phase gastric emptying scan and upper endoscopy within a 12-month period. We analyzed gross and histologic endoscopy findings...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643308/-anatomical-strategies-of-henle-trunk-in-laparoscopic-right-hemi-colectomy-for-right-colon-cancer
#11
Bo Feng, Xialin Yan, Sen Zhang, Pei Xue, Zirui He, Minhua Zheng
The advancement of laparoscopic surgery serves as a trigger for better understanding of the vascular structure at the inferior border of the pancreas, especially Henle trunk. Henle trunk was first found as convergence to superior mesenteric vein (SMV) conjoined by sub-right colon vein (SRCV) and right gastroepiploic vein (RGEV), but decades later, anterior superior pancreatic duodenal vein (ASPDV) was described as another conjoint vein of Henle trunk. These tributaries are the basic elements of Henle trunk in early years' study...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638585/clinicopathological-study-of-seronegative-celiac-disease-in-adults-in-pakistan-a-pilot-study
#12
Mohammad Hanif Farina, Rajesh Kumar Mandhwani, Nasir Hassan Luck, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak, S Mudassir Laeeq, Abbas Ali Tasneem
BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CD) is usually missed, if the serology is negative. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of seronegative CD (SNCD) and its response to gluten-free diet (GFD) in adult patients. METHODS This observational study was carried out at the Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan from 2009 to 2015. All consecutive adult patients (≥17 years) with features of marked villous atrophy (Marsh class≥III) on duodenal biopsy, negative tissue transglutaminase IgA and IgG antibodies (anti-tTg IgA and IgG) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 or DQ8 serotypes were studied...
April 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634529/duodenal-diverticulum-incidental-finding-with-potentially-dangerous-outcomes
#13
Stephen Melnick, Shoaib Fareedy, David Gish, Salik Nazir
We present the case of an 83-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for schizoaffective disorder, presenting to our emergency department with the complaint of 'pain'. Given the non-specific complaint and the limited history obtained, CT imaging was performed on her chest and abdomen which incidentally found a large duodenal diverticulum. This manuscript discusses the incidence of duodenal diverticula and the potential associated complications.
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634114/peanut-digestome-identification-of-digestion-resistant-ige-binding-peptides
#14
Luigia Di Stasio, Gianluca Picariello, Mariantonietta Mongiello, Rita Nocerino, Roberto Berni Canani, Simona Bavaro, Linda Monaci, Pasquale Ferranti, Gianfranco Mamone
Stability to proteolytic degradation in the digestive tract is considered a general feature shared by most food allergens. Current digestibility models exclusively utilize purified allergen proteins, neglecting the relevant effects of matrix that occur for foodstuff systems. In the present study, we investigated digestion stability of the major peanut allergens directly in the natural matrix using an in vitro static model that simulates the gastrointestinal digestion including the oral, gastric, duodenal and intestinal (brush border membrane enzymes) phases...
June 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#15
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631635/cytocentrifuged-biopsy-fixative-preparation-a-simple-cost-effective-technique-facilitating-microscopic-diagnosis-of-lumen-dwelling-intestinal-parasites
#16
Prashant Joshi, Prasenjit Das, Venkateswaran Iyer, Siddharth Datta Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Direct microscopic visualization is the most specific method for detecting intestinal parasites and is commonly achieved by stool examination or mucosal biopsy. However, postfixation, the intestinal biopsy fragment is often curled, and the entire surface of the biopsied mucosa is seldom viewed microscopically. Tissue processing further distorts morphology of the organisms and causes diagnostic difficulties. Examining multiple sections for parasite detection is time-consuming and often requires aid of special stains and/or immunohistochemistry...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631148/early-postoperative-imaging-after-non-bariatric-gastric-resection-a-primer-for-radiologists
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Tonolini, Elena Bracchi
Surgical resection represents the mainstay treatment and only potentially curative option for gastric carcinoma, and is increasingly performed laparoscopically. Furthermore, other tumours and selected cases of non-malignant disorders of the stomach may require partial or total gastrectomy. Often performed in elderly patients, gastric resection remains a challenging procedure, with significant morbidity (14-43% complication rate) and non-negligible postoperative mortality (approximately 3%). This paper provides an overview of contemporary surgical techniques for non-bariatric gastric resection, reviews and illustrates the expected postoperative imaging appearances, common and unusual complications after partial and total gastrectomy...
June 19, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630844/multifocal-septic-arthritis-secondary-to-infective-endocarditis-a-rare-case-report
#18
Pavandeep Soor, Nikhil Sharma, Chandra Rao
INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare cause of septic arthritis. We report a patient who presented with multifocal septic arthritis as a result of IE, which is an extremely rare condition. CASE REPORT: This 69-year-old gentleman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 3-day history of acute right knee pain. Initial investigations demonstrated chondrocalcinosis on knee radiographs, acute renal failure with rhabdomyolysis and a CRP of 520. After treatment with intravenous fluid rehydration and analgesia, the knee aspiration grew a Group B Streptococcus, and the patient underwent arthroscopic washout...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630354/not-all-cells-are-equal-effects-of-temperature-and-sex-on-the-size-of-different-cell-types-in-the-madagascar-ground-gecko-paroedura-picta
#19
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Zuzana Starostová, Anna Sikorska, Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Katarzyna Woch, Lukáš Kubička, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Jan Kozlowski
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30 °C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630246/ominous-triad-triggered-by-high-dose-glucocorticosteroid-therapy
#20
Sarah Bär, Fritz Daudel, Thomas Zueger
Glucocorticosteroids (CS) play a key role in the treatment of numerous diseases. Nonetheless, they can be accompanied by several adverse effects. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who was treated with high-dose CS for a relapse of her multiple sclerosis. After 5 days of treatment, the patient developed severe diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis-a potentially life-threatening triad which has previously been described, in our case, however, for the first time as a complication of CS therapy...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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