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Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders

Lijun Du, Jinhua Shen, John J Kim, Yunxian Yu, Liqin Ma, Ning Dai
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder diagnosed by symptom-based criteria. It has been said that duodenal immune activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of FD. The primary aims of the study were to compare the total number of duodenal eosinophil and evaluate the eosinophil degranulation rate, number of duodenal degranulated eosinophil and mast cell between patients with FD and healthy subjects. We enrolled 96 patients with FD and 24 healthy controls at Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kalmia M Smith, Raiann S Rahman, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hee-Yun Kim, Sun-Young Nam, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
KMP6 (Pyeongwee-San) is a Korean Medicine used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, we reported KMP6 had beneficial effects on allergic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atractylone (Atr), a constituent of KMP6, on allergic rhinitis (AR) and to identify the mechanism responsible for these effects. The anti-allergic inflammatory effects of Atr were evaluated on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry methods...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
L Á Echeverría-Zudaire, S Fernández-Fernández, A Rayo-Fernández, C Muñóz-Archidona, R Checa-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) involves the administration of the food allergen causing the symptoms, in order to induce tolerance. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (PEGDs) are characterised by an eosinophil-rich inflammation affecting different locations of the digestive tract. We present a series of patients with PEGDs in a group of children following OIT with milk and/or egg. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study during the period 2006-2014 was performed in paediatric patients subjected to OIT with milk and/or egg...
August 31, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Umair Sohail
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies...
September 2016: Primary Care
Jorre S Mertens, Manon C Zweers, Wietske Kievit, Hanneke K A Knaapen, Martijn Gerritsen, Timothy R D J Radstake, Frank H J van den Hoogen, Marjonne C W Creemers, Elke M G J de Jong
Importance: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a connective tissue disorder in which conventional treatment leads to disappointing results in a proportion of patients. Therefore, we investigated high-dose intravenous (IV) pulse methotrexate (MTX) as a treatment for EF. Objective: To examine safety and effects of monthly high-dose IV pulse MTX in EF. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this prospective single-arm study, we recruited 12 patients diagnosed with biopsy specimen-proven EF between 2006 and 2009 from the Department of Dermatology and Rheumatology at the Radboud University Medical Centre...
August 17, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Ravinder K Mittal
Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
H-M Shih, M-J Bair, H-L Chen, I-T Lin
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma...
April 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Hanan M Fouad, Nour A Abdulla, Suzan El Naghy, Ehsan H Hassan, Amal Abd El-Hamid
Upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms are not disease specific and of limited value in the differentiation of GIT disorders. The present study aimed to determine the etiology of chronic unspecific symptoms in children and to test the need for upper endoscopy in diagnosis. This is a prospective study for 30 Egyptian children presented with chronic upper GIT symptoms for at least 2 months. History regarding severity and frequency of GIT symptoms were asked for. Children with known disorder that explains presenting symptoms were excluded...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Rocchina Colucci, Erika Tirotta, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Nunzia Bernardini, Karolina Cseri, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó, Luca Antonioli
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying such disorders are still largely unknown, although the occurrence of a bowel inflammatory condition has been hypothesized. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration, induced by intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on distal colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility in rats...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mohammad Taghi Safari, Shabnam Shahrokh, Mohammad Bagher Miri, Mohammad Javad Ehsani Ardakani
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.
2016: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Hiroki Sato, Nao Nakajima, Go Hasegawa, Yuzo Kawata, Yuichi Sato, Kenji Suzuki, Terasu Honma, Shuji Terai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a Th2-mediated allergic disease of the esophageal epithelium, associated with antigen. We previously reported a case series for eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM)-a novel eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGID) defined as eosinophilic infiltration localized in the esophageal muscle layer-and diagnosed it by peroral endoscopic muscle biopsy. Here, we investigated the immunopathology of EoEM to differentiate it from EoE. METHODS: Histological analysis was performed for three cases of EoEM and EoE, respectively...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ming Ming Zhang, Yan-Qing Li
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a series of diseases which include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Among these disorders, eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon and heterogeneous disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes, presenting with a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations. Up to now, epidemiology and pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are still unclear...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Emad Mansoor, Gregory S Cooper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with increasing prevalence. However, epidemiologic data have mostly been acquired from small studies. We sought to describe the epidemiology of EoE in the USA, utilizing a large database. METHODS: We queried a commercial database (Explorys Inc, Cleveland, OH, USA), an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US healthcare systems from 1999 to July 2015...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
D Belsha, R Bremner, M Thomson
Endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for diagnostics and therapy in children has evolved markedly over the last 20 or so years and is now usually undertaken by paediatric endoscopists. Updated diagnostic and management guidelines for common disorders including coeliac disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic oesophagitis and inflammatory bowel disease highlight the central role of endoscopy. Therapeutic endoscopic approaches are also now widely available and further broaden the referral spectrum to include treatment of GIT bleeding, gastrostomy insertion, dilation of strictures and polypectomy...
May 31, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Ruth Forman, Michael Bramhall, Larisa Logunova, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M Cruickshank, Kathryn J Else
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in the intestine during inflammatory disorders. Classically the function of eosinophils has been associated with tissue destruction, due to the release of cytotoxic granule contents. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophil plays a more diverse role in the immune system than previously acknowledged, including shaping adaptive immune responses and providing plasma cell survival factors during the steady state...
2016: BMC Immunology
Susan Hua, Dane Cook, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are increasingly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in the absence of other known causes of eosinophilia. AREAS COVERED: Clinical management of EGIDs is challenging, as there are currently limited therapeutic options available. The most common EGID is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and rarer forms are eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis...
September 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Kelli W Williams, JeanAnne Ware, Annalise Abiodun, Nicole C Holland-Thomas, Paneez Khoury, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilia is broad and includes asthma, atopic disease, drug hypersensitivity, parasitic infection, connective tissue disorders, malignancy, and rare hypereosinophilic disorders. Hypereosinophilia in children has not been well characterized to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the common causes of marked eosinophilia in children and to characterize and compare the clinical symptoms at presentation, laboratory findings, final diagnosis, and therapeutic responses between children and adults with hypereosinophilic syndromes...
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Hiroyuki Imaeda, Minoru Yamaoka, Hideki Ohgo, Kazuaki Yoneno, Takehito Kobayashi, Toru Noguchi, Yoshitaka Uchida, Tomoyuki Soma, Hidekazu Kayano, Minoru Kanazawa, Hidetomo Nakamoto, Makoto Nagata
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is related to allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma (BA), atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to examine the eosinophil infiltration in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract in patients with BA using esophagogastroduodenoscopy. METHODS: Patients with BA who had upper GI tract symptoms were enrolled. Patients who received systemically administered steroids were excluded. Eosinophil infiltrations in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were examined with regard to the endoscopic findings and pathological findings of biopsy specimens (UMIN000010132)...
September 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Evan S Dellon, Margaret H Collins, Peter A Bonis, Kelley E Capocelli, Ranjan Dohil, Gary W Falk, Glenn T Furuta, Sandeep K Gupta, Ikuo Hirano, Girish S Hiremath, Amir F Kagalwalla, John Leung, Chris A Liacouras, Calies Menard-Katcher, Amanda B Muir, Vincent A Mukkada, Philip E Putnam, Alain M Schoepfer, Alex Straumann, Barry K Wershil, John M Wo, Guang-Yu Yang, Marc E Rothenberg, Nirmala Gonsalves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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