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Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease

J S Munday, S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. METHODS: Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2)...
October 17, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Shefali Agrawal, Sandeep Vohra, Sangeeta Rawat, Vikas Kashyap
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Kalmia M Smith, Raiann S Rahman, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Chiara Rosso, Gian P Caviglia, Rinaldo Pellicano
Calprotectin is a heterodimeric protein which belongs to the calcium-binding protein S100 family. Calprotectin is released by leukocytes at the site of inflammation and it can be detected in the feces where it remains stable for about a week. Hence, increased fecal calprotectin (FC) levels are found in several inflammatory conditions, mainly the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the setting of pediatric gastroenterology, the importance of FC has increased over time. This review aims to summarize the most recent findings concerning the role of FC in the algorithm of different inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions among pediatric patients...
September 21, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Hee-Yun Kim, Sun-Young Nam, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
KMP6 (Pyeongwee-San) is a Korean Medicine used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, we reported KMP6 had beneficial effects on allergic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atractylone (Atr), a constituent of KMP6, on allergic rhinitis (AR) and to identify the mechanism responsible for these effects. The anti-allergic inflammatory effects of Atr were evaluated on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry methods...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
Danielle A Stamm, Elizabeth Hait, Heather J Litman, Paul D Mitchell, Christopher Duggan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and clinical features of gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophilic inflammation among pediatric patients with intestinal failure (IF). METHODS: Medical records of all patients studied in our institution's IF program who underwent GI endoscopy over a 15-year period were reviewed, and clinical, pathologic, nutrition, and laboratory data collected. RESULTS: One hundred five patients underwent 208 GI endoscopic procedures with biopsy...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jorre S Mertens, Manon C Zweers, Wietske Kievit, Hanneke K A Knaapen, Martijn Gerritsen, Timothy R D J Radstake, Frank H J van den Hoogen, Marjonne C W Creemers, Elke M G J de Jong
Importance: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a connective tissue disorder in which conventional treatment leads to disappointing results in a proportion of patients. Therefore, we investigated high-dose intravenous (IV) pulse methotrexate (MTX) as a treatment for EF. Objective: To examine safety and effects of monthly high-dose IV pulse MTX in EF. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this prospective single-arm study, we recruited 12 patients diagnosed with biopsy specimen-proven EF between 2006 and 2009 from the Department of Dermatology and Rheumatology at the Radboud University Medical Centre...
August 17, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Andrew H Liu, William C Anderson, Cullen M Dutmer, Daniel A Searing, Stanley J Szefler
In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened...
August 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anouar Teriaky, Abdullah AlNasser, Carolyn McLean, James Gregor, Brian Yan
Background and Aims. Upper endoscopy is a valuable tool in the workup of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. The purpose of this study is to determine cost and yield of taking biopsies in a normal upper GI tract. Methods. This is a retrospective study where all upper GI biopsies were identified between May 2012 and April 2013, at a tertiary care center. Clinical, procedural, and pathology reports were reviewed to identify patient demographics, procedure information, and pathology diagnosis. Results. Biopsies of the upper GI tract were taken in 1297 patients with normal upper endoscopies...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ravinder K Mittal
Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Angela R Shih, Vikram Deshpande, Judith A Ferry, Lawrence Zukerberg
AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM) presents with non-specific symptoms, and pathological diagnosis can be difficult when a subtle mast cell infiltrate is present. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological features in diagnostically challenging cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients with GI biopsies showing an atypical mast cell infiltrate were identified, including three consultation cases in which mast cells were initially overlooked...
July 8, 2016: Histopathology
Nicholas J Talley, Marjorie M Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
H-M Shih, M-J Bair, H-L Chen, I-T Lin
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma...
April 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Hanan M Fouad, Nour A Abdulla, Suzan El Naghy, Ehsan H Hassan, Amal Abd El-Hamid
Upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms are not disease specific and of limited value in the differentiation of GIT disorders. The present study aimed to determine the etiology of chronic unspecific symptoms in children and to test the need for upper endoscopy in diagnosis. This is a prospective study for 30 Egyptian children presented with chronic upper GIT symptoms for at least 2 months. History regarding severity and frequency of GIT symptoms were asked for. Children with known disorder that explains presenting symptoms were excluded...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Mohammad Alsalamah, Melanie Makhajia, Gino Somers, Margaret Marcon, David Hummel, Julia Upton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Rocchina Colucci, Erika Tirotta, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Nunzia Bernardini, Karolina Cseri, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó, Luca Antonioli
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying such disorders are still largely unknown, although the occurrence of a bowel inflammatory condition has been hypothesized. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration, induced by intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on distal colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility in rats...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yoshiaki Isono, Youichirou Baba, Hiroki Tanaka, Hiroaki Kumazawa, Tomomasa Tochio, Shinpei Matsuzaki, Tomohiro Sase, Tomonori Saito, Hiroshi Okano, Katsumi Mukai, Riuko Ohashi
A 54-year-old male patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed a 25-mm brown region in the angular section of the greater curvature of the stomach. The region was histologically determined to be gastric mucosa with an accumulation of histiocytes containing eosinophilic substances in the cytoplasm and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. Histiocytes were immunohistologically positive for CD68, IgG, and κ. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with gastric crystal-storing histiocytosis comprised of histiocytes phagocytosing IgG-κ-type immunoglobulin...
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Hiroki Sato, Nao Nakajima, Go Hasegawa, Yuzo Kawata, Yuichi Sato, Kenji Suzuki, Terasu Honma, Shuji Terai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a Th2-mediated allergic disease of the esophageal epithelium, associated with antigen. We previously reported a case series for eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM)-a novel eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGID) defined as eosinophilic infiltration localized in the esophageal muscle layer-and diagnosed it by peroral endoscopic muscle biopsy. Here, we investigated the immunopathology of EoEM to differentiate it from EoE. METHODS: Histological analysis was performed for three cases of EoEM and EoE, respectively...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
B D van Rhijn, J Verheij, A J P M Smout, A J Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the severity of endoscopic signs scored according to the Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) and histopathologic signs of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has not been sufficiently explored. We aimed to determine if the EREFS system predicts histopathologic activity in EoE patients. METHODS: We included 69 patients with EoE (age 35 [IQR 29-48] years; 80% male) who, between 2006 and 2014, underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) during which high-quality endoscopic images were taken and esophageal biopsy specimens were obtained...
June 2, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ming Ming Zhang, Yan-Qing Li
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a series of diseases which include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Among these disorders, eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon and heterogeneous disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes, presenting with a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations. Up to now, epidemiology and pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are still unclear...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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