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Gastric dysplasia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902643/a-rare-case-of-hyperplastic-proximal-esophageal-polyps-with-foveolar-dysplasia
#1
Maham Hayat, Sultan Mahmood, John T Maple
A 62-year-old male with long-standing esophageal reflux underwent endoscopy at an outside institution that reported multiple polypoid lesions in upper esophagus and a small focal area of nodular mucosa at the gastroesophageal junction(GEJ). Biopsies of the proximal esophageal polyps demonstrated hyperplastic mucosa with ulceration, reactive epithelial changes, and focal intestinal metaplasia. Biopsies from the nodular GEJ mucosa were described as Barrett's esophagus with low grade dysplasia. An upper endoscopy performed at our medical center found multiple semi-pedunculated esophageal polyps between 18-24 cm from the incisors (Figure A)...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882764/molecular-and-pathological-features-of-gastric-cancer-in-lynch-syndrome-and-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#2
Mara Fornasarig, Raffaella Magris, Valli De Re, Ettore Bidoli, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Stefania Maiero, Alessandra Viel, Renato Cannizzaro
Lynch syndrome (LS) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are autosomal dominant hereditary diseases caused by germline mutations leading to the development of colorectal cancer. Moreover, these mutations result in the development of a spectrum of different tumors, including gastric cancers (GCs). Since the clinical characteristics of GCs associated with LS and FAP are not well known, we investigated clinical and molecular features of GCs occurring in patients with LS and FAP attending our Institution. The Hereditary Tumor Registry was established in 1994 at the Department of Oncologic Gastroenterology, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Italy...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876742/helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-serrated-colonic-polyps-analysis-of-serrated-polyp-risk-factors
#3
Anand Kumar, Mimi Kim, Dana J Lukin
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSA) are recognized precursors of colorectal cancer, but their risk factors are not well established. We investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI) and the development of SSA and TSA. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected on patients aged ≥ 18 years that underwent colonoscopy with biopsy between 2006 and 2016. Based on histology, patients were classified into three groups: those with SSA and/or TSA, (serrated neoplasia group, SN); conventional adenomas only (CA); and with no polyps (NP)...
June 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875257/surveillance-of-premalignant-gastric-lesions-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study-from-low-incidence-regions
#4
Wouter J den Hollander, I Lisanne Holster, Caroline M den Hoed, Lisette G Capelle, Tjon J Tang, Marie-Paule Anten, Ingrid Prytz-Berset, Ellen M Witteman, Frank Ter Borg, Gijsbert den Hartog, Marco J Bruno, Maikel Petrus Peppelenbosch, Wilco Lesterhuis, Michael Doukas, Ernst J Kuipers, Manon C W Spaander
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions. However, the diagnostic yield and preventive effect require further study. We therefore aimed to assess the incidence of neoplastic progression and to assess the ability of various tests to identify patients most at risk for progression. DESIGN: Patients from the Netherlands and Norway with a previous diagnosis of atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) or dysplasia were offered endoscopic surveillance...
June 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872453/not-only-stem-cells-but-also-mature-cells-particularly-neuroendocrine-cells-may-develop-into-tumours-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#5
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Kjell Öberg, Øystein F Sørdal, Arne K Sandvik, Bjørn I Gustafsson, Patricia Mjønes, Reidar Fossmark
Stem cells are considered the origin of neoplasms in general, and malignant tumours in particular, and the stage at which the stem cells stop their differentiation determines the degree of malignancy. However, there is increasing evidence supporting an alternative paradigm. Tumours may develop by dedifferentiation from mature cells able to proliferate. Studies of gastric carcinogenesis demonstrate that mature neuroendocrine (NE) cells upon long-term overstimulation may develop through stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia, and rather benign tumours, into highly malignant carcinomas...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859516/up-regulation-of-mir-21-mir-25-mir-93-and-mir-106b-in-gastric-cancer
#6
Pegah LArki, Alireza Ahadi, Ali Zare, Shahriar Tarighi, Mahrokh Zaheri, Mojgan Souri, Mohammad Reza Zali, Hamid Ghaedi, Mir Davood Omrani
Background: Differential expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be a diagnosis signature for the monitoring of gastric cancer (GC) progression. In this study, we focus on the comparison of expression levels of miR-21, miR-25, miR-93, miR-106b, and miR-375 during the sequential pattern of GC development, including normal gastric, gastric dysplasia, and GC sample. Methods: We used SYBR Green-based quantitative-PCR to quantify miRNAs expression. Results: Our analysis revealed the increased expression levels of miR-21 (p = 0...
June 3, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850294/non-helicobacter-pylori-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-in-children-a-series-of-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Sandra Mabel Camacho-Gomez, Anas Bernieh, Ali G Saad, Neelesh Ajit Tipnis
In the pediatric population, Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (GIM) is a finding with unknown frequency and, more importantly, unknown clinical implications. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and GIM is well documented, as well as an association between duodenogastric reflux and GIM. We present two cases of pediatric patients with GIM along with a review of the literature. The diagnosis of GIM may have adverse clinical implications and should be made with caution in a child. The association of GIM and adenoma/dysplasia and carcinoma is rarely seen in children, primarily because the time required for these to develop takes the individual into adulthood...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800546/effects-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-for-metachronous-gastric-cancer-prevention-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ji Min Choi, Sang Gyun Kim, Jeongmin Choi, Jae Yong Park, Sooyeon Oh, Hyo-Joon Yang, Joo Hyun Lim, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim, Hyun Chae Jung
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) reduces incidence of metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) is still debatable. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of H pylori eradication on the development of MGC after endoscopic gastric tumor resection. METHODS: We undertook an open-label, prospective, randomized controlled trial at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea. Participants were recruited during April 2005 to February 2011 and followed until December 2016...
May 22, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789650/use-of-dna-flow-cytometry-in-the-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management-of-gastric-epithelial-dysplasia
#9
Kwun Wah Wen, Peter S Rabinovitch, Danning Huang, Aras N Mattis, Gregory Y Lauwers, Won-Tak Choi
The natural history of gastric epithelial dysplasia and the consequential surveillance strategies are not well defined in the West. To date, the diagnosis relies on morphology, and no reliable adjunct methods, either immunohistochemical or molecular, have reproducibly been able to confirm the diagnosis and/or risk stratify gastric epithelial dysplasia. Yet, such a tool would be useful in confirming the diagnosis, and developing objective and rational surveillance guidelines. DNA flow cytometry was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric tissue from 23 cases of high-grade dysplasia and 38 cases of low-grade dysplasia...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778607/cost-effectiveness-of-gastric-cancer-screening-according-to-race-and-ethnicity
#10
Monica Saumoy, Yecheskel Schneider, Nicole Shen, Michel Kahaleh, Reem Z Sharaiha, Shailja C Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are marked racial and ethnic differences in noncardia gastric cancer prevalence within the United States (US). Although gastric cancer screening is recommended in regions of high prevalence, screening is not routinely performed in the US. Our objective was to determine whether selected noncardia gastric cancer screening for high-risk races and ethnicities within the US is cost effective. METHODS: We developed a decision analytic Markov model with the base case of a 50-year-old person of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or Asian race or ethnicity...
May 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775897/the-gastric-mucosal-protective-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-in-mnng-induced-gpl-rats
#11
Tiantian Cai, Chengzhe Zhang, Ziming Zhao, Siyi Li, Haobin Cai, Xiaodong Chen, Dake Cai, Wei Liu, Yan Yan, Kaifeng Xie, Huafeng Pan, Xiaohui Zeng
Gastric Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. And the occurrence of gastric carcinoma is an evolutionary histopathological stage. As a result, further research of GPL, which is a borderline of gastric cancer, is indispensable for preventing the formation and development of gastric carcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of autophagy, apoptosis and Gastric cancer (GC). However, the effects of autophagy and apoptosis on human gastric cancer progression, particularly on gastric precancerous lesions (GPL), have not totally been investigated...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770171/risk-of-gastric-cancer-development-after-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori
#12
REVIEW
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai K Leung
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development through the Correa's gastric carcinogenesis cascade. However, H. pylori eradication alone does not eliminate GC, as pre-neoplastic lesions (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) may have already developed in some patients. It is therefore necessary to identify patients at high-risk for gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication to streamline the management plan. If the patients have not undergone endoscopy with histologic assessment, the identification of certain clinical risk factors and non-invasive testing (serum pepsinogen) can predict the risk of atrophic gastritis...
May 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768377/occurrence-of-metachronous-multiple-primary-cancers-occurred-in-different-parts-of-the-stomach-with-2-pathologic-features-a-case-report
#13
Yan Song, Ningning Zhao, Kui Jiang, Zhongqing Zheng, Bangmao Wang, Dalu Kong, Shu Li
RATIONALE: With the increasing survival rate of gastric cancer, more multiple primary cancers (MPC) have been reported. However, few cases involve metachronous multiple primary cancers which both occurred in the stomach. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 83-year-old Chinese male had been diagnosed with gastric cardia cancer and underwent proximal gastrectomy. The pathological result was gastric adenocarcinoma. 13 years later the patient's gastroscope result deteriorated. The biopsy of the antrum revealed dysplasia with doubtful focal cancerization...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763881/orally-administered-brown-seaweed-derived-%C3%AE-glucan-effectively-restrained-development-of-gastric-dysplasia-in-a4gnt-ko-mice-that-spontaneously-develop-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#14
Mark Joseph Desamero, Shigeru Kakuta, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Satoshi Hachimura, Masaya Takamoto, Jun Nakayama, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Shigeru Kyuwa
β-Glucan refers to a heterogeneous group of chemically defined storage polysaccharides containing β-(1,3)-d-linked glucose polymers with branches connected by either β-(1,4) or β-(1,6) glycosidic linkage. To date, an extensive amount of scientific evidence supports their multifunctional biological activities, but their potential involvement in the progression of premalignant lesions remains to be clarified. A4gnt KO mice that lack α1,4-N-acetylglucosamine-capped O-glycans in gastric gland mucin are a unique animal model for gastric cancer because the mutant mice spontaneously develop gastric cancer through hyperplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence...
May 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747491/gastric-mucosal-atrophy-impedes-housekeeping-gene-methylation-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#15
Jung-Hwan Oh, Mun-Gan Rhyu, Suk-Il Kim, Mi-Ri Yun, Jung-Ha Shin, Seung-Jin Hong
Purpose: Helicobacter pylori infection induces phenotype-stabilizing methylation and promotes gastric mucosal atrophy that can inhibit CpG-island methylation. Relationship between the progression of gastric mucosal atrophy and the initiation of CpG-island methylation was analyzed to delineate epigenetic period for neoplastic transformation. Materials and Methods: Normal-appearing gastric mucosa was biopsied from 110 H. pylori‒positive controls, 95 H. pylori‒negative controls, 99 gastric cancer patients, and 118 gastric dysplasia patients...
April 30, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747255/-endoscopic-screening-for-upper-gastrointestinal-second-primary-malignancies-in-patients-with-hypopharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
J J Tian, W Xu, Z H Lyu, J K Ma, P Cui, N Sa, H Y Cao
Objective: To evaluate the usefullness of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of synchronous esophageal neoplasm in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Methods: A retrospective review of 96 cases with HSCC that received surgical treatment from March 2016 to March 2017 was accomplished. In these patients, the site of origin were pyriform sinus ( n =75), posterior pharyngeal wall ( n =11) and postcricoid ( n =10). Esophagoscopy was prospectively performed on all patients before treatment for HSCC...
April 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736829/circulating-microrna-22-3p-predicts-the-malignant-progression-of-precancerous-gastric-lesions-from-intestinal-metaplasia-to-early-adenocarcinoma
#17
Tsung-Hsing Chen, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chieh Lee, Yin-Yi Chu, Hao-Tsai Cheng, Jun-Te Hsu, Ren-Chin Wu, Ta-Sen Yeh, Kwang-Huei Lin
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer has a poor outcome and identifying useful biomarkers from peripheral blood or tissue could allow its early detection, or potentially precancerous changes, thus improving the curative rates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to offer great potential in cancer diagnosis and prediction. AIM: Here, we investigated the role of plasma miRNAs in the natural course of gastric cancer, from intestinal metaplasia to early cancer. The findings were used to understand whether patients at a high risk of malignancy could be given appropriate interventions in the early disease process, such as using endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat gastric dysplasia or early gastric cancer...
May 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725252/potential-mirna-target-interactions-for-the-screening-of-gastric-carcinoma-development-in-gastric-adenoma-dysplasia
#18
Yu Jin Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang, Sang Woo Kim, Yong Chan Lee
Although miRNA markers have been identified for the pathological development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), the underlying molecule mechanism are still not fully understood. Moreover, some gastric adenoma/dysplasia may progress to GAC. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles in normal and paired low-/high-grade dysplasia were analyzed using Affymetrix Gene-Chip miRNA arrays. Of the total 2578 mature miRNA probe sets, ~1600 showed positive signals when the between normal and paired low-/high-grade dysplasia were compared...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667709/the-outlet-patch-gastric-heterotopia-of-the-colorectum-and-anus
#19
Abul A S R Mannan, Michael Vieth, Armen Khararjian, Binny Khandakar, Dora Lam-Himlin, David Heydt, Feriyl Bhaijee, Henry J Venbrux, Kathleen Byrnes, Lysandra Voltaggio, Norman Barker, Songyang Yuan, Elizabeth A Montgomery
AIMS: Gastric heterotopia (GH) has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, the colorectal region is an extremely rare location for it. We describe the clinicopathological features of GH of the colon, rectum and anus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 33 cases in 20 males and 13 females (median age = 54 years; range = 4 months-73 years). Sites included the rectum (n = 26), anus (n = 4), ileocaecal junction (n = 1), ascending colon (n = 1) and descending colon (n = 1)...
April 18, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658583/intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-clinical-association-with-kras
#20
Xiao Yan Chang, Yan Wu, Yuan Li, Jing Wang, Jie Chen
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) are among the most important precancerous lesions in the pancreas. V‑Ki‑ras 2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) is one of the most important genes involved in pancreatic neoplasms, and exhibits a high mutation rate in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The present study aimed to further elucidate the associations among IPMN subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic), pathological classifications [low‑grade, intermediate‑grade, and high‑grade IPMN, and associated minimally invasive carcinoma (invasive depth ≤0...
June 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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