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Esophageal adenocarcinoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821981/modifiable-factors-and-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-published-meta-analyses
#1
REVIEW
Clara Castro, Bárbara Peleteiro, Nuno Lunet
There are marked differences in the etiology of the major histological types of esophageal cancer (EC)-squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and adenocarcinomas (EAC). This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on modifiable risk factors for EC, by histological type, through a systematic review of meta-analyses referenced in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. We identified 100 meta-analyses on risk factors for ESCC (n = 54), EAC (n = 43), or EC (n = 51). ESCC risk significantly increased with alcohol and maté drinking, smoking, red and processed meat consumption and human papillomavirus infection, while it was negatively associated with body mass index and consumption of fruit, vegetables, white meat, folate, and some carotenoids...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819902/ablation-therapy-for-barrett-s-esophagus-new-rules-for-changing-times
#2
REVIEW
Nour Hamade, Prateek Sharma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss different endoscopic techniques in the eradication of Barrett's esophagus (BE) as well as some controversies in the field of treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with T1a esophageal adenocarcinoma and BE of high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic ablative therapy. The most studied technique to date is radiofrequency ablation. It can be combined with endoscopic mucosal resection in cases containing nodular and flat lesions...
August 17, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819564/a-review-of-the-impact-of-obesity-on-common-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#3
Somashekar G Krishna, Hisham Hussan, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Lanla F Conteh, Khalid Mumtaz, Darwin L Conwell
Obesity is a global pandemic and is a well-recognized risk factor for various gastrointestinal diseases. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across all age groups. There is an emergent need for focused guidelines aimed at reducing the incidence, prevalence, and associated risks of obesity. The impact of obesity on gastrointestinal cancers being multifactorial adversely influences the associated risk, disease course, prognosis, and overall survival. We have summarized the current literature highlighting the association between obesity and common gastrointestinal cancers, with specific focus on esophageal adenocarcinoma, colon cancer, hepatocellular cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic malignancies...
2017: Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815067/the-extent-of-lymphadenectomy-in-esophageal-resection-for-cancer-should-be-standardized
#4
REVIEW
Eliza R C Hagens, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Miguel A Cuesta, Suzanne S Gisbertz
The incidence of esophageal cancer increases, with approximately 482,000 patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer each year. Despite the growing incidence of esophageal carcinoma, the extent of the lymphadenectomy is still under discussion. Lymph node status is an important prognostic parameter in esophageal cancer and an independent predictor of survival. Surgical strategy depends on the distribution pattern of nodal metastases but consensus on the extent of lymphadenectomy differs worldwide. For squamous cell cancer, Japanese surgeons have standardized the 2- or 3-field lymphadenectomy according to the location of the tumor...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815065/neoadjuvant-treatment-of-locally-advanced-esophageal-and-junctional-cancer-the-evidence-base-current-key-questions-and-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Claire L Donohoe, John V Reynolds
Recent trials, including CROSS, MAGIC, ACCORD, and OEO2, have established neoadjuvant therapy as standard of care for locally advanced (cT2-3NanyM0) esophageal and junctional cancer compared with surgery alone. The CROSS trial in particular defines a new benchmark for outcomes from multimodal therapy, with a 5 year survival rate of 47%, a median survival of 47 months, a pathologic complete response rate (pCR) of 29% and an R0 resection rate of 92%. Several key questions remain, in particular whether CROSS-regimen chemoradiotherapy is superior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone for esophageal cancer, in particular adenocarcinoma...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815063/the-impact-of-flexible-endoscopy-in-esophageal-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Alejandro Nieponice, Fabio Nachman, Adolfo Badaloni, Franco Ciotola, Cecilia Zubieta, Mauricio Ramirez
Achalasia and Treatment of esophageal Adenocarcinoma are commonly associated to surgical resection. Newer technologies in interventional endoscopy gave way to a substantial paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In the case of achalasia, endoscopic myotomy is rapidly displacing Heller's myotomy as the gold standard in many centers. Early stage neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) comprising high-grade dysplasia (HGD), intramucosal and, in some cases, submucosal carcinoma is now being treated without the need of esophagectomy...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#7
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807249/current-trends-in-multimodality-treatment-of-esophageal-and-gastroesophageal-junction-cancer-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Fredrik Klevebro, Simon Ekman, Magnus Nilsson
PURPOSE: Multimodality treatment has now been widely introduced in the curatively intended treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer. We aim to give an overview of the scientific evidence for the available treatment strategies and to describe which trends that are currently developing. METHODS: We conducted a review of the scientific evidence for the different curatively intended treatment strategies that are available today. Relevant articles of randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and meta analyses were included...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806299/the-dynamic-and-transient-immune-microenvironment-in-locally-advanced-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-post-chemoradiation
#9
Ronan J Kelly, Ali H Zaidi, Matthew A Smith, Ashten N Omstead, Juliann E Kosovec, Daisuke Matsui, Samantha A Martin, Christina DiCarlo, E Day Werts, Jan F Silverman, David H Wang, Blair A Jobe
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chemoradiation on the immune microenvironment to influence and optimally design future neoadjuvant clinical trials. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Programmed death (PD)-1 inhibitors in metastatic gastroesophageal cancer have demonstrated response rates of approximately 25% in programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1+) tumors. Unfortunately, the majority of patients do not respond. Therefore, a rationale strategy of combining immunotherapeutic agents with chemoradiation in earlier stage esophageal cancer may prevent metastatic disease in patients...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802729/predictors-of-pathologic-upstaging-in-early-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-results-from-the-national-cancer-database
#10
Craig S Brown, Natalie Gwilliam, Alex Kyrillos, Waseem Lutfi, Brittany Lapin, Ki Wan Kim, Seth B Krantz, John A Howington, Katherine Yao, Michael B Ujiki
BACKGROUND: Upstaging in early esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients happens at a high rate and has implications for treatment. We sought to identify risk factors predicting upstaging. STUDY DESIGN: The National Cancer Database (2010-2013) was queried for all patients with clinical T1/T2 and N0 EAC who underwent esophagectomy without neoadjuvant therapy. Logistic regression models were developed to investigate risk factors for upstaging. RESULTS: A total of 1120 patients were included...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798532/adenocarcinoma-of-barrett-s-esophagus-in-a-dog
#11
James K Chambers, Tsubasa Saito, Kenjiro Fukushima, Shigeru Kakuta, Jun Nakayama, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
An endoscopic examination revealed a mass in the distal esophagus of a 9-year-old intact male bulldog. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells and extended from the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa, indicating that the tumor was derived from Barrett's esophagus. Moreover, highly atypical foci that exhibited a cribriform pattern and high mitotic indices were also observed. The epithelial cells on the surface of the lesion often produced mucus that was positive for Alcian blue and immunohistochemically positive for MUC5AC...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782986/her2-heterogeneity-in-gastroesophageal-cancer-detected-by-testing-biopsy-and-resection-specimens
#12
Ladan Fazlollahi, Helen E Remotti, Alina Iuga, Hui-Min Yang, Stephen M Lagana, Antonia R Sepulveda
CONTEXT: - In advanced gastric, esophageal, and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas (GE-GEJ-AC) that overexpress ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2), anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy confers survival benefit. To select patients for treatment, HER2 expression and gene amplification are evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization. OBJECTIVE: - To determine whether GE-GEJ-AC tested for HER2 on biopsy specimens of a primary tumor show different IHC scores and/or HER2 amplification by in situ hybridization in matched resection specimens, potentially changing therapy eligibility...
August 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781790/somatic-brca1-associated-protein-1-bap1-loss-is-an-early-and-rare-event-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Heike Loeser, Dirk Waldschmidt, Fabian Kuetting, Simon Schallenberg, Thomas Zander, Elfriede Bollschweiler, Arnulf Hoelscher, Katharina Weckermann, Patrick Plum, Hakan Alakus, Reinhard Buettner, Alexander Quaas
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common malignant tumor worldwide, and the number of incidences of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the Western world. Despite improvements in perioperative treatment, the overall survival rate of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma remains poor. Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1)-associated protein (BAP1) is located on chromosome 3p21, and it is an enzyme with ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase activity that regulates cell growth. It interacts with BRCA1, and the nuclear localization of BAP1 is required for its tumor suppressor function...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780073/the-epidemiology-of-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Helen G Coleman, Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased in many Western countries, and is higher in men than women. Some risk factors for EAC have been identified-mainly gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, obesity, and tobacco smoking. It is not clear whether interventions to address these factors can reduce risk of EAC, although some evidence exists for smoking cessation. Although consumption of alcohol is not associated with EAC risk, other exposures, such as physical activity, nutrition, and medication use, require further study...
August 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777145/a-polyclonal-antibody-to-nkx3-1-identifies-fungal-organisms-from-the-esophagus
#15
Martina Pejchal, Reetesh K Pai, Nadia F Habib-Bein, Nicholas J Barasch, Douglas J Hartman
NKX3.1 is a transcription factor used to identify prostatic adenocarcinomas. We describe novel functionality for NKX3.1 compared with Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff-diastase (PASD) on esophageal biopsies. We identified esophageal biopsies on the basis of the search term "candida" from March 28, 2012 to December 27, 2013. Of 85 cases for which 3 stains were available and at least 1 stain was positive for fungus consistent with Candida, 83 cases stained as positive with NKX3.1, compared with 79 with PASD and 75 with Grocott...
August 2, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776577/pathologic-assessment-of-gastrointestinal-tract-and-pancreatic-carcinoma-after-neoadjuvant-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Reetesh K Pai, Rish K Pai
Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with a wide variety of malignancies. Histologic evaluation of treated specimens provides important prognostic information and may guide subsequent chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly employed in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma, hepatic colorectal metastases, esophageal/esophagogastric junction carcinoma, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Numerous tumor regression schemes have been used in these tumors and standardized approaches to evaluate these specimens are needed...
August 4, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770168/neoadjuvant-therapy-for-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-in-the-community-setting-practice-and-outcomes
#17
Joe Abdo, Carrie A Bertellotti, David L Cornell, Devendra K Agrawal, Sumeet K Mittal
There has been an alarming rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma which continues to have poor survival rates primarily due to lack of effective chemotherapy and presentation at advanced stages. Over a dozen chemotherapeutic agents are FDA approved for esophageal cancer (EC), and a two or three-drug combination is typically prescribed as first-line therapy for the majority of EC patients, administered either pre or post-operatively with esophageal resection. We have noticed significant variability in adjuvant and neoadjuvant regimens used in the community setting...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768652/nut-and-peanut-butter-consumption-and-the-risk-of-esophageal-and-gastric-cancer-subtypes
#18
Maryam Hashemian, Gwen Murphy, Arash Etemadi, Sanford M Dawsey, Linda M Liao, Christian C Abnet
Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers.Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767405/the-integrative-clinical-impact-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-lymphocytes-and-nk-cells-in-relation-to-b-lymphocyte-and-plasma-cell-density-in-esophageal-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#19
Maria C Svensson, Carl Fredrik Warfvinge, Richard Fristedt, Charlotta Hedner, David Borg, Jakob Eberhard, Patrick Micke, Björn Nodin, Karin Leandersson, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated a prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma, but whether these associations differ by the density of tumor-infiltrating immune cells of the B cell lineage remains largely unknown. RESULTS: High infiltration of any T and NK lymphocytes investigated was in general associated with a favorable prognosis, but the strongest beneficial prognostic impact was seen in combination with high B lymphocyte infiltration...
July 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764863/cellular-expression-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-confirmation-of-gaec1-oncogenic-properties-in-colon-cancer
#20
Riajul Wahab, Vinod Gopalan, Farhadul Islam, Robert A Smith, Bin Qiao, Alfred K Lam
GAEC1 (Gene amplified in esophageal cancer 1) alterations have oncogenic properties in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas and frequent amplifications of the gene were noted in colorectal adenocarcinomas. However, the subcellular localization and expression of GAEC1 at the protein level have never been reported in human cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether GAEC1 is differentially expressed in different stages of colon cancer and to elucidate its underlying cellular and molecular mechanism in colon cancer progression...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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