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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors

Erdem Sürücü, Yusuf Demir, Ahmet C Dülger, Abdüssamed Batur, Şehmus Ölmez, Mehmet T Kitapçı
A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in these lesions...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Yasunori Minami, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Masashi Kono, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masahiro Takita, Norihisa Yada, Satoru Hagiwara, Hiroshi Ida, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces gas bubbles in ablation zones, and the ablative margin cannot be evaluated accurately on ultrasound (US) during and immediately after RFA. This study assessed the usefulness of US-US fusion imaging to visualize the ablative margin of RFA for liver metastasis. METHODS: RFA guided by US-US fusion imaging was performed on 12 targeted tumors in 10 patients. Secondary hepatic malignancies included patients with colorectal cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1)...
2016: Digestive Diseases
S F Lax
The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of uterine tumors revealed simplification of the classification by fusion of several entities and the introduction of novel entities. Among the multitude of alterations, the following are named: a simplified classification for precursor lesions of endometrial carcinoma now distinguishes between hyperplasia without atypia and atypical hyperplasia, the latter also known as endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). For endometrial carcinoma a differentiation is made between type 1 (endometrioid carcinoma with variants and mucinous carcinoma) and type 2 (serous and clear cell carcinoma)...
October 13, 2016: Der Pathologe
María Del Carmen Blasco, F Giuliano Boselli O, Carmelo Blasco
Carcinoid tumors belong to the families of neuroendocrine tumors. The major sites are the gastrointestinal tract 65% and lungs 25%. The small intestine, specifically the ileum, is the most common. These tumors although rare, are more common in tumors of neuroendocrine origin gastro-entero-pancreatic. In both cases we observe the different clinical presentations that may have carcinoid tumor; in case 1 ulceration of the tumor mass causing the elimination of melena, and severe diarrhea caused by neuroendocrine secretion...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
J Lemale, S Boudjemaa, B Parmentier, H Ducou Le Pointe, A Coulomb, L Dainese
INTRODUCTION: Meckel's diverticulum is a common malformation in children, usually asymptomatic, with complications in only 20% of cases. Exceptionally, a tumor can develop in Meckel's diverticulum in children, particularly Burkitt's lymphoma; in adults it can develop into a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a leiomyosarcoma, or a neuroendocrine tumor such as a carcinoid tumor. The diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor following an insidious perforation is rare. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 14-month-old boy who presented with fever, asthenia, food refusal, and digestive complaints such as vomiting and tender abdomen suggesting appendicitis...
September 27, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Hiroaki Kaneko, Akio Miyake, Yasuaki Ishii, Soichiro Sue, Haruo Miwa, Tomohiko Sasaki, Toshihide Tamura, Masaaki Kondo, Shin Maeda
The present report describes a rare case of a tumor composed of early gastric cancer and a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). A 78-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a local institution for screening of the upper gastrointestinal tract which revealed a protruded tumor through the pyloric ring from the pyloric antrum. The tumor was too large to treat at the facility; consequently, she was referred to our hospital for further management. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with tumor biopsy of the lesion revealed the diagnosis of early gastric cancer...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Srijan Mazumdar, Sridhar Sundaram, Prachi Patil, Shaesta Mehta, Mukta Ramadwar
Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management...
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Monica Ortenzi, Roberto Ghiselli, Maria Michela Cappelletti Trombettoni, Luca Cardinali, Mario Guerrieri
AIM: To analyze the outcomes of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) in the treatment of rare rectal condition like mesenchymal tumors, condylomas, endometriosis and melanoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a twenty-three years database. Fifty-two patients were enrolled in this study. The lesions were considered suitable for TEM if they were within 20 cm from the anus. All of them underwent an accurate preoperative workup consisting in clinical examination, total colonoscopy with biopsies, endoscopic ultrasonography, and pelvic computerized tomography or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging...
September 16, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Marianne Pavel
Extract: During my medical studies at the Georg August University of Göttingen in the late 1980's, I was truly inspired early by my mentor and University teacher Werner Creutzfeldt to begin working in the field of neuroendocrine Tumors (NET). Werner Creutzfeldt was a leader of excellence in the field of gastrointestinal endocrinology, neuroendocrine tumors and the entero-insulinar axis/incretin system in Germany. At this time, treatment of NET, i.e. pancreatic NET was reduced to the use of chemotherapeutics like streptozotocin and others with less success...
September 19, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Faqian Li
Context .- High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids can arise in different sites such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and skin. Classic neuroendocrine markers such as CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin cannot distinguish carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Recently, mouse monoclonal mASH1 has been shown to help discriminate carcinoids from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas in various neoplastic sites. To date, there have been no comprehensive immunohistochemistry studies with mASH1 on nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
B Talvande, A Dorange, M Lecouflet, M Le Nezet, B Kianifard, H Maillard, M Duquenne
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare. In the ovary, the term of neuroendocrine tumor is usually related to carcinoid tumors although it may be sometimes applied to neuroendocrine carcinomas of non-small cells or small cells cancers usually occurring in the lungs. These carcinoid tumors may develop de novo or from other tumors including teratomas. CASE REPORT: We report a patient who presented with an ovarian carcinoid tumor developed, near or from a dermoid cyst, which was original by its mode of discovery in the dermatology department...
September 9, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Olga Martínez-Sáez, Javier Molina-Cerrillo, Carmen Moreno García Del Real, Rafael Barberá Durban, Juan J Díez, Teresa Alonso-Gordoa, Enrique Grande Pulido
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies from cells derived from the neural crest with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite the differences in the site of origin, nomenclature, biological behavior, and functional status, NETs share certain ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. NETs are relative rare tumors with an annual incidence of 5.76 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants and they usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or in the pulmonary system. Head and neck NETs are uncommon with limited information regarding frequency, most of them showing small cell carcinoma features...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Rinaldo Pellicano, Sharmila Fagoonee, Fiorella Altruda, Mauro Bruno, Giorgio M Saracco, Claudio De Angelis
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors deriving from the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine system. Since these neoplasms are usually very small, located deeply within the retroperitoneum or into an extramucosal site of the GI tract and, lastly, because they may be multi-sited, radiological imaging modalities, in combination with endoscopy, are the diagnostic workhorses in patients with GEP-NETs. Endoscopic approach is useful for detection, bioptic diagnosis and curative resection of small GEP-NETs of stomach, duodenum, jejuno-ileum, and colon-rectum...
December 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Raj Mohan Paspulati, Amit Gupta
PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions...
October 2016: PET Clinics
Yukio Oshiro, Ryozo Gen, Shinji Hashimoto, Tatsuya Oda, Taiki Sato, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) originating from the gastrointestinal hepatobiliary-pancreas is a rare, invasive, and progressive disease, for which the prognosis is extremely poor. The patient was a 72-year-old man referred with complaints of jaundice. He was diagnosed with middle extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (cT4N1M0, cStage IV). He underwent a right hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct and portal vein resection after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization. Microscopic examination showed a large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma according to the WHO criteria for the clinicopathologic classification of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yuichi Sato, Satoru Hashimoto, Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Manabu Takeuchi, Shuji Terai
Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Badr Al-Bawardy, Elizabeth Rajan, Louis M Wong Kee Song
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) allows for definitive diagnosis and treatment of select subepithelial and epithelial lesions unsuitable to conventional resection techniques. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of over-the-scope (OTS) clip-assisted EFTR for these lesions. METHODS: Patients who underwent OTS clip-assisted EFTR between June 2014 and October 2015 were analyzed. The procedure involved (1) thermal marking of the periphery of the lesion; (2) lesion suction into the cap of either an over-the-scope clip (OTSC, Ovesco Endoscopy AG, Tübingen, Germany) or Padlock clip (Aponos Medical Corp...
August 25, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Alexandria T Phan, Bhuvanesh Dave
Significant advances have been made toward understanding the biology of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in terms of defining prognosis and improving clinical management; however, many unmet needs remain. The treatment landscape for NET has evolved, with the approval of the targeted agents everolimus and sunitinib for the treatment of advanced pancreatic NET in 2011 followed by the approval of everolimus for the treatment of advanced nonfunctional gastrointestinal and lung NET in 2016. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and components of the mTOR pathway play pivotal roles in NET pathogenesis...
August 18, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Frederico Teixeira, Carlos Augusto Metidieri Menegozzo, Sérgio Dias do Couto Netto, Gustavo Scapini, Eduardo Hiroshi Akaishi, Marcela Pereira Silva Vasconcelos, Edivaldo Massazo Utiyama
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 Neurofibromatosis (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominantly inherited multisystem disorders. It is associated with an increased risk of developing neurologic and gastrointestinal (GI) malignant neoplasms. The incidence of GI involvement is reported in 10-25% of patients. Less than 5% of NF1 patients with GI neoplasms manifest symptoms. The presence of synchronic gastrointestinal stromal and neuroendocrine tumors is rare in these patients. PRESENTATION OF CASES: The first case is a 37 year-old male patient with a history of abdominal pain for a few months...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Heimo Lagler, Barbara Kiesewetter, Markus Raderer
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. The typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. The clinical course of Campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. However, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, a neoplasm of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin, can develop severe diarrhea during progression of tumor growth caused by hormonal excess due to the tumor...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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