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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239220/incentivizing-cost-effective-reductions-in-hospital-readmission-rates
#1
James C Cox, Vjollca Sadiraj, Kurt E Schnier, John F Sweeney
The recent regulatory changes enacted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have identified hospital readmission rates as a critical healthcare quality metric. This research focuses on the utilization of pay-for-performance (P4P) mechanisms to cost effectively reduce hospital readmission rates and meet the regulatory standards set by CMS. Using the experimental economics laboratory we find that both of the P4P mechanisms researched, bonus and bundled payments, cost-effectively meet the performance criteria set forth by CMS...
November 2016: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238079/development-and-application-of-a-rapid-user-friendly-and-inexpensive-method-to-detect-dehalococcoides-sp-reductive-dehalogenase-genes-from-groundwater
#2
Yogendra H Kanitkar, Robert D Stedtfeld, Paul B Hatzinger, Syed A Hashsham, Alison M Cupples
TaqMan probe-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) specific to the biomarker reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes is a widely accepted molecular biological tool (MBT) for determining the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. in groundwater samples from chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. However, there are significant costs associated with this MBT. In this study, we describe an approach that requires only low-cost laboratory equipment (a bench top centrifuge and a water bath) and requires less time and resources compared to qPCR...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237943/kinome-profiling-identifies-druggable-targets-for-novel-hcmv-antivirals
#3
Kyle C Arend, Erik M Lenarcic, Heather A Vincent, Naim Rashid, Eric Lazear, Ian M MacDonald, Thomas S K Gilbert, Michael P East, Laura E Herring, Gary L Johnson, Lee Graves, Nathaniel J Moorman
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant cause of disease in immunecompromised adults and immune naive newborns. No vaccine exists to prevent HCMV infection, and current antiviral therapies have toxic side effects that limit the duration and intensity of their use. There is thus an urgent need for new strategies to treat HCMV infection. Repurposing existing drugs as antivirals is an attractive approach to limit the time and cost of new antiviral drug development. Virus-induced changes in infected cells are often driven by changes in cellular kinase activity, which led us to hypothesize that defining the complement of kinases (the kinome), whose abundance or expression is altered during infection would identify existing kinase inhibitors that could be repurposed as new antivirals...
February 25, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230927/crispr-cas9-technologies
#4
Bart O Williams, Matthew L Warman
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) pathway is revolutionizing biological research. Modifications to this primitive prokaryotic immune system now enable scientists to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms. Thus, many laboratories can now perform important experiments that previously were considered scientifically risky or too costly. Here, we describe the components of the CRISPR/Cas system that have been engineered for use in eukaryotes...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229894/mobile-stroke-units-for-prehospital-thrombolysis-triage-and-beyond-benefits-and-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Klaus Fassbender, James C Grotta, Silke Walter, Iris Q Grunwald, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Jeffrey L Saver
In acute stroke management, time is brain. Bringing swift treatment to the patient, instead of the conventional approach of awaiting the patient's arrival at the hospital for treatment, is a potential strategy to improve clinical outcomes after stroke. This strategy is based on the use of an ambulance (mobile stroke unit) equipped with an imaging system, a point-of-care laboratory, a telemedicine connection to the hospital, and appropriate medication. Studies of prehospital stroke treatment consistently report a reduction in delays before thrombolysis and cause-based triage in regard to the appropriate target hospital (eg, primary vs comprehensive stroke centre)...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227433/microprinted-tumor-spheroids-enable-anti-cancer-drug-screening
#6
Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana
Spheroids present a biologically relevant model of avascular tumors and a unique tool for discovery of anti-cancer drugs. Despite being used in research laboratories for several decades, spheroids are not routinely used for drug discovery primarily due to the difficulty of mass-producing uniformly-sized spheroids and intense labor involved in handling, drug treatment, and analyzing them. We overcome this barrier using a novel technology to robotically microprint spheroids in standard 384-well plates. An aqueous drop containing cancer cells is dispensed into a bath of a second, immiscible aqueous phase...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226919/an-online-recursive-autocalibration-of-triaxial-accelerometer
#7
Lin Ye, Steven W Su, Dong Lei, Hung T Nguyen, Lin Ye, Steven W Su, Dong Lei, Hung T Nguyen, Steven W Su, Hung T Nguyen, Lin Ye, Dong Lei
In this paper, we proposed a novel method for autocalibration of triaxial Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer that does not require any sophisticated laboratory facilities. In particular, this method is an online calibration method which can be conveniently implemented with the accuracy of MEMS accelerometer being significantly improved. The procedure exploits the fact that the output vector of the accelerometer must match the local gravity in static state condition. To achieve online calibration, the model as well as the cost function are linearized at the beginning, and an online recursive method is then utilized to identify the unknown parameters and remove the bias caused by linearization...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226584/leveraging-imu-data-for-accurate-exercise-performance-classification-and-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-screening
#8
Darragh Whelan, Martin O'Reilly, Bingquan Huang, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Brian Caulfield, Darragh Whelan, Martin O'Reilly, Bingquan Huang, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Brian Caulfield, Martin O'Reilly, Brian Caulfield, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Darragh Whelan, Bingquan Huang
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are becoming increasingly prevalent as a method for low cost and portable biomechanical analysis. However, to date they have not been accepted into routine clinical practice. This is often due to a disconnect between translating the data collected by the sensors into meaningful and actionable information for end users. This paper outlines the work completed by our group in attempting to achieve this. We discuss the conceptual framework involved in our work, the methodological approach taken in analysing sensor signals and discuss possible application models...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223945/toward-respiratory-assessment-using-depth-measurements-from-a-time-of-flight-sensor
#9
Charles Sharp, Vahid Soleimani, Sion Hannuna, Massimo Camplani, Dima Damen, Jason Viner, Majid Mirmehdi, James W Dodd
Introduction: There is increasing interest in technologies that may enable remote monitoring of respiratory disease. Traditional methods for assessing respiratory function such as spirometry can be expensive and require specialist training to perform and interpret. Remote, non-contact tracking of chest wall movement has been explored in the past using structured light, accelerometers and impedance pneumography, but these have often been costly and clinical utility remains to be defined. We present data from a 3-Dimensional time-of-flight camera (found in gaming consoles) used to estimate chest volume during routine spirometry maneuvres...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222877/fracture-of-layered-zirconia-restorations-at-5-years-a-dental-laboratory-survey
#10
Aous A Abdulmajeed, Terence E Donovan, Lyndon F Cooper, Ricardo Walter, Taiseer A Sulaiman
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The use of ceramic restorations has significantly increased in recent years because of their esthetic properties and the high cost of noble metals. However, given the lack of long-term clinical trials and the limitations of in vitro studies, the durability of ceramic restorations is still questionable. PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the fracture rate of layered zirconia restorations at up to 5 years of clinical performance by using a dental laboratory survey model...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222731/genomic-newborn-screening-public-health-policy-considerations-and-recommendations
#11
Jan M Friedman, Martina C Cornel, Aaron J Goldenberg, Karla J Lister, Karine Sénécal, Danya F Vears
BACKGROUND: The use of genome-wide (whole genome or exome) sequencing for population-based newborn screening presents an opportunity to detect and treat or prevent many more serious early-onset health conditions than is possible today. METHODS: The Paediatric Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health's Regulatory and Ethics Working Group reviewed current understanding and concerns regarding the use of genomic technologies for population-based newborn screening and developed, by consensus, eight recommendations for clinicians, clinical laboratory scientists, and policy makers...
February 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222072/discrepancies-in-central-review-re-testing-of-patients-with-er-positive-and-her2-negative-breast-cancer-in-the-optima-prelim-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
S E Pinder, A F Campbell, J M S Bartlett, A Marshall, D Allen, M Falzon, J A Dunn, A Makris, L Hughes-Davies, R C Stein
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on results of central re-testing of samples from patients with invasive breast cancer categorised in their local hospital laboratories as oestrogen receptor (ER) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor homologue 2 (HER2) negative. METHODS: The Optimal Personalised Treatment of early breast cancer usIng Multiparameter Analysis preliminary study (OPTIMA prelim) was the feasibility phase of a randomised controlled trial to validate the use of multiparameter assay-directed chemotherapy decisions in the UK National Health Service (NHS)...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222019/practical-motives-are-prominent-in-test-ordering-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Armando van der Horst, Dennis J van de Wijngaart, Jolanda Scherrenburg, Nadine van Dijk, Pim M W Janssens
BACKGROUND: Laboratory test ordering under time pressure may impact test-ordering behavior. METHODS: To investigate the test-ordering behavior of doctors working under such pressure, we designed a questionnaire for trainees and staff in the Emergency Department (ED). This questionnaire addressed topics such as necessity of requested tests, time spent on ordering, costs and availability of tests, and the time of the day. We hypothesized that ordering behavior would be guided predominantly by the medical need of tests and aimed at identifying practical motives that also have an effect...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222014/verification-of-examination-procedures-in-clinical-laboratory-for-imprecision-trueness-and-diagnostic-accuracy-according-to-iso-15189-2012-a-pragmatic-approach
#14
Giorgia Antonelli, Andrea Padoan, Ada Aita, Laura Sciacovelli, Mario Plebani
Background The International Standard ISO 15189 is recognized as a valuable guide in ensuring high quality clinical laboratory services and promoting the harmonization of accreditation programmes in laboratory medicine. Examination procedures must be verified in order to guarantee that their performance characteristics are congruent with the intended scope of the test. The aim of the present study was to propose a practice model for implementing procedures employed for the verification of validated examination procedures already used for at least 2 years in our laboratory, in agreement with the ISO 15189 requirement at the Section 5...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221883/enrichment-amplification-and-sequence-based-typing-of-salmonella-enterica-and-other-foodborne-pathogens
#15
Tom Edlind, Jeffrey D Brewster, George C Paoli
Detection of Salmonella enterica in foods typically involves microbiological enrichment, molecular-based assay, and subsequent isolation and identification of a pure culture. This is ideally followed by strain typing, which provides information critical to the investigation of outbreaks and the attribution of their sources. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is the "gold standard" for S. enterica strain typing, but its limitations have encouraged the search for alternative methods, including whole genome sequencing...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221781/the-relationship-between-organic-loading-and-effects-on-fish-reproduction-for-pulp-mill-effluents-across-canada
#16
Pierre H Martel, Brian I O'Connor, Tibor G Kovacs, Michael R Van Den Heuvel, Joanne L Parrott, Mark E McMaster, Deborah L MacLatchy, Glen J Van Der Kraak, L Mark Hewitt
This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark eighty-one effluents from twenty mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221274/pharmacy-use-in-the-first-year-of-the-veterans-choice-program-a-mixed-methods-evaluation
#17
Walid F Gellad, Francesca E Cunningham, Chester B Good, Joshua M Thorpe, Carolyn T Thorpe, Brandi Bair, KatieLynn Roman, Susan L Zickmund
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Choice Program (VCP) was created to ensure timely access to health care in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Under this program, medications may be ordered by select non-VA clinicians to be dispensed by VA pharmacies, creating new challenges in ensuring medication safety. OBJECTIVES: To examine pharmaceutical use during the first year of the VCP and to understand barriers and facilitators for VA pharmacists to dispensing medications under the VCP...
February 17, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220811/aptamers-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-detection
#18
Krisztina Percze, Zoltán Szakács, Éva Scholz, Judit András, Zsuzsanna Szeitner, Corné H van den Kieboom, Gerben Ferwerda, Marien I de Jonge, Róbert E Gyurcsányi, Tamás Mészáros
The identification of the infectious agents is pivotal for appropriate care of patients with viral diseases. Current viral diagnostics rely on selective detection of viral nucleic acid or protein components. In general, detection of proteins rather than nucleic acids is technically more suitable for rapid tests. However, protein-based virus identification methods depend on antibodies limiting the practical applicability of these approaches. Aptamers rival antibodies in target selectivity and binding affinity, and excel in terms of robustness and cost of synthesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220735/sustained-reduction-in-antibiotic-consumption-in-a-south-african-public-sector-hospital-four-year-outcomes-from-the-groote-schuur-hospital-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#19
T H Boyles, V Naicker, N Rawoot, P J Raubenheimer, B Eick, M Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics has driven global bacterial resistance to the extent that we have entered a post-antibiotic era, where infections that were once easily treatable are now becoming untreatable. Efforts to control consumption have focused on antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs), aimed at optimising use. OBJECTIVE: To report antibiotic consumption and cost over 4 years from a public hospital ASP in South Africa (SA). METHODS: A comprehensive ASP comprising online education, a dedicated antibiotic prescription chart and weekly dedicated ward rounds was introduced at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, in 2012...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220651/elisa-type-assays-of-trace-biomarkers-using-microfluidic-methods
#20
REVIEW
Jinhua Dong, Hiroshi Ueda
Recently, great progress has been achieved for analytical technologies for biological substances. Traditionally, detection methods for analytes mainly rely on large instrumental analyses. These methods require costly equipment, skilled operators and long measurement time despite their generally low sensitivity. In contrast, immunoassays are becoming more and more popular for it is powerful, inexpensive, and convenient nature. Immunoassay has a range of applications, because it employs antibody, a protein produced by plasma cells in the acquired immune system to identify and neutralize diverse pathogens and other exogenous substances...
February 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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