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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334669/anti-obesity-effects-of-clausena-excavata-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Young-Rak Cho, Jung A Lee, Yoon Yeon Kim, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae-Ho Lee, Eun-Kyung Ahn
Clausena excavata (C. excavata) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, enteritis, dysentery, and malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanol extract of C. excavata (ECE) on weight loss, adipocyte size, and obesity-related biochemical parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After 6 weeks of HFD + ECE administration, HFD-induced total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated with a biochemical analyzer, and leptin and adiponectin levels in the serum were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333061/critical-appraisal-of-rome-iv-criteria-hypersensitive-esophagus-does-belong-to-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-spectrum
#2
REVIEW
Leonardo Frazzoni, Marzio Frazzoni, Nicola de Bortoli, Salvatore Tolone, Irene Martinucci, Lorenzo Fuccio, Vincenzo Savarino, Edoardo Savarino
The Rome IV Committee introduced a major change in the classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders, proposing a more restrictive definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It was suggested that hypersensitive esophagus (HE) may sit more firmly within the functional realm. It was suggested that GERD diagnosis should be based upon abnormal acid exposure time (AET) only, implying no advantage of impedance-pH over pH monitoring. Symptom association probability (SAP), symptom index (SI) and heartburn relief with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy were regarded as unreliable, whereas a lack of response to PPI was considered as evidence of functional heartburn...
January 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326030/patient-reported-outcomes-following-abiraterone-acetate-plus-prednisone-added-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-castration-naive-prostate-cancer-latitude-an-international-randomised-phase-3-trial
#3
Kim N Chi, Andrew Protheroe, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antolín, Gaetano Facchini, Henrik Suttman, Nobuaki Matsubara, Zhangqun Ye, Bhumsuk Keam, Ronaldo Damião, Tracy Li, Kelly McQuarrie, Bin Jia, Peter De Porre, Jason Martin, Mary B Todd, Karim Fizazi
BACKGROUND: In the LATITUDE trial, addition of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improved overall survival compared with placebos plus ADT in patients with newly diagnosed, high-risk, metastatic castration-naive prostate cancer. Understanding the effects of treatments on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is important for treatment decisions; therefore we aimed to analyse the effects of ADT plus abiraterone acetate and prednisone versus ADT plus placebos on PROs and HRQOL in patients in the LATITUDE study...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318638/voltage-gated-sodium-channels-nav-igating-the-field-to-determine-their-contribution-to-visceral-nociception
#4
Andelain Erickson, Annemie Deiteren, Andrea M Harrington, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Joel Castro, Ashlee Caldwell, Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley
Chronic visceral pain, altered motility and bladder dysfunction are common, yet poorly managed symptoms of functional and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Recently, numerous human channelopathies of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel family have been identified, which induce either painful neuropathies, an insensitivity to pain, or alterations in smooth muscle function. The identification of these disorders, in addition to the recent utilisation of genetically modified NaV mice and specific NaV channel modulators, has shed new light on how NaV channels contribute to the function of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues within the gastrointestinal tract and bladder...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314177/assessment-of-the-antinociceptive-and-ulcerogenic-activity-of-the-tapentadol-diclofenac-combination-in-rodents
#5
Juan R Zapata-Morales, Ángel J Alonso-Castro, Vinicio Granado-Soto, Sergio Sánchez-Enriquez, Mario A Isiordia-Espinoza
Preclinical Research & Development The objective of the present study was to evaluate the tapentadol-diclofenac combination in three dose-ratios in the mouse acetic acid-induced visceral pain and their ulcerogenic activity on the stomachal mucous. Dose-response curves were generated for tapentadol, diclofenac, and their combination in the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Moreover, the stomachs of animals were surgically removal and gastrointestinal ulcerogenic action of the combination was assessed...
January 3, 2018: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303111/chronic-implantation-of-cuff-electrodes-on-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats-is-well-tolerated-and-does-not-compromise-afferent-or-efferent-fibre-functionality
#6
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301333/experimental-models-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-the-role-of-the-enteric-neurotransmission
#7
REVIEW
Maria Giuliana Vannucchi, Stefano Evangelista
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animal models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299738/recursive-partitioning-analysis-is-predictive-of-overall-survival-for-patients-undergoing-spine-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#8
Ehsan H Balagamwala, Jacob A Miller, Chandana A Reddy, Lilyana Angelov, John H Suh, Muhammad B Tariq, Erin S Murphy, Kailin Yang, Toufik Djemil, Anthony Magnelli, Alireza M Mohammadi, Sherry Soeder, Samuel T Chao
Spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) offers excellent radiographic and pain control for patients with spine metastases. We created a prognostic index using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to allow better patient selection for spine SRS. Patients who underwent single-fraction spine SRS for spine metastases were included. Primary histologies were divided into favorable (breast/prostate), radioresistant (renal cell/sarcoma/melanoma) and other. Cox proportional hazards regression was done to identify factors associated with overall survival (OS)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291538/tension-pneumoperitoneum-after-bystander-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-case-report
#9
Sherry Johnson, Jessica McCracken, Fadi Baidoun
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal visceral injuries after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are infrequent though can be significant complications of CPR requiring invasive interventions. We present a case of a gastric perforation as a result of bystander CPR. This resulted in tension pneumoperitoneum necessitating abdominal decompression prior to laparotomy and repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 37-year-old female complained of abdominal pain and distension after return of spontaneous circulation from successful CPR following a drug overdose and cardiopulmonary arrest...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284389/efficacy-and-safety-of-serotonin-receptor-ligands-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-review
#10
Agata Binienda, Martin Storr, Jakub Fichna, Maciej Salaga
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, recurrent bowel disorder with an unknown etiology, which is most likely multifactorial. Increased mucosal permeability, visceral hypersensitivity and activation status of intestinal mucosal immune cells cause changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility, secretion and sensation observed in the course of IBS. Permanent, cumbersome symptoms, such as diarrhea, constipation and abdominal pain greatly lower quality of life of IBS patients. On this basis, according to the Rome IV criteria, different forms of IBS can be distinguished...
December 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279966/betulinic-acid-alleviates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-and-visceral-pain-in-mice
#11
Jaspreet Kalra, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Karikalan Mathesh, Dhirendra Kumar, Subhashree Parida, Thakur Uttam Singh, Anil Kumar Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Surendra Kumar Tandan
Betulinic acid (BA) exhibits many biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated pain. We, therefore, examined the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive potential of BA in colitis. Colitis was induced with 3% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water in mice for 1to7 days. BA (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was given orally for 0 to 7 days...
December 26, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278604/sensory-assessment-and-regression-rate-of-bilateral-oblique-subcostal-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-in-volunteers
#12
Yue Chen, KeJian Shi, Yun Xia, Xuezheng Zhang, Thomas J Papadimos, Xuzhong Xu, Quanguang Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The analgesic effect and duration of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block remain controversial. Transversus abdominis plane blocks are effective for somatic/incisional pain but do not provide analgesia for visceral pain from intra-abdominal procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the area and extent of cutaneous sensory blockade and the regression of dermatomal anesthesia after bilateral oblique subcostal TAP block. METHODS: This observational, prospective clinical study consisted of 12 healthy volunteers...
December 22, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275446/distinct-expression-of-phenotypic-markers-in-placodes-and-neural-crest-derived-afferent-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#13
Alzbeta Trancikova, Eva Kovacova, Fei Ru, Kristian Varga, Mariana Brozmanova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is initiated by activation of primary afferent neurons among which the capsaicin-sensitive (TRPV1-positive) neurons play an important role. The stomach is a common source of visceral pain. Similar to other organs, the stomach receives dual spinal and vagal afferent innervation. Developmentally, spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and vagal jugular neurons originate from embryonic neural crest and vagal nodose neurons originate from placodes. In thoracic organs the neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons have distinct phenotypes differing in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation and reflex responses...
December 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274880/cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-mouse-vd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-produced-supraspinal-analgesic-activity-in-the-preclinical-models-of-pain
#14
Ting Zheng, Run Zhang, Ting Zhang, Meng-Na Zhang, Biao Xu, Jing-Jing Song, Ning Li, Hong-Hai Tang, Pei Wang, Rui Wang, Quan Fang
Mouse VD-hemopressin(α) (VD-Hpα) is an undecapeptide that selectively activates CB1 cannabinoid receptor in in vitro functional tests, and exerts CB1-mediated central antinociception in the mouse tail-flick assay. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the analgesic properties of supraspinal mouse VD-Hpα in a range of preclinical pain models. Our results indicated that the classical cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 produced supraspinal analgesia in preclinical pain models, which was selectively antagonized by the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251, but not by the CB2 antagonist AM630...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259559/mechanical-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
REVIEW
Xuan-Zheng Shi
Intraluminal contents and their movement along the gastrointestinal tract create shear stress and mechanical stretch on the gut wall. While the shear stress is important in the initiation of immediate physiological responses, the circumferential mechanical stretch, such as that in obstructive bowel disorders, exerts long-lasting impacts on bowel functions by mainly affecting the deeper muscularis externae. Recent studies demonstrate that mechanical stretch alters gene transcription in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and the stretch-altered gene expression (mechano-transcription) may play a critical role in pathogenesis of motility dysfunction and abdominal pain in obstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258479/surgical-treatment-strategies-for-giant-inguinoscrotal-hernia-a-case-report-with-review-of-the-literature
#16
Julia Isabelle Staubitz, Peter Gassmann, Daniel Wilhelm Kauff, Hauke Lang
BACKGROUND: An inguinoscrotal hernia is defined as "giant" if descending below the midpoint of the inner thigh of a patient in upright position. In developed countries this is a rare entity. In the literature different surgical techniques have been reported so far to achieve a successful treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 63 year-old man suffering from a giant inguinoscrotal hernia, whom we treated using a combined open transabdominal and inguinal approach following an unsuccessful laparoscopic attempt...
December 19, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249972/pathophysiological-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-in-a-mouse-long-lasting-cystitis-model-induced-by-an-intravesical-injection-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#17
Shohei Oyama, Koji Dogishi, Mizuki Kodera, Masashi Kakae, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Chronic inflammatory bladder disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, are associated with poor quality of life. The exact pathological processes remain unclear, but accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxidative species (ROS) are involved in urinary bladder disorders. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), the most sensitive TRP channel to ROS, was shown to be responsible for urinary bladder abnormalities and hyperalgesia in an acute cystitis model. However, the roles of TRPA1 in chronic inflammatory bladder are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241539/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-mechanoinsensitive-silent-nociceptors
#18
Vincenzo Prato, Francisco J Taberner, James R F Hockley, Gerard Callejo, Alice Arcourt, Bassim Tazir, Leonie Hammer, Paulina Schad, Paul A Heppenstall, Ewan S Smith, Stefan G Lechner
Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (pain hypersensitivity) are cardinal signs of inflammation. Although the mechanism underlying thermal hyperalgesia is well understood, the cellular and molecular basis of mechanical hyperalgesia is poorly described. Here, we have identified a subset of peptidergic C-fiber nociceptors that are insensitive to noxious mechanical stimuli under normal conditions but become sensitized to such stimuli when exposed to the inflammatory mediator nerve growth factor (NGF). Strikingly, NGF did not affect mechanosensitivity of other nociceptors...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241452/pancreatic-schwannoma-a-case-report-and-an-updated-40-year-review-of-the-literature-yielding-68-cases
#19
Yuntong Ma, Bingqi Shen, Yingmei Jia, Yanji Luo, Yisu Tian, Zhi Dong, Wei Chen, Zi-Ping Li, Shi-Ting Feng
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic schwannoma is a rare tumor. Preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic schwannoma is challenging due to its tendency to mimic other lesions of the pancreas. We describe a case of pancreatic schwannoma and present a review of the cases currently reported in the English literature to identify characteristics of pancreatic schwannoma on imaging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male presented with a history of intermittent periumbilical abdominal pain and lower back pain for 1 week...
December 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236933/intramural-duodenal-hematoma-secondary-to-pancreatitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
João Henrique Botto de Oliveira, Raiza Samenica Esper, Rodrigo Campos Ocariz, Flora Specian Sartori, Lucas Marcelo Dias Freire, Elinton Adami Chaim, Francisco Callejas-Neto, Everton Cazzo
CONTEXT: Spontaneous intramural duodenal hematoma is uncommon and is usually associated with coagulopathy, anticoagulant therapy and endoscopic procedures. The aim here was to describe a case of intramural duodenal hematoma caused by chronic exacerbation of pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old male with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis was admitted to hospital due to abdominal pain, melena and low hemoglobin. An intramural duodenal hematoma with active bleeding was detected and selective angioembolization was warranted...
December 7, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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