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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819215/dilution-of-whisky-the-molecular-perspective
#1
Björn C G Karlsson, Ran Friedman
Whisky is distilled to around 70% alcohol by volume (vol-%) then diluted to about 40 vol-%, and often drunk after further slight dilution to enhance its taste. The taste of whisky is primarily associated with amphipathic molecules, such as guaiacol, but why and how dilution enhances the taste is not well understood. We carried out computer simulations of water-ethanol mixtures in the presence of guaiacol, providing atomistic details on the structure of the liquid mixture. We found that guaiacol is preferentially associated with ethanol, and, therefore, primarily found at the liquid-air interface in mixtures that contain up to 45 vol-% of ethanol...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811738/predictors-of-retention-among-african-americans-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-test-the-healthy-eating-and-active-living-in-the-spirit-heals-intervention
#2
Oluwole A Babatunde, Swann Arp Adams, Michael D Wirth, Jan M Eberth, Jameson Sofge, Seul Ki Choi, Brook E Harmon, Lisa Davis, Ruby Drayton, Thomas G Hurley, Heather M Brandt, Cheryl A Armstead, James R Hébert
INTRODUCTION: Retention of racial/ethnic minority groups into research trials is necessary to fully understand and address health disparities. This study was conducted to identify participants' characteristics associated with retention of African Americans (AAs) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a behavioral intervention. METHODS: Using data from an RCT conducted from 2009 to 2012 among AAs, participant-level factors were examined for associations with retention between three measurement points (ie, baseline, 3-month, and 12-month)...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805818/all-electric-control-of-donor-nuclear-spin-qubits-in-silicon
#3
Anthony J Sigillito, Alexei M Tyryshkin, Thomas Schenkel, Andrew A Houck, Stephen A Lyon
The electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom of donor impurities in silicon form ultra-coherent two-level systems that are potentially useful for applications in quantum information and are intrinsically compatible with industrial semiconductor processing. However, because of their smaller gyromagnetic ratios, nuclear spins are more difficult to manipulate than electron spins and are often considered too slow for quantum information processing. Moreover, although alternating current magnetic fields are the most natural choice to drive spin transitions and implement quantum gates, they are difficult to confine spatially to the level of a single donor, thus requiring alternative approaches...
August 14, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803366/does-hypoglycaemia-affect-the-improvement-in-qol-after-the-transition-to-insulin-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
T H Wieringa, M de Wit, J W R Twisk, F J Snoek
PURPOSE: Quality of Life (QoL) of insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) improves after transition to insulin. Little is known about the role of hypoglycaemia in this context. Secondary analyses of the Study of the Psychological Impact in Real care of Initiating insulin glargine Treatment (SPIRIT) aimed to investigate the relationship between hypoglycaemia and QoL when transitioning to insulin. METHODS: Insulin-naïve Dutch people with T2DM in suboptimal glycaemic control (HbA1c >53 mmol/mol; 7...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796809/a-randomized-multicenter-trial-comparing-the-xience-everolimus-eluting-stent-with-the-cypher-sirolimus-eluting-stent-in-the-treatment-of-female-patients-with-de-novo-coronary-artery-lesions-the-spirit-women-study
#5
Anna Franzone, Serge Zaugg, Raffaele Piccolo, Maria Grazia Modena, Ghada W Mikhail, Josepa Mauri Ferré, Ruth Strasser, Liliana Grinfeld, Dik Heg, Peter Jüni, Stephan Windecker, Marie-Claude Morice
BACKGROUND: The comparative performance of different drug-eluting stents (DES) among female patients has not been assessed in a randomized manner. OBJECTIVES: The SPIRIT Women Clinical Evaluation trial compared the durable polymer everolimus-eluting XIENCE stent (DP-EES) with the durable polymer sirolimus-eluting Cypher stent (DP-SES) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 455 female patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to receive DP-EES (n = 304) or DP-SES (n = 151)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790914/ethnopharmacological-and-chemical-characterization-of-salvia-species-used-in-valencian-traditional-herbal-preparations
#6
Vanessa Martínez-Francés, Emeline Hahn, Segundo Ríos, Diego Rivera, Eike Reich, Roser Vila, Salvador Cañigueral
In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789666/rare-tradition-of-the-folk-medicinal-use-of-aconitum-spp-is-kept-alive-in-sol%C3%A4-avsko-slovenia
#7
Marija Povšnar, Gordana Koželj, Samo Kreft, Mateja Lumpert
BACKGROUND: Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solčavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771867/motion-corrected-k-space-reconstruction-for-interleaved-epi-diffusion-imaging
#8
Zijing Dong, Fuyixue Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Erpeng Dai, Zhe Zhang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: To develop a new approach to correct for physiological and macroscopic motion in multishot, interleaved echo-planar diffusion imaging. THEORY: This work built on the previous SPIRiT (iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction) based reconstruction for physiological motion correction in multishot diffusion-weighted imaging to account for macroscopic motion. In-plane rotation, translation correction, data rejection, and weighted combination are integrated in SPIRiT-based reconstruction to correct for ghosting artifacts, blurring, altered b-matrix, and residual artifacts caused by motion...
August 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768229/individual-resilience-as-a-strategy-to-counter-employment-barriers-for-people-with-epilepsy-in-zimbabwe
#9
Jacob Mugumbate, Mel Gray
Understanding individual resilience helps to improve employment opportunities of people with epilepsy. This is significant because, in Zimbabwe, as in many other countries in the Global South, people with epilepsy encounter several barriers in a context of less-than-ideal public services. Despite this disadvantage, some people with epilepsy have better employment outcomes for reasons including level of seizure control, social background, employment support services, and individual resilience. This article reports on data from participants (n=8), who were part of a larger study (n=30) on employment experiences of people with epilepsy in Harare...
July 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767276/closed-loop-control-without-meal-announcement-in-type-1-diabetes
#10
Faye M Cameron, Trang T Ly, Bruce A Buckingham, David M Maahs, Gregory P Forlenza, Carol J Levy, David Lam, Paula Clinton, Laurel H Messer, Emily Westfall, Camilla Levister, Yan Yan Xie, Nihat Baysal, Daniel Howsmon, Stephen D Patek, B Wayne Bequette
OBJECTIVE: A fully closed-loop insulin-only system was developed to provide glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes without requiring announcement of meals or activity. Our goal was to assess initial safety and efficacy of this system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The multiple model probabilistic controller (MMPPC) anticipates meals when the patient is awake. The controller used the subject's basal rates and total daily insulin dose for initialization. The system was tested at two sites on 10 patients in a 30-h inpatient study, followed by 15 subjects at three sites in a 54-h supervised hotel study, where the controller was challenged by exercise and unannounced meals...
August 2, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765441/effect-of-faculty-development-activities-on-dental-hygiene-faculty-perceptions-of-and-teaching-about-motivational-interviewing-a-pilot-study
#11
Michelle Arnett, Dina Korte, Philip S Richards, Berna Saglik, L Susan Taichman, Janet S Kinney, Anne E Gwozdek
The aims of this pilot study were to assess dental hygiene faculty members' perceptions of the importance of motivational interviewing (MI) and their confidence in teaching students about MI and to determine the effect of MI training sessions on those perceptions. Participants were a convenience sample of all 16 dental hygiene faculty members who teach in the clinic at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Participants' perceptions were assessed prior to a workshop in MI (pretest), immediately after the workshop (posttest 1), and eight months after the workshop, at the end of the academic year (posttest 2)...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764487/a-technique-based-on-droplet-evaporation-to-recognize-alcoholic-drinks
#12
Jorge González-Gutiérrez, Rosendo Pérez-Isidoro, J C Ruiz-Suárez
Chromatography is, at present, the most used technique to determine the purity of alcoholic drinks. This involves a careful separation of the components of the liquid elements. However, since this technique requires sophisticated instrumentation, there are alternative techniques such as conductivity measurements and UV-Vis and infrared spectrometries. We report here a method based on salt-induced crystallization patterns formed during the evaporation of alcoholic drops. We found that droplets of different samples form different structures upon drying, which we characterize by their radial density profiles...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764020/study-of-the-repartition-of-phthalate-esters-during-distillation-of-wine-for-spirit-production
#13
Giuseppe Montevecchi, Francesca Masino, Nicolas Di Pascale, Giuseppe Vasile Simone, Andrea Antonelli
Due to health concerns and legal matters, an investigation to limit phthalates esters (PEAs) in spirits is necessary. A lab still was used to perform pilot distillations according to the official method for brandy production in order to explore the repartition into the distilled fractions of each PAE. The process was divided in two steps: a première chauffe and a bonne chauffe. The former step included the cut into heads, heart and tails, while the latter into heads, brandy, secondes, and tails. The behaviour of each PAE during distillation was affected by its own chemical nature...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763215/tensor-train-split-operator-fourier-transform-tt-soft-method-multidimensional-nonadiabatic-quantum-dynamics
#14
Samuel M Greene, Victor S Batista
We introduce the "tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform" (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wave functions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wave function in its full-rank tensor product grid space...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758046/medical-question-answering-for-clinical-decision-support
#15
Travis R Goodwin, Sanda M Harabagiu
The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising...
October 2016: Proceedings of the ... ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756673/the-evolution-of-volatile-compounds-during-the-distillation-of-cognac-spirit
#16
Pierre Awad, Violaine Athès-Dutour, Martine Decloux, Gérald Ferrari, Guillaume Snakkers, Patrick Raguenaud, Pierre Giampaoli
Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contribute to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750370/social-birth-rites-of-passage-for-the-newborn
#17
Michael Obladen
Rites of passage mark important changes during human life and, for the neonate, its transition from intrauterine life into society. Their original intent was to purify the body from blood and meconium. But the cleansing rites had a spiritual dimension from the very start. When the rites of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Hindu, Nordic, Muslim, Maya, and Christian cultures are briefly compared, they reveal a remarkable similarity. What most rites had in common was the cleansing of the body, or sprinkling it with water; special clothing; the exorcism of evil spirits; blessings and prayers for good spirits; and a name-giving ceremony and a feast for family, relatives, and friends...
July 28, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749420/physicochemical-and-sensorial-characterization-of-honey-spirits
#18
Ofélia Anjos, David Frazão, Ilda Caldeira
Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples...
July 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748324/alcohol-drinking-patterns-and-risk-of-diabetes-a-cohort-study-of-70-551-men-and-women-from-the-general-danish-population
#19
Charlotte Holst, Ulrik Becker, Marit E Jørgensen, Morten Grønbæk, Janne S Tolstrup
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. METHODS: This cohort study was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4...
July 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746954/-trends-of-tobacco-and-alcohol-consumption-over-65-years-in-germany
#20
Ulrich John, Monika Hanke
Aim No estimation was available for tobacco and for alcohol consumption in Germany based on sales data that were provided for public use and suited for time trend analysis. Objectives To estimate trends of tobacco and alcohol consumption rates for the years 1950-2014. Methods Data on tobacco and alcohol consumption in the nation were retrieved from reports made by producers of beer, wine, or spirits to the Federal Statistics Office of Germany. Time trends over the 65 years were calculated using the program Joinpoint...
July 26, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
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