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Radiation risk from computers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217017/prognostic-significance-of-standardized-uptake-value-on-18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
Şeyda Türkölmez, Sabire Yılmaz Aksoy, Elif Özdemir, Zuhal Kandemir, Nilüfer Yıldırım, Atiye Yılmaz Özsavran, Mehmet Faik Çetindağ, Kenan Köse
The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of standardized uptake value (SUV) on 18 fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Thirty-four patients who have histologically proven NPC and underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT were included in this study. After (18)F-FDG PET/CT, all the patients received radiation therapy and 32 of them received concomitant weekly chemotherapy. The maximum SUV (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and the SUVmaxof the highest neck nodes were determined...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187100/prognostic-significance-of-the-standardized-uptake-value-of-pretherapeutic-18f-labeled-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#2
Ajit Gubbi, Shimoni Kacheria, Sarfraz Ahmad, Nicole M Stavitzski, James E Kendrick
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic significance of the pretreatment and posttreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging in patients with stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cervical cancer patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB2-IVA, from March 2008 to April 2014. All patients had pretreatment and posttreatment PET imaging and received primary whole pelvic radiation therapy with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy, followed by intracavitary brachytherapy...
March 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179338/cancer-death-risk-related-to-radiation-exposure-from-computed-tomography-scanning-among-testicular-cancer-patients
#3
Eeva Salminen, Hannele Niiniviita, Hannu Järvinen, Sirpa Heinävaara
BACKGROUND: A study of the computed tomography (CT) imaging related effective doses and radiation-related cancer death risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Estimate effective doses were computed from CT scans of testicular cancer patients treated and followed-up in Turku University Hospital, South Western Finland. Association between effective doses from follow-up CT scans and radiation-induced cancer death was examined using United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2008 formula...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179230/exposure-to-low-dose-computed-tomography-for-lung-cancer-screening-and-risk-of-cancer-secondary-analysis-of-trial-data-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#4
Cristiano Rampinelli, Paolo De Marco, Daniela Origgi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Monica Casiraghi, Giulia Veronesi, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Massimo Bellomi
Objective To estimate the cumulative radiation exposure and lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence associated with lung cancer screening using annual low dose computed tomography (CT).Design Secondary analysis of data from a lung cancer screening trial and risk-benefit analysis.Setting 10 year, non-randomised, single centre, low dose CT, lung cancer screening trial (COSMOS study) which took place in Milan, Italy in 2004-15 (enrolment in 2004-05). Secondary analysis took place in 2015-16.Participants High risk asymptomatic smokers aged 50 and older, who were current or former smokers (≥20 pack years), and had no history of cancer in the previous five years...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169864/utilization-of-ultrasound-for-diagnostic-evaluation-and-management-of-peritonsillar-abscesses
#5
Michael H Froehlich, Zhen Huang, Brian K Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We outlined the management of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) through the use of ultrasound, an imaging modality that continues to emerge as a diverse diagnostic and treatment tool. Our review compares the use of ultrasound to alternative diagnostic modalities, particularly computed tomography (CT). Further, the review evaluates how ultrasound can be used to help facilitate guided drainage of PTA and serve as a suitable alternative to more invasive management options. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies over the past 5 years have demonstrated that the initial management of PTA with ultrasound is a more cost-efficient and lower-risk option than imaging with CT...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149156/patient-radiation-biological-risk-in-computed-tomography-angiography-procedure
#6
M Alkhorayef, E Babikir, A Alrushoud, H Al-Mohammed, A Sulieman
Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the most valuable imaging modality for the diagnosis of blood vessel diseases; however, patients are exposed to high radiation doses and the probability of cancer and other biological effects is increased. The objectives of this study were to measure the patient radiation dose during a CTA procedure and to estimate the radiation dose and biological effects. The study was conducted in two radiology departments equipped with 64-slice CT machines (Aquilion) calibrated according to international protocols...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143884/risk-of-heart-failure-in-survivors-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-effects-of-cardiac-exposure-to-radiation-and-anthracyclines
#7
Frederika A van Nimwegen, Georgios Ntentas, Sarah C Darby, Michael Schaapveld, Michael Hauptmann, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Cecile P M Janus, Laurien Daniels, Flora E van Leeuwen, David J Cutter, Berthe M P Aleman
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are known to have increased risks of heart failure (HF), but a radiation dose-response relationship has not previously been derived. A case-control study, nested in a cohort of 2,617 five-year survivors of HL diagnosed before age 51 years during 1965-1995, was conducted. Cases (n=91) had moderate or severe HF as their first cardiovascular diagnosis. Controls (n=278) were matched to cases on age, gender and HL diagnosis date. Treatment and follow-up information were abstracted from medical records...
January 31, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132957/risk-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-older-women-after-contemporary-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#8
Hirofumi Saiki, Ivy A Petersen, Christopher G Scott, Kent R Bailey, Shannon M Dunlay, Randi R Finley, Kathryn J Ruddy, Elizabeth Yan, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: -Cardiomyocytes are resistant to radiation. However, cardiac radiation exposure causes coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation, a perturbation implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and particularly, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Radiotherapy for breast cancer results in variable cardiac radiation exposure and may increase the risk of HF. METHODS: -We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident HF in 170 female residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (59 cases and 111 controls) who underwent contemporary (1998-2013) radiotherapy for breast cancer utilizing computed tomography-assisted radiotherapy planning...
January 29, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130170/identifying-children-at-very-low-risk-for-blunt-intra-abdominal-injury-in-whom-ct-of-the-abdomen-can-be-avoided-safely
#9
Christian J Streck, Adam M Vogel, Jingwen Zhang, Eunice Y Huang, Matthew T Santore, Kuojen Tsao, Richard A Falcone, Melvin S Dassinger, Robert T Russell, Martin L Blakely
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography is commonly used to rule out intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in children, despite associated cost and radiation exposure. Our purpose was to derive a prediction rule to identify children at very low risk for IAI after blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) for whom a CT scan of the abdomen would be unnecessary. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively enrolled children younger than 16 years of age who presented after BAT at 14 Level I pediatric trauma centers during 1 year...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118113/organ-doses-to-airline-passengers-screened-by-x-ray-backscatter-imaging-systems
#10
Elliott J Stepusin, Matthew R Maynard, Shannon E O'Reilly, Sadije Redzovic, Wesley E Bolch, David E Hintenlang, Thomas B Borak
Advanced imaging technologies (AIT) are being developed for passenger airline transportation. They are designed to provide enhanced security benefits by identifying objects on passengers that would not be detected by methodologies now used for routine surveillance. X-ray backscatter imaging is one AIT system being considered. Since this technology is based on scanning passengers with ionizing radiation, concern has been raised relating to the health risks associated with these exposures. Recommendations for standards of radiation safety have been proposed by the American National Standards Institute published in ANSI/HPS N43...
January 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115962/image-guided-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-of-head-and-neck-a-case-series-study
#11
Paweł Cisek, Dariusz Kieszko, Anna Brzozowska, Izabela Kordzin'ska-Cisek, Maria Mazurkiewicz
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was the evaluation of image guided transdermal application of interstitial brachytherapy in patients undergoing repeated irradiation for relapsed local tumor of the head and neck area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article describes transdermal application of interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in 4 patients treated due to relapsed local tumor in soft palate, submandibular area, laryngopharynx, as well as pterygoid muscles and maxillary sinus...
December 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109921/coronary-artery-pet-mr-imaging-feasibility-limitations-and-solutions
#12
Philip M Robson, Marc R Dweck, Maria Giovanna Trivieri, Ronan Abgral, Nicolas A Karakatsanis, Johanna Contreras, Umesh Gidwani, Jagat P Narula, Valentin Fuster, Jason C Kovacic, Zahi A Fayad
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe the authors' initial experience with combined coronary artery positron emission tomographic (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) radiotracers, describe common problems and their solutions, and demonstrate the feasibility of coronary PET/MR imaging in appropriate patients. BACKGROUND: Recently, PET imaging has been applied to the aortic valve and regions of atherosclerosis...
January 13, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108101/development-of-a-high-resolution-voxelised-head-phantom-for-medical-physics-applications
#13
REVIEW
V Giacometti, S Guatelli, M Bazalova-Carter, A B Rosenfeld, R W Schulte
Computational anthropomorphic phantoms have become an important investigation tool for medical imaging and dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection. The development of computational phantoms with realistic anatomical features contribute significantly to the development of novel methods in medical physics. For many applications, it is desirable that such computational phantoms have a real-world physical counterpart in order to verify the obtained results. In this work, we report the development of a voxelised phantom, the HIGH_RES_HEAD, modelling a paediatric head based on the commercial phantom 715-HN (CIRS)...
January 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102961/assessing-the-use-of-4dct-ventilation-in-pre-operative-surgical-lung-cancer-evaluation
#14
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Matthew Jackson, Leah Schubert, Bernard Jones, Richard Castillo, Edward Castillo, Thomas Guerrero, John Mitchell, Chad Rusthoven, Moyed Miften, Brian Kavanagh
PURPOSE: A primary treatment option for lung cancer patients is surgical resection. Patients who have poor lung function prior to surgery are at increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening complications after surgical resection. Surgeons use nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans along with pulmonary function test (PFT) information to assess a patient's pre-surgical lung function. The nuclear medicine images and pre-surgery PFTs are used to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung tissue that would be lost with surgical resection...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095159/validation-and-modification-of-a-prediction-model-for-acute-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-treated-with-radiotherapy-based-on-three-dimensional-dose-distributions-to-cardiac-substructures
#15
Veerle A B van den Bogaard, Bastiaan D P Ta, Arjen van der Schaaf, Angelique B Bouma, Astrid M H Middag, Enja J Bantema-Joppe, Lisanne V van Dijk, Femke B J van Dijk-Peters, Laurens A W Marteijn, Gertruida H de Bock, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Jourik A Gietema, Johannes A Langendijk, John H Maduro, Anne P G Crijns
Purpose A relationship between mean heart dose (MHD) and acute coronary event (ACE) rate was reported in a study of patients with breast cancer (BC). The main objective of our cohort study was to validate this relationship and investigate if other dose-distribution parameters are better predictors for ACEs than MHD. Patients and Methods The cohort consisted of 910 consecutive female patients with BC treated with radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery. The primary end point was cumulative incidence of ACEs within 9 years of follow-up...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091834/using-twitter-to-assess-the-public-response-to-the-united-states-preventive-services-task-force-guidelines-on-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-chest-ct
#16
Siddharth Khasnavis, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Vinay Prabhu
To use Twitter to assess the immediate public response to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2013 draft guidelines on lung cancer screening with low-dose chest CT (LDCT). The number of tweets including the phrases "lung cancer screening," "lung CT," "chest CT," "low dose computed tomography," "low dose CT," or "LDCT" was recorded for 6 days before and after guidelines release. A systematic sample of 172 tweets from the week following release was coded for user type, tweet opinion, linked article source, and article opinion...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091700/computed-tomography-localization-of-the-appendix-in-the-pediatric-population-relative-to-the-lumbar-spine
#17
John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088432/detection-of-upper-tract-urothelial-malignancies-by-computed-tomography-urography-in-patients-referred-for-hematuria-at-a-large-tertiary-referral-center
#18
Clayton W Commander, David C Johnson, Mathew C Raynor, Lauren M Burke, Kathryn E Hacker, Bryan Hoag, Julia R Fielding, Richard C Semelka, Ellie R Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the age-stratified prevalence of upper tract urothelial malignancies diagnosed on computed tomography urography in a large cohort of patients referred for initial evaluation of hematuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1123 consecutive adults without a history of urothelial cancer underwent initial computed tomography urography for gross hematuria (n = 652), microscopic hematuria (n = 457), or unspecified hematuria (n = 14) at a single institution from October 2006 to October 2012...
January 11, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070242/computed-tomography-and-patient-risk-facts-perceptions-and-uncertainties
#19
REVIEW
Stephen P Power, Fiachra Moloney, Maria Twomey, Karl James, Owen J O'Connor, Michael M Maher
Since its introduction in the 1970s, computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized diagnostic decision-making. One of the major concerns associated with the widespread use of CT is the associated increased radiation exposure incurred by patients. The link between ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of neoplasia has been largely based on extrapolating data from studies of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped in Japan in 1945 and on assessments of the increased relative risk of neoplasia in those occupationally exposed to radiation within the nuclear industry...
December 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068244/-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-predicts-patterns-of-failure-after-definitive-chemoradiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Nitin Ohri, William R Bodner, Balazs Halmos, Haiying Cheng, Roman Perez-Soler, Steven M Keller, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur Garg
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET) identifies lesions at high risk for progression after concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we validate those findings and generate tumor control probability (TCP) models. METHODS: We identified patients treated with definitive, concurrent CRT for locally advanced NSCLC who underwent staging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose/PET/computed tomography...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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