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Radiation risk from computers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779936/early-response-assessment-on-mid-treatment-computed-tomography-predicts-for-locoregional-recurrence-in-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients-treated-with-definitive-radiation-therapy
#1
Rafi Kabarriti, N Patrik Brodin, George Lundgren, Nitin Ohri, Wolfgang A Tomé, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur K Garg
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a response assessment using mid-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans during definitive radiation therapy (RT) for oropharyngeal head and neck cancer can predict for locoregional recurrence (LRR). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Head and neck cancer patients who receive RT at our institution undergo CT repeat scans at the 15th fraction, with treatment replanning in the case of an inadequate dose to gross disease or an increased dose to organs at risk...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776418/the-impact-of-contour-variation-on-tumour-control-probability-in-anal-cancer
#2
Michael P Jones, Jarad Martin, Kerwyn Foo, Patrick Estoesta, Lois Holloway, Michael Jameson
BACKGROUND: While intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been widely adopted for the treatment of anal cancer (AC), the added contour complexity poses potential risks. This study investigates the impact of contour variation on tumour control probability (TCP) when using IMRT for AC. METHODS: Nine Australian centres contoured a single computed tomography dataset of a patient with AC. The same optimised template-based IMRT planning protocol was applied to each contour set to generate nine representative treatment plans and their corresponding dose volume histograms...
May 18, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764888/assessment-of-thyroid-cancer-risk-associated-with-radiation-dose-from-personal-diagnostic-examinations-in-a-cohort-study-of-us-radiologic-technologists-followed-1983-2014
#3
Mark P Little, Hyeyeun Lim, Melissa C Friesen, Dale L Preston, Michele M Doody, Alice J Sigurdson, Gila Neta, Bruce H Alexander, Lienard A Chang, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Steven L Simon, Martha S Linet, Cari M Kitahara
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether personal medical diagnostic procedures over life, but particularly those associated with exposure in adulthood, were associated with increased thyroid cancer risk. DESIGN: Participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, a large, prospective cohort, were followed from the date of first mailed questionnaire survey completed during 1983-1989 to the earliest date of self-reported diagnosis of thyroid cancer or of any other cancer than non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in any of three subsequent questionnaires up to the last in 2012-2014...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755006/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-bladder-cancer-development-of-vi-rads-vesical-imaging-reporting-and-data-system
#4
REVIEW
Valeria Panebianco, Yoshifumi Narumi, Ersan Altun, Bernard H Bochner, Jason A Efstathiou, Shaista Hafeez, Robert Huddart, Steve Kennish, Seth Lerner, Rodolfo Montironi, Valdair F Muglia, Georg Salomon, Stephen Thomas, Hebert Alberto Vargas, J Alfred Witjes, Mitsuru Takeuchi, Jelle Barentsz, James W F Catto
CONTEXT: Management of bladder cancer (BC) is primarily driven by stage, grade, and biological potential. Knowledge of each is derived using clinical, histopathological, and radiological investigations. This multimodal approach reduces the risk of error from one particular test, but may present a staging dilemma when results conflict. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may improve patient care through imaging of the bladder with better resolution of the tissue planes than computed tomography and without radiation exposure...
May 10, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738279/cortical-thinning-and-structural-bone-changes-in-non-human-primates-after-single-fraction-whole-chest-irradiation
#5
Michael Farris, Emory R McTyre, Catherine Okoukoni, Greg Dugan, Brendan J Johnson, A William Blackstock, Michael T Munley, J Daniel Bourland, J Mark Cline, Jeffrey S Willey
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is associated with an increased risk of vertebral compression fracture. While bone is typically considered radiation resistant, fractures frequently occur within the first year of SBRT. The goal of this work was to determine if rapid deterioration of bone occurs in vertebrae after irradiation. Sixteen male rhesus macaque non-human primates (NHPs) were analyzed after whole-chest irradiation to a midplane dose of 10 Gy. Ages at the time of exposure varied from 45-134 months...
May 8, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726071/a-prospective-randomised-multi-centre-study-of-the-impact-of-ga-68-psma-pet-ct-imaging-for-staging-high-risk-prostate-cancer-prior-to-curative-intent-surgery-or-radiotherapy-propsma-study-clinical-trial-protocol
#6
Michael S Hofman, Declan G Murphy, Scott G Williams, Tatenda Nzenza, Alan Herschtal, Richard De Abreu Lourenco, Dale L Bailey, Ray Budd, Rodney J Hicks, Roslyn J Francis, Nathan Lawrentschuk
INTRODUCTION: Accurate staging of patients with prostate cancer is important for therapeutic decision making. Relapse following surgery or radiotherapy of curative intent is not uncommon and, in part, represents a failure of staging with current diagnostic imaging techniques to detect disease spread. Prostate-specific-membrane-antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) is a new whole body scanning technique that enables visualisation of prostate cancer with high contrast...
May 3, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724555/understanding-and-communicating-radiation-dose-and-risk-from-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-dentistry
#7
REVIEW
Jill Weber Aanenson, John E Till, Helen A Grogan
With the increased use of 3-dimensional dental imaging and cone beam computed tomography in dentistry, dental practitioners should understand and effectively communicate the associated radiation doses and risks to patients. This article will explain dose and risk of cone beam computed tomography technology, drawing on 3 decades of experience in communicating human health risk to the public from radiation exposure in the environment. This report provides examples of dose and risk metrics and comparisons to help providers understand the risk to their patients and to effectively communicate that risk...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717567/risk-of-brain-tumor-induction-from-pediatric-head-ct-procedures-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, Joel S Beckett, Noriko Salamon, Isaac Yang
Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714086/a-dosimetric-evaluation-on-applying-rtog-based-and-ct-mri-based-delineation-methods-to-brachial-plexus-in-radiotherapy-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-helical-tomotherapy
#9
Chi-Him Li, Vincent Wc Wu, George Chiu
OBJECTIVE: In radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, the brachial plexus (BP) situating at both sides of the neck are often irradiated to high dose. This study was to evaluate different BP delineation methods and analyse the dosimetric consequences when applying BP dose constraints in radiotherapy planning of NPC. METHODS: 15 NPC cases treated radically with helical tomotherapy were recruited. Apart from the original treatment plan (Plan A), two new plans (Plan B & C) with additional BP dose constraints were computed using the same planning computed tomography (CT) images, structures and planning parameters...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705114/review-of-interventions-and-radiation-exposure-from-chest-computed-tomography-in-children-with-blunt-trauma
#10
Victor Hsiao, Genevieve Santillanes, Daniel Malek, Ilene Claudius
OBJECTIVE: To determine the radiation risk to a child undergoing trauma evaluation with chest computed tomography (CCT) for every clinically actionable injury identified. STUDY DESIGN: This observational, cross-sectional study included all blunt trauma patients under 18 years of age undergoing CCT in a single urban emergency department. Via a retrospective chart review, therapeutic interventions done exclusively for chest injuries identified on CCT scan were identified...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681599/-effective-techniques-to-reduce-radiation-exposure-to-medical-staff-during-assist-of-x-ray-computed-tomography-examination
#11
Ryuichi Miyajima, Toshioh Fujibuchi, Yusuke Miyachi, Satoshi Tateishi, Yoshinori Uno, Kazutoshi Amakawa, Hiroki Ohura, Shinichi Orita
Medical staffs like radiological technologists, doctors, and nurses are at an increased risk of exposure to radiation while assisting the patient in a position or monitor contrast medium injection during computed tomography (CT). However, methods to protect medical staff from radiation exposure and protocols for using radiological protection equipment have not been standardized and differ among hospitals. In this study, the distribution of scattered X-rays in a CT room was measured by placing electronic personal dosimeters in locations where medical staff stands beside the CT scanner gantry while assisting the patient and the exposure dose was measured...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681482/method-for-automatic-selection-of-parameters-in-normal-tissue-complication-probability-modeling
#12
Damianos Christophides, Ane L Appelt, Arief Gusnanto, John Lilley, David Sebag-Montefiore
PURPOSE: To present a fully automatic method to generate multiparameter normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models and compare its results with those of a published model, using the same patient cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were analyzed from 345 rectal cancer patients treated with external radiation therapy to predict the risk of patients developing grade 1 or ≥2 cystitis. In total, 23 clinical factors were included in the analysis as candidate predictors of cystitis...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676618/cancer-risk-from-paediatric-computed-tomography-scanning-implications-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#13
A Kesminiene, E Cardis
The use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is clearly beneficial for millions of patients. However, the potential adverse health effects, particularly cancer, of ionising radiation exposure from CT early in life are an issue of growing concern in the radiological protection, medical, and public health communities. Although efforts to quantify these effects have been conducted, the precision and accuracy of reported risks needs confirmation. EPI-CT, a European collaborative epidemiological study, was set up to quantify risks from paediatric CT to optimise paediatric diagnostic protocol...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671044/comparison-of-femur-stiffness-measured-from-dxa-and-qct-for-assessment-of-hip-fracture-risk
#14
Yunhua Luo, Huijuan Yang
Femur stiffness, for example axial and bending stiffness, integrates both geometric and material information of the bone, and thus can be an effective indicator of bone strength and hip fracture risk. Femur stiffness is ideally measured from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), but QCT is not recommended for routine clinical use due to the public concern about exposure to high-dosage radiation. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the primary imaging modality in clinic. However, DXA is two-dimensional and it is not clear whether DXA-estimated stiffness has adequate accuracy to replace its QCT counterpart for clinical application...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666814/digital-chest-tomosynthesis-the-2017-updated-review-of-an-emerging-application
#15
REVIEW
Arianna Ferrari, Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Paola Oriana Di Salvia, David Scaradozzi
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and second most common cancer among both men and women, but most of them are detected when patients become symptomatic and in late-stage. Chest radiography (CR) is a basic technique for the investigation of lung cancer and has the benefit of convenience and low radiation dose, but detection of malignancy is often difficult. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) for screening has increased the proportion of lung cancer detected but with higher exposure dose and higher costs...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663686/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-staging-prior-to-definitive-radiation-treatment-for-prostate-cancer
#16
George Hruby, Thomas Eade, Louise Emmett, Bao Ho, Ed Hsiao, Geoff Schembri, Linxin Guo, Carolyn Kwong, Julia Hunter, Keelan Byrne, Andrew Kneebone
AIM: To explore the utility of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in addition to conventional imaging prior to definitive external beam radiation treatment (EBRT) for prostate cancer. METHODS: All men undergoing PSMA-PET/CT prior to definitive EBRT for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer were included in our ethics approved prospective database. For each patient, clinical and pathological results, in addition to scan results including site of PSMA positive disease and number of lesions, were recorded...
April 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622327/imaging-gently
#17
REVIEW
Amy L Puchalski, Christyn Magill
Advances in medical imaging are invaluable in the care of pediatric patients in the emergent setting. The diagnostic accuracy offered by studies using ionizing radiation, such as plain radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopy, are not without inherent risks. This article reviews the evidence supporting the risk of ionizing radiation from medical imaging as well as discusses clinical scenarios in which clinicians play an important role in supporting the judicious use of imaging studies.
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619962/a-prospective-4%C3%AF-radiation-therapy-clinical-study-in-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-patients
#18
Victoria Y Yu, Angelia Landers, Kaley Woods, Dan Nguyen, Minsong Cao, Dongsu Du, Robert K Chin, Ke Sheng, Tania B Kaprealian
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, dosimetric benefits, delivery efficiency, and patient comfort in the clinical implementation of 4π radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven patients with recurrent high-grade glioma were recruited for the trial. 4π plans integrating beam orientation and fluence-map optimization were created using an in-house column-generation algorithm. The collision-free beam solution space throughout the 4π steradian was determined using a computer-aided-design model of the Varian TrueBeam system and a human subject...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619054/clinical-analysis-of-speculum-based-vaginal-packing-for-high-dose-rate-intracavitary-tandem-and-ovoid-brachytherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#19
Shivani Sud, Toni Roth, Ellen Jones
Purpose: Intra-vaginal packing is used to fix the applicator and displace organs at risk (OAR) during high-dose-rate intracavitary tandem and ovoid brachytherapy (HDR-ICB). We retain the speculum from applicator placement as a dual-function bladder and rectum retractor during treatment. Our objective is to review salient techniques for OAR displacement, share our packing technique, and determine the reduction in dose to OAR and inter-fraction variability of dose to OAR, associated with speculum-based vaginal packing (SBVP) in comparison to conventional gauze packing during HDR-ICB...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617205/a-novel-method-to-extend-a-partial-body-ct-for-the-reconstruction-of-dose-to-organs-beyond-the-scan-range
#20
Gleb A Kuzmin, Matthew M Mille, Jae Won Jung, Choonik Lee, Christopher Pelletier, Gamal Akabani, Choonsik Lee
Epidemiological investigation is an important approach to assessing the risk of late effects after radiotherapy, and organ dosimetry is a crucial part of such analysis. Computed tomography (CT) images, if available, can be a valuable resource for individualizing the dosimetry, because they describe the specific anatomy of the patient. However, CT images acquired for radiation treatment planning purposes cover only a portion of the body near the target volume, whereas for epidemiology, the interest lies in the more distant normal tissues, which may be located outside the scan range...
April 4, 2018: Radiation Research
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