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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331524/strategies-and-technical-challenges-for-imaging-oligometastatic-disease-recommendations-from-the-european-organisation-for-research-and-treatment-of-cancer-imaging-group
#1
REVIEW
Nandita M deSouza, Yan Liu, Arturo Chiti, Daniela Oprea-Lager, Géraldine Gebhart, Bernard E Van Beers, Ken Herrmann, Frederic E Lecouvet
Patients with oligometastatic disease (OMD) often have controllable symptoms, and cures are possible. Technical improvements in surgery and radiotherapy have introduced the option of metastasis-directed ablative therapies as an adjunct or alternative to standard-of-care systemic therapies. Several clinical trials and registries are investigating the benefit of these therapeutic approaches across several cancer sites. This requires that patients are correctly included and followed with appropriate imaging. This article discusses the evidence and offers recommendations for the implementation of standard-of-care (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours measurements on computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and bone scintigraphy) and advanced imaging modalities (functional, metabolic and radionuclide targeted) for identifying and following up patients with OMD...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318431/computed-tomography-use-in-a-large-italian-region-trend-analysis-2004-2014-of-emergency-and-outpatient-ct-examinations-in-children-and-adults
#2
Andrea Pola, Daniela Corbella, Andrea Righini, Alberto Torresin, Paola E Colombo, Luigi Vismara, Luca Trombetta, Michele Maddalo, Maria Vittoria Introini, Daniela Tinelli, Laura Strohmenger, Giovanna Garattini, Angelica Munari, Fabio Triulzi
OBJECTIVES: To analyse CT use in recent years in a high-density Italian area (±10 million inhabitants, including 1 million children), focusing on developing age. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of records from HealthCare IT System, covering >400 hospitals and clinics. Description of CT use between 2004-2014 in emergency and outpatient care and assessment of radiation exposure trend. RESULTS: Over 9 million scans were performed. Emergency procedures showed a global increase of 230 %, mainly head examinations...
January 9, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306269/sealone-safety-and-efficacy-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-with-low-dose-in-patients-visiting-emergency-room-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Joonghee Kim, Joon-Won Kang, Kyuseok Kim, Sang Il Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Yeo Goon Kim, Won Young Kim, Dong Woo Seo, Jonghwan Shin, Huijai Lee, Kwang-Nam Jin, Soyeon Ahn, Seung Sik Hwang, Kwang Pyo Kim, Ru-Bi Jeong, Sang Ook Ha, Byungho Choi, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Ju Kyoung Kim, Sujin Jang, Ji Seon Seo
OBJECTIVE: Chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED). Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a frequently used tool for the early triage of patients with low- to intermediate-risk acute chest pain. We present a study protocol for a multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial testing the hypothesis that a low-dose CCTA protocol using prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggering and limited-scan range can provide sufficient diagnostic safety for early triage of patients with acute chest pain...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250697/two-girl-patients-with-medulloblastoma-case-reports
#4
Laura Daniela Marinău, Cristina Elena Singer, Cristian Meşină, Elena Carmen Niculescu, Ileana Puiu, Ileana Octavia Petrescu, Cristiana Geormăneanu, Augustina Cornelia Enculescu, Daniela Elise Tache, Ştefana Oana Purcaru, Simona Răciulă, Cosmina Lucia Damian
In childhood, the most common type of brain tumors is medulloblastoma, a highly malignant primary brain tumor that is found in the cerebellum or posterior fossa. The tumor mass increases and generates obstructive hydrocephalus. Risk factors (that might be involved in some cases) include the genetic syndrome such as type 1 neurofibromatosis, exposure to ionizing radiation and Epstein-Barr virus. Medulloblastoma is associated with recessively inherited Turcot disease and with conditions as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome in several cases...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249528/critical-appraisal-of-the-risk-of-secondary-cancer-induction-from-breast-radiation-therapy-with-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-relative-to-3d-conformal-therapy
#5
Antonella Fogliata, Fiorenza De Rose, Davide Franceschini, Antonella Stravato, Jan Seppälä, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the excess absolute risk (EAR) comparing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in breast cancer radiation therapy treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two VMAT arrangements (VMAT_tang and VMAT_full, i.e. partial arcs with and without a sector of 0 Monitor Unit, respectively) and a 3D CRT (field-in-field [FinF]) plan were calculated with an accurate dose calculation algorithm, Acuros, in 20 patients presenting with early-stage breast cancer...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246722/development-and-validation-of-a-predictive-radiomics-model-for-clinical-outcomes-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Wen Yu, Chad Tang, Brian P Hobbs, Xiao Li, Eugene J Koay, Ignacio I Wistuba, Boris Sepesi, Carmen Behrens, Jaime Rodriguez Canales, Edwin Roger Parra Cuentas, Jeremy J Erasmus, Laurence E Court, Joe Y Chang
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a radiomics signature that can predict the clinical outcomes for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively analyzed contrast-enhanced computed tomography images of patients from a training cohort (n = 147) treated with surgery and an independent validation cohort (n = 295) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Twelve radiomics features with established strategies for filtering and preprocessing were extracted...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242723/spect-ct-in-the-treatment-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Sang-Woo Lee
Single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems has been applied in a wide range of clinical circumstances, and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is one of the most important indications of SPECT/CT imaging. In the treatment of DTC, SPECT/CT images have been reported to have many advantages over conventional planar whole-body scintigraphy based on its precise localization and characterization of abnormal foci of radioactive iodine (RAI) accumulation, influencing the staging, risk stratification, and clinical management as well as reader confidence...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237054/estimation-of-female-radiation-doses-and-breast-cancer-risk-from-chest-ct-examinations
#8
Adnan Lahham, Hussein ALMasri, Saleh Kameel
Breast organ doses, effective doses and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of breast cancer from chest CT scans are presented for 200 female patients surveyed from 10 hospitals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine. Patient data were collected and organized in a database from May to November 2016. Data include age (15-80 years), weight, height, and calculated body mass index. Exposure data were also recorded for every examination. Exposure data includes milliampere-second (mAs), X-ray tube kilovoltage (kVp), computed tomography dose index, dose length product, manufacturer, name and type of operated CT scanner...
December 11, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233237/medical-implications-of-space-radiation-exposure-due-to-low-altitude-polar-orbits
#9
Jeffery C Chancellor, Serena M Auñon-Chancellor, John Charles
INTRODUCTION: Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233015/the-benefits-of-folic-acid-modified-gold-nanoparticles-in-ct-based-molecular-imaging-radiation-dose-reduction-and-image-contrast-enhancement
#10
Jaber Beik, Maryam Jafariyan, Alireza Montazerabadi, Ali Ghadimi-Daresajini, Parastoo Tarighi, Alireza Mahmoudabadi, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
X-ray computed tomography (CT) requires an optimal compromise between image quality and patient dose. While high image quality is an important requirement in CT, the radiation dose must be kept minimal to protect the patients from ionizing radiation-associated risks. The use of probes based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) along with active targeting ligands for specific recognition of cancer cells may be one of the balanced solutions. Herein, we report the effect of folic acid (FA)-modified AuNP as a targeted nanoprobe on the contrast enhancement of CT images as well as its potential for patient dose reduction...
December 12, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221318/lung-densitometry-why-how-and-when
#11
REVIEW
Mario Mascalchi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Stefano Diciotti
Lung densitometry assesses with computed tomography (CT) the X-ray attenuation of the pulmonary tissue which reflects both the degree of inflation and the structural lung abnormalities implying decreased attenuation, as in emphysema and cystic diseases, or increased attenuation, as in fibrosis. Five reasons justify replacement with lung densitometry of semi-quantitative visual scales used to measure extent and severity of diffuse lung diseases: (I) improved reproducibility; (II) complete vs. discrete assessment of the lung tissue; (III) shorter computation times; (IV) better correlation with pathology quantification of pulmonary emphysema; (V) better or equal correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218678/low-dose-ct-for-lung-cancer-screening-opportunities-and-challenges
#12
Hongbing Shen
Lung cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in both males and females. Screening for lung cancer coupled with earlier intervention has long been studied as an approach to mortality reduction. However, minimal progress was achieved until recently, when lowdose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality from lung cancer in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the National Lung Screening Trial, from the United States...
December 7, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216393/monte-carlo-simulation-of-out-of-field-organ-doses-and-cancer-risk-in-tanzania-for-radiation-therapy-of-unilateral-retinoblastoma-using-a-60co-unit
#13
Suleiman Ameir Suleiman, Yaping Qi, Yifei Pi, X George Xu
The use of 60Co teletherapy unit for the treatment of unilateral retinoblastoma (Rb) patients is a very common procedure in many developing countries including Tanzania. The aim of this study was to estimate organ-specific absorbed doses from an external beam radiation therapy 60Co unit for unilateral Rb and to assess the risks of the patients developing a secondary primary cancer. The absorbed dose estimations were based on a Monte Carlo method and a set of age-dependent computational male phantoms. The estimated doses were used to calculate the secondary cancer risks in out-of-field organs using the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation VII risk models...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206598/is-there-unmeasured-indication-bias-in-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-from-studies-of-computed-tomography
#14
Johanna M Meulepas, Michael Hauptmann, Jay H Lubin, Igor Shuryak, David J Brenner
Recently reported studies have associated radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scanning with small excess cancer risks. However, since existing medical records were used in these studies, they could not control for reasons for the CT scans and therefore, the results may have been confounded by indication. Here we conducted a study to estimate potential indication bias that could affect hazard ratios for colorectal, lung and female breast cancers by reasons for a CT scan. This involved a retrospective cohort study of electronic records from all patients aged 18-89 years without previous cancer diagnoses, who received at least one CT scan at Columbia University Medical Center in the period of 1994-2014...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204237/pediatric-adrenal-trauma-evaluation-and-follow-up-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus
#15
Vasileios Rafailidis, Annamaria Deganello, Maria E Sellars, Erica Makin, Paul S Sidhu
Adrenal trauma is rarely encountered in the pediatric population, often as a component of multi-organ injury and often presenting with hematoma formation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the established imaging modality both for initial evaluation and follow-up of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. In children, radiation exposure should be minimized and alternative imaging strategies are needed. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been successfully used for evaluation of patients with hepatic, renal and splenic injury...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204198/profile-and-outcome-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-pediatric-oncology-unit-in-south-india
#16
Supriya Gujjar Suresh, Arathi Srinivasan, Julius Xavier Scott, Santosh Mohan Rao, Balasubramaniam Chidambaram, Sanjay Chandrasekar
Context: Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute the second most common pediatric cancers. Unlike leukemia, management of CNS tumors requires a good multidisciplinary team. Higher rates of treatment abandonment are documented in view of complexity of the treatment with long duration, involving neurosurgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and high cost of treatment. Morbidity associated with CNS tumors may be significant in terms of physical deficits as well as neuropsychological and neuroendocrine sequelae...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198624/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-versus-surgery-for-early-lung-cancer-among-us%C3%A2-veterans
#17
Alex K Bryant, Robert C Mundt, Ajay P Sandhu, James J Urbanic, Andrew B Sharabi, Samir Gupta, Megan E Daly, James D Murphy
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed as a potential alternative to surgery for early lung cancer, although we lack well-powered prospective randomized data comparing these treatments, and existing studies suffer from incomplete information on confounders that can bias results. Here, we evaluated the comparative effectiveness of surgery and SBRT in lung cancer treatment using a large extensively detailed database from the Veteran's Affairs system. METHODS: We identified veterans with biopsy-proven clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 from within the Veteran's Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198389/cumulative-dose-of-radiation-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-and-its-deterministic-relation-to-radiation-induced-liver-disease
#18
Pu Huang, Gang Yu, Daniel S Kapp, Xue-Feng Bian, Chang-Sheng Ma, Hong-Sheng Li, Jin-Hu Chen, Yue-Qiang Liang, Yang Zhang, Shao-Hua Qin, Yao-Qin Xie, Yong Yang, Yong Yin, Lei Xing, Deng-Wang Li
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dose and radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Twenty-three patients with HCC who received conventional fractionated 3DCRT, including 7 who were diagnosed with classic RILD, were enrolled in this retrospective investigation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired at the time of treatment for each patient. The beams from each patient's treatment plan were applied to each pretreatment CBCT (the modified CBCT or mCBCT) to construct the delivered dose distribution of the day considering inter-treatment anatomy changes...
November 29, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198311/comparison-of-methods-for-individualized-astronaut-organ-dosimetry-morphometry-based-phantom-library-versus-body-contour-autoscaling-of-a-reference-phantom
#19
Michelle M Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R Maynard, Amir A Bahadori, Wesley E Bolch
One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195566/radiotherapy-for-non-malignant-shoulder-syndrome-is-there-a-risk-for-radiation-induced-carcinogenesis
#20
M Mazonakis, E Lyraraki, A Tzedakis, J Damilakis
PURPOSE: To estimate the organ-specific probability for carcinogenesis following radiotherapy for non-malignant shoulder syndrome. METHODS: Photon-beam radiation therapy to 6 Gy for shoulder syndrome was simulated with a Monte Carlo code. An androgynous computational phantom representing a typical adult was used to calculate the radiation dose to out-of-field organs having a predilection for carcinogenesis. The organ-specific lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for out-of-field cancer induction was estimated by the organ dose calculations and the proper risk factors introduced by the BEIR-VII report...
November 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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