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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625633/cost-effectiveness-of-implementing-computed-tomography-screening-for-lung-cancer-in-taiwan
#1
Szu-Chun Yang, Wu-Wei Lai, Chien-Chung Lin, Wu-Chou Su, Li-Jung Ku, Jing-Shiang Hwang, Jung-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: A screening program for lung cancer requires more empirical evidence. Based on the experience of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), we developed a method to adjust lead-time bias and quality-of-life changes for estimating the cost-effectiveness of implementing computed tomography (CT) screening in Taiwan. METHODS: The target population was high-risk (≥30 pack-years) smokers between 55 and 75 years of age. From a nation-wide, 13-year follow-up cohort, we estimated quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), loss-of-QALE, and lifetime healthcare expenditures per case of lung cancer stratified by pathology and stage...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621586/the-cooler-code-a-novel-analytical-approach-to-calculate-subcellular-energy-deposition-by-internal-electron-emitters
#2
Mattia Siragusa, Giorgio Baiocco, Pil M Fredericia, Werner Friedland, Torsten Groesser, Andrea Ottolenghi, Mikael Jensen
COmputation of Local Electron Release (COOLER), a software program designed for dosimetry assessment at the cellular/subcellular scale, with a given distribution of administered low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides in cellular compartments, which remains a critical step in risk/benefit analysis for advancements in internal radiotherapy. The software is intended to overcome the main limitations of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism for calculations of cellular S-values (i.e., dose to a target region in the cell per decay in a given source region), namely, the use of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the assumption of a spherical cell geometry...
June 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615014/are-physicians-aware-enough-of-patient-radiation-protection-results-from-a-survey-among-physicians-of-pavia-district-italy
#3
Francesca Campanella, Laura Rossi, Elio Giroletti, Piero Micheletti, Fabio Buzzi, Simona Villani
BACKGROUND: Radiological practices are the first anthropic sources of ionizing radiation exposure of the population. However, a review of recent publications underlines inadequate doctors' knowledge about doses imparted in medical practices and about patient protection that might explain unnecessary radiological prescriptions. We investigated the knowledge of the physicians of Pavia District (Italy) on the risk of radiation exposure. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed involving the Medical Association of Pavia District...
June 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612109/erratum-to-risk-of-cancer-incidence-before-the-age-of-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure-to-ionising-radiation-from-computed-tomography-results-from-a-german-cohort-study
#4
L Krille, S Dreger, R Schindel, T Albrecht, M Asmussen, J Barkhausen, J D Berthold, A Chavan, C Claussen, M Forsting, E A L Gianicolo, K Jablonka, A Jahnen, M Langer, M Laniado, J Lotz, H J Mentzel, A Queißer-Wahrendorf, O Rompel, J Schlick, K Schneider, M Schumacher, M Seidenbusch, C Spix, B Spors, G Staatz, T Vogl, J Wagner, G Weisser, H Zeeb, M Blettner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591861/diagnostic-reference-levels-in-cardiac-computed-tomography-angiography-a-systematic-review
#5
Ali B Alhailiy, Patrick C Brennan, Mark F McEntee, Peter L Kench, Elaine A Ryan
Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a commonly used diagnostic tool for cardiovascular disease. Despite constant improvements to imaging technologies, the radiation dose to patients from CCTA remains a concern when using this procedure. There remains a need for optimisation of CCTA procedures and accurate dose monitoring to reduce the potential risk of cancer. Establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) allows for the assessment of radiation dose variations, enabling strategies aimed at standardising doses across radiological centres...
June 7, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585034/myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-women-for-the-evaluation-of-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-state-of-the-evidence-and-clinical-recommendations
#6
Viviany R Taqueti, Sharmila Dorbala, David Wolinsky, Brian Abbott, Gary V Heller, Timothy M Bateman, Jennifer H Mieres, Lawrence M Phillips, Nanette K Wenger, Leslee J Shaw
This document from the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology represents an updated consensus statement on the evidence base of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), emphasizing new developments in single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the clinical evaluation of women presenting with symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). The clinical evaluation of symptomatic women is challenging due to their varying clinical presentation, clinical risk factor burden, high degree of comorbidity, and increased risk of major ischemic heart disease events...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581035/effective-doses-and-standardised-risk-factors-from-paediatric-diagnostic-medical-radiation-exposures-information-for-radiation-risk-communication
#7
Giovanni Bibbo
INTRODUCTION: In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (ii) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570742/effect-of-midtreatment-pet-ct-adapted-radiation-therapy-with-concurrent-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-phase-2-clinical-trial
#8
Feng-Ming Kong, Randall K Ten Haken, Matthew Schipper, Kirk A Frey, James Hayman, Milton Gross, Nithya Ramnath, Khaled A Hassan, Martha Matuszak, Timothy Ritter, Nan Bi, Weili Wang, Mark Orringer, Kemp B Cease, Theodore S Lawrence, Gregory P Kalemkerian
Importance: Our previous studies demonstrated that tumors significantly decrease in size and metabolic activity after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated radiatiotherapy (RT), and that metabolic shrinkage is greater than anatomic shrinkage. This study aimed to determine whether 18F-fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) acquired during the course of treatment provides an opportunity to deliver higher-dose radiation to the more aggressive areas of the tumor to improve local tumor control without increasing RT-induced lung toxicity (RILT), and possibly improve survival...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557725/reduced-radiation-in-children-presenting-to-the-ed-with-suspected-ventricular-shunt-complication
#9
Ronald F Marchese, Erin S Schwartz, Gregory G Heuer, Jane Lavelle, Jimmy W Huh, Louis M Bell, Xianqun Luan, Joseph J Zorc
BACKGROUND: Ventricular shunt complications in children can be severe and life-threatening if not identified and treated in a timely manner. Evaluation for shunt obstruction is not without risk, including lifetime cumulative radiation as patients routinely receive computed tomography (CT) scans of the brain and shunt series (multiple radiographs of the skull, neck, chest, and abdomen). METHODS: A multidisciplinary team collaborated to develop a clinical pathway with the goal of standardizing the evaluation and management of patients with suspected shunt complication...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557332/impact-of-contrast-exposure-from-computed-tomography-angiography-on-acute-kidney-injury-after-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery
#10
Waldemar F Carlo, Steven T Clark, Santiago Borasino, Jeffrey A Alten
OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) for cardiac surgery in neonates. It is unclear if exposure to computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the preoperative period increases the risk of AKI. We hypothesized a short interval between CTA and CPB surgery would be associated with higher rates of AKI in infants. DESIGN: In this single center retrospective review of patients between 2012 and 2015, neonates less than one month old were analyzed if they had CTA prior to cardiac surgery with CPB...
May 30, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551365/low-dose-ionizing-radiation-limitations-to-seed-germination-results-from-a-model-linking-physiological-characteristics-and-developmental-dynamics-simulation-strategy
#11
Hui Liu, Dawei Hu, Chen Dong, Yuming Fu, Guanghui Liu, Youcai Qin, Yi Sun, Dianlei Liu, Lei Li, Hong Liu
There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535732/duplex-ultrasound-surveillance-after-uncomplicated-endovascular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#12
Jacob S Schaeffer, Irina Shakhnovich, Kyle N Sieck, Kara J Kallies, Clark A Davis, Thomas H Cogbill
OBJECTIVES: Health-care costs and risks of radiation and intravenous contrast exposure challenge computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the standard surveillance method after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). We reviewed our experience using Duplex ultrasound scan (DUS) as an initial and subsequent surveillance technique after uncomplicated EVAR. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent EVAR from 2004 to 2014 with at least 1 postoperative imaging study were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514670/radiation-safety-in-children-with-congenital-and-acquired-heart-disease-a-scientific-position-statement-on-multimodality-dose-optimization-from-the-image-gently-alliance
#13
REVIEW
Kevin D Hill, Donald P Frush, B Kelly Han, Brian G Abbott, Aimee K Armstrong, Robert A DeKemp, Andrew C Glatz, S Bruce Greenberg, Alexander Sheldon Herbert, Henri Justino, Douglas Mah, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Cynthia K Rigsby, Timothy C Slesnick, Keith J Strauss, Sigal Trattner, Mohan N Viswanathan, Andrew J Einstein
There is a need for consensus recommendations for ionizing radiation dose optimization during multi-modality medical imaging in children with congenital and acquired heart disease (CAHD). These children often have complex diseases and may be exposed to a relatively high cumulative burden of ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures including cardiac computed tomography, nuclear cardiology studies and fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and interventional catheterization and electrophysiology procedures...
May 17, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508846/assessment-of-three-dimensional-setup-errors-in-image-guided-pelvic-radiotherapy-for-uterine-and-cervical-cancer-using-kilovoltage-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-its-effect-on-planning-target-volume-margins
#14
Nidhi Patni, Nagarjuna Burela, Rajesh Pasricha, Jaishree Goyal, Tej Prakash Soni, T Senthil Kumar, T Natarajan
PURPOSE: To achieve the best possible therapeutic ratio using high-precision techniques (image-guided radiation therapy/volumetric modulated arc therapy [IGRT/VMAT]) of external beam radiation therapy in cases of carcinoma cervix using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and five patients of gynecological malignancies who were treated with IGRT (IGRT/VMAT) were included in the study. CBCT was done once a week for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and daily in IGRT/VMAT...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500370/long-term-prognostic-performance-of-low-dose-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-with-prospective-electrocardiogram-triggering
#15
Olivier F Clerc, Basil P Kaufmann, Mathias Possner, Riccardo Liga, Jan Vontobel, Fran Mikulicic, Christoph Gräni, Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Julia Stehli, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. METHODS: We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. Patients were classified as normal, with non-obstructive or obstructive lesions, or previously revascularized. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed in 223 patients. Follow-up was obtained regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, myocardial infarction and elective revascularization...
May 12, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495033/clinical-applications-of-3-dimensional-printing-in-radiation-therapy
#16
Yizhou Zhao, Kathryn Moran, Mammo Yewondwossen, James Allan, Scott Clarke, Murali Rajaraman, Derek Wilke, Paul Joseph, James L Robar
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy...
July 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480751/ct-pulmonary-angiography-in-young-women
#17
Paul D Stein, Fadi Matta, Kate E Hughes, Mary J Hughes
The purpose was to determine whether young women in the emergency department who received computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiograms were evaluated to receive lower dose imaging or no imaging, recognizing that the risks of radiation are particularly high in young women. This was a retrospective cohort investigation of women aged 18 to 29 years seen for suspected acute pulmonary embolism in emergency departments of 5 regional hospitals from May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016. Computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiograms were obtained in 379 young women...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473305/quality-of-social-media-and-web-based-information-regarding-inappropriate-nuclear-cardiac-stress-testing-and-the-choosing-wisely-campaign-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
David E Winchester, Diana Baxter, Merry J Markham, Rebecca J Beyth
BACKGROUND: The World Wide Web and social media provide the public with access to medical information unlike any other time in human history. However, the quality of content related to cardiac stress testing is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of content on the Internet relating to the use of cardiac nuclear stress testing and the Choosing Wisely campaign. METHODS: We searched the World Wide Web, Google Video (including YouTube), and Twitter for information relating to these two topics...
May 4, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464749/contouring-and-dose-calculation-in-head-and-neck-cancer-radiotherapy-after-reduction-of-metal-artifacts-in-ct-images
#19
Christian Rønn Hansen, Rasmus Lübeck Christiansen, Ebbe Laugaard Lorenzen, Anders Smedegaard Bertelsen, Jon Thor Asmussen, Niels Gyldenkerne, Jesper Grau Eriksen, Jørgen Johansen, Carsten Brink
BACKGROUND: Delineation accuracy of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in radiotherapy planning for head and neck (H&N) cancer is affected by computed tomography (CT) artifacts from metal implants which obscure identification of tumor as well as organs at risk (OAR). This study investigates the impact of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in H&N patients in terms of delineation consistency and dose calculation precision in radiation treatment planning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tumor and OAR delineations were evaluated in planning CT scans of eleven oropharynx patients with streaking artifacts in the tumor region preceding curative radiotherapy (RT)...
June 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463164/individualized-selection-of-beam-angles-and-treatment-isocenter-in-tangential-breast-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#20
Joan Penninkhof, Sara Spadola, Sebastiaan Breedveld, Margreet Baaijens, Nico Lanconelli, Ben Heijmen
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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