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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782008/de-novo-generation-of-somatic-stem-cells-by-yap-taz
#1
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Daniele Di Biagio, Antonio Totaro, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
Here we present protocols to isolate primary differentiated cells and turn them into stem/progenitor cells (SCs) of the same lineage by transient expression of the transcription factor YAP. With this method, luminal differentiated (LD) cells of the mouse mammary gland are converted into cells that exhibit molecular and functional properties of mammary SCs. YAP also turns fully differentiated pancreatic exocrine cells into pancreatic duct-like progenitors. Similarly, to endogenous, natural SCs, YAP-induced stem-like cells ("ySCs") can be eventually expanded as organoid cultures long term in vitro, without further need of ectopic YAP/TAZ, as ySCs are endowed with a heritable self-renewing SC-like state...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779582/animal-models-of-endocrine-disruption
#2
REVIEW
Heather B Patisaul, Suzanne E Fenton, David Aylor
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that alter the structure and function of the endocrine system and may be contributing to disorders of the reproductive, metabolic, neuroendocrine and other complex systems. Typically, these outcomes cannot be modeled in cell-based or other simple systems necessitating the use of animal testing. Appropriate animal model selection is required to effectively recapitulate the human experience, including relevant dosing and windows of exposure, and ensure translational utility and reproducibility...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772965/association-of-surgical-approach-with-complication-rate-progression-free-survival-time-and-disease-specific-survival-time-in-cats-with-mammary-adenocarcinoma-107-cases-1991-2014
#3
Francesco Gemignani, Philipp D Mayhew, Michelle A Giuffrida, Jason Palaigos, Jeffrey J Runge, David E Holt, Nicholas A Robertson, Bernard Seguin, Meaghan Walker, Ameet Singh, Julius M Liptak, Giorgio Romanelli, Marina Martano, Sarah E Boston, Cassie Lux, Roberto Busetto, William T N Culp, Katherine A Skorupski, Jenna H Burton
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772266/pten-pdz-binding-domain-suppresses-mammary-carcinogenesis-in-the-mmtv-pymt-breast-cancer-model
#4
Mingfei Yan, Yubing Wang, Chi Wai Wong, Penelope Mei-Yu Or, Kin Lok Wong, Lisha Li, Alexander M Many, Hong Guan, Ui Soon Khoo, Andrew M Chan
Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) is a potent tumor suppressor that possesses a PDZ-binding domain (PDZ-BD) at the end of its carboxyl terminus, whose functions during tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here, we crossed a mouse strain with germline deletion of PTEN PDZ-BD with MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model, and found that knockout (KO) mice display normal development of mammary glands, but have both increased breast tumorigenicity and lung metastasis. Orthotopic allograft experiments suggest the loss of PTEN PDZ-BD in breast cancer cells rather than in tumor microenvironment plays a prominent role in increasing tumor burden...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769144/contributions-of-the-rhoa-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-net1-to-polyoma-middle-t-antigen-mediated-mammary-gland-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#5
Yan Zuo, Arzu Ulu, Jeffrey T Chang, Jeffrey A Frost
BACKGROUND: The RhoA activating protein Net1 contributes to breast cancer cell proliferation, motility, and invasion in vitro, yet little is known about its roles in mammary gland tumorigenesis and metastasis. METHODS: Net1 knockout (KO) mice were bred to mice with mammary gland specific expression of the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) oncogene. Mammary gland tumorigenesis and lung metastasis were monitored. Individual tumors were assessed for proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, RhoA activation, and activation of PyMT-dependent signaling pathways...
May 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763890/mir-301a-3p-suppresses-estrogen-signaling-by-directly-inhibiting-esr1-in-er%C3%AE-positive-breast-cancer
#6
Sandra Lettlova, Veronika Brynychova, Jan Blecha, David Vrana, Magdalena Vondrusova, Pavel Soucek, Jaroslav Truksa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MiRNA-301a-3p is an oncogenic miRNA whose expression is associated with tumor development, metastases and overall poor prognosis. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is one of the estrogen hormone-activated transcription factors, which regulates a large number of genes and is involved in the mammary gland development. Expression of ERα is considered to be a good indicator for endocrine therapy and breast cancer survival. Loss of ERα in breast cancer patients indicates invasiveness and poor prognosis...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755597/5-fluorouracil-may-enrich-cancer-stem-cells-in-canine-mammary-tumor-cells-in-vitro
#7
Bin Zhou, Yipeng Jin, Di Zhang, Degui Lin
Mammary gland carcinomas are the most common neoplasms in women and unsterilized female dogs. Owing to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), chemotherapy is not able to cure these types of diseases completely. A number of studies have demonstrated that CSCs are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, but whether canine mammary tumor cells that have acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) exhibited properties of CSCs remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 5-fluorouracil-resistant canine mammary tumor cells exhibited properties of CSCs...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752049/the-screening-and-electron-microscopy-observation-of-mammary-analogue-secretory-carcinoma-in-chinese
#8
Yi Zhong, Liu Liu, Bin Qi, Xiaoling Song, Linhan Shen, Hongwei Li
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland (MASC) is a tumor with histopathologic and immunophenotypic features mimicking secretory carcinoma of the breast harboring the ETV6 split. The expression of mammaglobin, S-100, Ki-67, P63 and ETV6 split were detected in twelve cases of acinar cell carcinoma and fourteen cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization respectively. The expression of ETV6 gene split was detected in fourteen mammary analogue secretory carcinomas of salivary gland with positive expression of mammaglobin...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750295/endogenous-leu332gln-mutation-in-p53-disrupts-the-tetramerization-ability-in-a-canine-mammary-gland-tumor-cell-line
#9
Kazuhiko Ochiai, Daigo Azakami, Masami Morimatsu, Hinako Hirama, Shota Kawakami, Takayuki Nakagawa, Masaki Michishita, Ai S Egusa, Takanori Sasaki, Masami Watanabe, Toshinori Omi
Mutations in the p53 gene are associated with more than half of all human cancers. These mutations often cause a disruption of the tumor-suppressor function of p53 and induce genomic instabilities. Wild‑type p53 requires tetramerization to function as an initiator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although alterations in p53 tetramerization caused by mutation have been well studied, there are few cell lines containing an endogenous mutation in the tetramerization domain of p53. Here, we report the discovery of a canine mammary gland tumor cell line CTB‑m2, which contains the Leu332Gln (L332Q) mutation corresponding to Leu344 in the tetramerization domain of human p53...
May 2, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748834/qbd-based-development-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-potentiated-nanoemulsion-for-targeted-delivery-of-doxorubicin-in-dmba-induced-mammary-gland-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#10
Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Poonam Parashar, Malti Arya, Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Gaurav Kaithwas, Shubhini A Saraf
Breast cancer is the most common cancer of occurrence in women and has the highest mortality incidence rate therein. The present study envisaged to develop doxorubicin (Dox) loaded folate functionalized nanoemulsion (NE) for profound therapeutic activity against mammary gland cancer. NE was prepared using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams utilizing α-linolenic acid (ALA) as lipid phase, to further enhance the anticancer potential of Dox. Box-Behnken design was employed to systematically develop the NE. Optimized NE (f-Dox-NE) was evaluated for in vitro and in vivo performance...
May 10, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748375/r-spondin3-is-associated-with-basal-progenitor-behavior-in-normal-and-tumor-mammary-cells
#11
Johanna Melisa Tocci, Carla María Felcher, Martín E García Solá, María Victoria Goddio, María Noel Zimberlin, Natalia Rubinstein, Anabella Srebrow, Omar Adrián Coso, Martín C Abba, Roberto P Meiss, Edith C Kordon
R-spondin3 (RSPO3) is a member of a family of secreted proteins that enhance Wnt signaling pathways in diverse processes including cancer. However, the role of RSPO3 in mammary gland and breast cancer development remains unclear. In this study, we show that RSPO3 is expressed in the basal stem cell-enriched compartment of normal mouse mammary glands but is absent from committed mature luminal cells in which exogenous RSPO3 impairs lactogenic differentiation. RSPO3 knockdown in basal-like mouse mammary tumor cells reduced canonical Wnt signaling, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like features, migration capacity, and tumor formation in vivo...
May 10, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739757/evidence-of-inter-tissue-differences-in-the-dna-damage-response-and-the-pro-oncogenic-role-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-mice-with-disengaged-brca1-palb2-interaction
#12
Amar Hekmat Mahdi, Yanying Huo, Yongmei Tan, Srilatha Simhadri, Gabriele Vincelli, Jie Gao, Shridar Ganesan, Bing Xia
The BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 axis plays an essential role in DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR), defect in which drives genome instability and cancer development. How cells with defects in this pathway respond to DNA damage in vivo and how tumors develop from these cells remain poorly defined. Here we analyzed several aspects of the DNA damage response in multiple tissues of Palb2 mutant mice in which the interaction between PALB2 and BRCA1 is disengaged. Without any challenge, the mutant mice showed increased endogenous DNA damage...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734696/mammary-stem-cells-and-breast-cancer-stem-cells-molecular-connections-and-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Toni Celià-Terrassa
Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy...
May 4, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729907/technical-note-p40-antibody-as-a-replacement-for-p63-antibody-in-bovine-mammary-immunohistochemistry
#14
C L M Parsons, H L M Tucker, R M Akers, K M Daniels
Tumor protein 63 (p63) is a nuclear antigen found in basal epithelial cells. To date, 10 isoforms of p63 have been identified, falling into 2 major groups identified by presence or absence of an N-terminal transactivation domain (TAp63 and ΔNp63, respectively). Literature suggests that ΔNp63 is the predominant form expressed in basal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells (MYEC). The mouse anti-p63 antibody, clone 4B1E12, has been used as a specific nuclear marker for bovine MYEC. Unfortunately, this antibody is no longer commercially available...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727209/perturbation-of-epithelial-apicobasal-polarity-by-rhomboid-family-1-gene-overexpression
#15
Xue-Mei Peng, Shan Gao, Hui-Ting Deng, Hong-Xing Cai, Zhuan Zhou, Rong Xiang, Qiang-Zhe Zhang, Lu-Yuan Li
The human rhomboid family (RHBDF)1 gene is highly expressed in breast cancer under clinical conditions but not in normal mammary gland tissues. Silencing the RHBDF1 gene in breast cancer xenograft tumors leads to inhibition of tumor growth. We show in this study that artificially raising RHBDF1 protein levels in the mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A results in severe perturbations of the ability of the cells to form lumen-containing acini, either in 3-dimensional cell cultures or implanted in mouse mammary fat pads...
May 4, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725408/expression-of-nampt-is-associated-with-breast-invasive-ductal-carcinoma-development-and-prognosis
#16
Shao-Jie Zhou, Tie-Qiang Bi, Chun-Xin Qin, Xiao-Qing Yang, Kai Pang
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) possesses various functions in human cells, and altered NAMPT expression is associated with human carcinogenesis. The present study detected the expression of NAMPT in normal and cancerous breast tissues from 83 patients using immunohistochemistry, and analyzed its association with the clinicopathological and survival data of the patients. NAMPT was significantly overexpressed in the breast invasive ductal carcinoma tissues compared with adjacent normal mammary gland tissues...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718697/znt2-is-critical-for-lysosome-acidification-and-biogenesis-during-mammary-gland-involution
#17
Olivia C Rivera, Stephen R Hennigar, Shannon L Kelleher
Mammary gland involution is a tightly regulated process of tissue remodeling by which a lactating mammary gland reverts to the pre-pregnant state, and is characterized by the most profound example of regulated epithelial cell death in normal tissue. Defects in the execution of involution are associated with lactation failure and breast cancer. Initiation of mammary gland involution requires upregulation of lysosomal biogenesis and acidification to activate lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD); however, specific mediators of this initial phase of involution are not well-described...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702592/clinicopathological-diversity-of-canine-mammary-gland-tumors-in-sri-lanka-a-one-year-survey-on-cases-presented-to-two-veterinary-practices
#18
Harsha Ariyarathna, Niranjala de Silva, Danielle Aberdein, Dayananda Kodikara, Manjula Jayasinghe, Ranjith Adikari, John S Munday
Mammary gland tumors (MGTs) are one of the most common neoplasms among dogs in Sri Lanka. However, the clinicopathological diversity of MGTs in Sri Lanka is largely unknown, impeding accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease. The present study investigated the clinicopathological features of MGTs in 74 dogs presented to two veterinary practices in Sri Lanka treated surgically, over a one-year period. Information regarding the patient signalment, clinical presentation, and reproductive history were collected, and each neoplasm was examined histologically...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701941/effects-of-neonicotinoid-pesticides-on-promoter-specific-aromatase-cyp19-expression-in-hs578t-breast-cancer-cells-and-the-role-of-the-vegf-pathway
#19
Élyse Caron-Beaudoin, Rachel Viau, J Thomas Sanderson
BACKGROUND: Aromatase (CYP19) is a key enzyme in estrogens biosynthesis. In the mammary gland, CYP19 gene is expressed at low levels under the regulation of its I.4 promoter. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, fibroblast cells surrounding the tumor express increased levels of CYP19 mRNA due to a decrease of I.4 promoter activity and an increase of PII, I.3, and I.7 promoter activity. Little is known about the effects of environmental chemicals on the promoter-specific CYP19 expression...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695833/chronic-expression-of-wild-type-ret-receptor-in-the-mammary-gland-induces-luminal-tumors-that-are-sensitive-to-ret-inhibition
#20
Albana Gattelli, Martín E García Solá, Tim C Roloff, Robert D Cardiff, Edith C Kordon, Lewis A Chodosh, Nancy E Hynes
The receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, a key gain-of-function mutated oncoprotein in thyroid carcinomas, has recently been implicated in other cancer types. While Ret copy number gains and mutations have been reported at low frequencies in breast tumors, we and others have reported that Ret is overexpressed in about 40% of human tumors and this correlates with poor patient prognosis. Ret activation regulates numerous intracellular pathways related to proliferation and inflammation, but it is not known whether abnormal Ret expression is sufficient to induce mammary carcinomas...
April 26, 2018: Oncogene
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