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Mokone Mmola, Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, John J Bolton, Nicole Sibuyi, Mervin E Meyer, Denzil R Beukes, Edith Antunes
A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium. The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
Nan Che, Yijie Ma, Yinhu Xin
Fucoidan has been reported to exhibit various beneficial activities ranging from to antivirus and anticancer properties. However, little information is available about the effects of fucoidan on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Our study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan on cerebral IRI, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly subjected to four groups: Sham, IRI+saline (IRI+S), IRI+80 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F80), and IRI+160 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F160). Fucoidan (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7 days before the rats were induced to cerebral IRI model with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Yu-Yuan Chen, Suwaree Kitikiew, Su-Tuen Yeh, Jiann-Chu Chen
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei receiving fucoidan at 2, 6, and 10 μg g(-1) after 0-144 h or 0-120 h were examined for immune parameters (haemograms, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, and superoxide dismutase activity), proliferation of haemocyte in the haematopoietic tissue (HPT), gene expression, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus. Immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT increased after 3-24 h, reached their maxima after 48-72 h, and returned to background values after 144 h...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jia Sun, Jintang Sun, Bingfeng Song, Lin Zhang, Qianqian Shao, Yanguo Liu, Daoying Yuan, Yun Zhang, Xun Qu
In tumor microenvironment, macrophages as a polarized M2 population promote tumor progression via releasing multiple cytokines and chemokines. A brown seaweed fucose-rich polysaccharide, fucoidan has antitumor activity and immune modulation through affecting tumor cells and lymphocytes. Here, we focused on the effect of fucoidan on macrophages especially M2 subtype. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan down-regulated partial cytokines and chemokines, especially a M2-type chemokine CCL22. Furthermore, fucoidan inhibited tumor cells migration and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, especially Treg cells, recruitment induced by M2 macrophages conditioned medium through suppression of CCL22...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicolas Marinval, Pierre Saboural, Oualid Haddad, Murielle Maire, Kevin Bassand, Frederic Geinguenaud, Nadia Djaker, Khadija Ben Akrout, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle, Romain Robert, Olivier Oudar, Erwan Guyot, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Angela Sutton, Cedric Chauvierre, Frederic Chaubet, Nathalie Charnaux, Hanna Hlawaty
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Giuseppe Maiorano, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Siria Tavaniello, Cinzia Abiuso, Joanna Bogucka, Marek Bednarczyk
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of in ovo injection of 2 different prebiotics, DiNovo (DN; Laminaria spp., extract containing laminarin and fucoidan) and Bi(2)tos (BI; non-digestive trans-galactooligosaccharides from milk lactose digested with Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171), on growth, slaughter traits, intramuscular fat percentage (IF) and muscle fiber diameter, and lipid oxidation of meat in chickens reared under commercial conditions, following an in ovo trial protocol. On d 12 of embryonic incubation, 350,560 Ross 308 eggs were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups and automatically injected in ovo with: physiological saline (control group), BI at dose of 3...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Chul Won Yun, Seungpil Yun, Jun Hee Lee, Yong-Seok Han, Yeo Min Yoon, Daniel An, Sang Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: The putative functions of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) are believed to be associated with cell signaling, differentiation, survival, and cancer progression. With respect to cancer development and progression, elevations and mutations of PrP(c) expression have been shown to increase the risk for malignancy and metastasis in breast and colorectal cancer. Since both natural supplements and direct regulation of PrP(c) expression contribute to inhibition of cancer progression and growth, we hypothesized that knockdown of PrP(c) could lead to an enhanced synergic effect on the inhibition of cancer growth by fucoidan...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Mattias Tengdelius, Caroline Kardeby, Knut Fälker, May Griffith, Peter Påhlsson, Peter Konradsson, Magnus Grenegård
The marine sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan displays superior ability to induce platelet aggregation compared to other sulfated polysaccharides. As such, it is an attractive tool for studying molecular and cellular responses in activated platelets. The heterogeneous structure, however, poses a problem in such applications. This study describes the synthesis of sulfated α-l-fucoside-pendant poly(methacryl amides) with homogeneous structures. By using both thiol-mediated chain transfer and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization techniques, glycopolymers with different chain lengths are obtained...
September 12, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Lestari Dewi
INTRODUCTION: The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of one of the mediators of inflammation, the prostaglandins. Inhibition of COX allegedly can improve inflammation-induced pathological conditions. AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of Sargassum sp. components, Fucoidan and alginate, as COX inhibitors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted by means of a computational (in silico) method...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Lei Wu, Jing Sun, Xitong Su, Qiuli Yu, Qiuyang Yu, Peng Zhang
Fucoidan is composed of l-fucose, sulfate groups and one or more small proportions of d-xylose, d-mannose, d-galactose, l-rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, d-glucuronic acid and acetyl groups in different kinds of brown seaweeds. Many reports have demonstrated that fucoidan has antitumor activities on various cancers. However, until now, few reviews have discussed the antitumor activity of fucoidan and few reports have summarized detailed molecular mechanisms of its actions and antitumor challenges of fucoidan specially...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shujun Dong, Yaoguang Chang, Jingjing Shen, Changhu Xue, Feng Chen
α-l-Fucosyl residues are frequently found in oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and glycoconjugates which play fundamental roles in various biological processes. α-l-Fucosidases, glycoside hydrolases for catalyzing the removal of α-l-fucose, can serve as desirable tools in the study and the modification of fucose-containing biomolecules. In this study, an α-l-fucosidase named as Alf1_Wf was purified from a marine bacterium Wenyingzhuangia fucanilytica by using a combination of chromatographic procedures...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Huanjun Chen, Qifei Cong, Zhenyun Du, Wenfeng Liao, Lei Zhang, Yanli Yao, Kan Ding
Fucoidan may inhibit angiogenesis. However, its functional target molecule and the underlying mechanism are still vague. In the present study, we showed that sulfated fucoidan FP08S2 from Sargassum fusiforme inhibited tube formation as well as migration and invasion of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In addition, FP08S2 was confirmed to disrupt VEGF-induced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Further study indicated that FP08S2 could bind to both VEGF and VEGFR2 to interfere with VEGF-VEGFR2 interaction...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Periaswamy Sivagnanam Saravana, Yeon-Jin Cho, Yong-Beom Park, Hee-Chul Woo, Byung-Soo Chun
Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was utilized to extract sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. Various conditions of temperature (80-200°C), pressure (5-100bar), and solvents (water, 0.1% sodium hydroxide, 0.1% formic acid, 70% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and 25% ethanol) were assessed; the best crude fucoidan (CF) yield was 8.23%, obtained from 140°C and 50bar (sodium hydroxide). Compositional analysis, FT-IR, molecular weight, monosaccharides, TGA, UV-vis, XRD, and elemental analysis confirm that extracted polysaccharides revealed the features of fucoidan...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Roza V Usoltseva Menshova, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Natalia M Shevchenko, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Svetlana P Ermakova
Laminaran and three fucoidan fractions were obtained from the brown alga Alaria marginata. Alaria angusta, studied earlier by us, has the same polysaccharide composition. Galactofucan AmF3 from A. marginata has a main chain of →3)-α-l-Fucp-(2,4-SO3(-))-(1→residues, similar to galactofucan from A. angusta. However, the structure of the branches in fucoidan AmF3 can differ from those in the fucoidan from A. angusta. The following fragments were identified in AmF3: HexA-(1→2)-Fuc, HexA-(1→2)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-HexA, Fuc-(1→2)-Gal-6-SO3(-), Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal, Gal-(1→2)-Gal-2-SO3(-), Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1 →6)-Gal, Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1→3)-Fuc-(1→3)-Fuc, Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-(1→3)-Fuc, Gal-2-SO3(-)-(1→4)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-6-SO3(-)-(1→2)-Gal...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yingli Jia, Yi Sun, Lin Weng, Yingjie Li, Quanbin Zhang, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Jun Wang, Kunhao Jiang
Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Madhavarani Alwarsamy, Ravi Gooneratne, Ramanibai Ravichandran
Fucoidan was purified from seaweed, Turbinaria conoides. Isolated fragments were characterized with NMR ((13)C, (1)H), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectronomy (GC-MS) and HPLC analysis. The autohydrolysate of fucoidans consisted of sulfated fuco-oligosaccharides having the backbone of α-(1, 3)-linked fuco-pyranose derivatives and minor components of galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose sugars. Fucoidan induced a dose-dependent reduction in cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells by MTT assay (GI50, 75μg/mL)...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Min Ju Ryu, Ha Sook Chung
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, is found in edible brown algae. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of fucoidan against mild oxidative stress in human keratinocytes were investigated. The current study indicated that fucoidan significantly augmented the antioxidants heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) and superoxide dismutase‑1 (SOD‑1) via the upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) and markedly reduced the cytoplasmic stability of kelch‑like ECH‑associated protein 1...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Koki Nishitsuji, Asuka Arimoto, Kenji Iwai, Yusuke Sudo, Kanako Hisata, Manabu Fujie, Nana Arakaki, Tetsuo Kushiro, Teruko Konishi, Chuya Shinzato, Noriyuki Satoh, Eiichi Shoguchi
The brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku), is economically one of the most important edible seaweeds, and is cultivated for market primarily in Okinawa, Japan. C. okamuranus constitutes a significant source of fucoidan, which has various physiological and biological activities. To facilitate studies of seaweed biology, we decoded the draft genome of C. okamuranus S-strain. The genome size of C. okamuranus was estimated as ∼140 Mbp, smaller than genomes of two other brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica Sequencing with ∼100× coverage yielded an assembly of 541 scaffolds with N50 = 416 kbp...
August 8, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
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