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H R Sowman, N J Cave, M Dunowska
AIMS: To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS: Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. Oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus (CAdV) 2, canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subsp...
June 20, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Claudia Resende Leal, Roberta Martinelli de Carvalho, Terumi Okada Ozawa, Araci Malagodi de Almeida, Gisele da Silva Dalben, José Carlos da Cunha Bastos, Daniela Gamba Garib Carreira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of cleft type and width, canine eruption stage, and surgeon on the outcomes of alveolar graft with rhBMP-2. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary craniofacial center. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety individuals submitted to alveolar graft in late mixed or early permanent dentition. INTERVENTIONS: The 90 individuals (mean age: 16.8 years) were submitted to alveolar graft with rhBMP-2...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Marcello Siniscalchi, Serenella d'Ingeo, Angelo Quaranta
Recent scientific literature shows that emotional cues conveyed by human vocalizations and odours are processed in an asymmetrical way by the canine brain. In the present study, during feeding behaviour, dogs were suddenly presented with 2-D stimuli depicting human faces expressing the Ekman's six basic emotion (e.g. anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, and neutral), simultaneously into the left and right visual hemifields. A bias to turn the head towards the left (right hemisphere) rather than the right side was observed with human faces expressing anger, fear, and happiness emotions, but an opposite bias (left hemisphere) was observed with human faces expressing surprise...
June 19, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Leanne K Winner, Neil R Marshall, Robert D Jolly, Paul J Trim, Stephen K Duplock, Marten F Snel, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease of childhood that results in early death. Post-mortem studies have been carried out on human MPS IIIA brain, but little is known about early disease development. Here, we utilised the Huntaway dog model of MPS IIIA to evaluate disease lesion development from 2 to 24 weeks of age. A significant elevation in primarily stored heparan sulphate was observed in all brain regions assessed in MPS IIIA pups ≤9.5 weeks of age. There was a significant elevation in secondarily stored ganglioside (GM3 36:1) in ≤9...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Elizabeth Hare, Kathleen M Kelsey, James A Serpell, Cynthia M Otto
Behavioral traits such as trainability, fearlessness, and energy are required for dogs to succeed as search-and-rescue (SAR) dogs. Certification by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) ensures that dogs and handlers have extensive training and have demonstrated specific skills in the field. To determine whether behavioral differences exist between SAR and pet dogs, and between FEMA-certified USAR and non-FEMA-certified SAR dogs, the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) was administered to 129 SAR dogs participating in the post-9/11 medical surveillance study and a breed-matched sample of 2,131 pet dogs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
William Brady Little, Elpida Artemiou, Anne Conan, Cathryn Sparks
Although cadaveric dissection has historically been the cornerstone of anatomical education, it comes at the cost of some emotional, moral, safety, and environmental concerns. Computer assisted learning (CAL) programs are an increasingly common solution to these issues; however, research regarding the efficacy of high fidelity simulation is limited. The traditional first semester veterinary gross anatomy course curriculum at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) was supplemented with a web based virtual anatomy program, IVALA™ (www...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
M Patsikas, K Adamama-Moraitou, A Thomas, C Soultani, I Chrissogonidis, A Fotiadou, G Trikoupi, P Papadopoulou, G Ilia, P Kosmas, P Farmakis
A two-year-old, female intact, cross-breed dog presented with a two-month history of nasal discharge. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated obliteration of both nasal cavities by soft tissue density, destruction of the nasal and ethmoidal turbinates, and lysis of the frontal and palatine bones and maxilla. Frontal sinuses and maxillary recesses were obscured by soft tissue/fluid density. Histopathological examination of the mass was diagnostic of transmissible venereal tumor. The dog was clinically normal 3 months after treatment initiation with vincristine sulphate and amoxicillin/clavulanate...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Liangliang Nan, Yunchao Liu, Pengchao Ji, Hua Feng, Chen Chen, Juan Wang, Dongmin Liu, Yinglei Cui, Yanwei Wang, Yafei Li, Enmin Zhou, Gaiping Zhang
Canine parvovirus (CPV) has been considered to be an important pathogen, which can cause acute infectious disease in canids. Although current vaccines are effective in preventing CPV infection, safety problems still remain unsolved. In this study, a subunit vaccine against CPV based on virus-like particles (VLPs) with good safety and immunogenicity is reported. Soluble CPV VP2 protein was produced by co-expression of chaperone trigger factor (Tf16) in Escherichia coli (E.coli), and assembled into CPV VLPs which could be affected by NaCl and pH...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
E Akdesir, F C Origgi, J Wimmershoff, J Frey, C F Frey, M-P Ryser-Degiorgis
BACKGROUND: Although mustelids occur worldwide and include a wide range of species, little is known about the diseases affecting them. Mustelids have regularly been submitted for post mortem investigation in the framework of the program for general wildlife health surveillance in Switzerland, which has been in place for nearly 60 years. We performed a retrospective analysis of the necropsy reports on mustelids submitted to the diagnostic service of the University of Bern. The aims of this study were to present an overview of the causes of mortality and morbidity observed in these carnivores, to assess differences among species, to assess changes in disease detection over the study period, and to describe the pathology of selected diseases...
June 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Shiqi Dong, Yuan Gu, Guangli Wei, Duanyun Si, Changxiao Liu
Insulin is an effective therapeutic for diabetes, and the level of insulin in vivo is directly related to the health of diabetic patients. Traditionally, the concentrations of insulin in vivo were determined by the RIA method. In this study, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of human insulin in dog plasma and directly compared the RIA and LC-MS/MS methods. Our LC-MS/MS method exhibited superior accuracy, efficiency and cost-effective for the PK assessment of human insulin. The LC-MS/MS method can quantitate human insulin and canine insulin simultaneously without cross-reactivity, making the analysis more efficient...
June 19, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Sidnei Ferro Costa, Gabriel Franco Trivellato, Gabriela Torres Rebech, Marilene Oliveira Dos Santos Maciel, Larissa Martins Melo, Maria Cecília Rui Luvizotto, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Eosinophils are traditionally associated with the immune response against helminth parasites. However, several studies have demonstrated that these cells have a role regarding protective immunity in leishmaniasis. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of eosinophils and parasite load in biopsy samples from dogs, obtained through fine needle puncture and aspiration of lymph nodes. Histological slides containing biopsy material from lymph nodes of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis and healthy dogs were used to obtain baseline eosinophil counts...
June 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
María Martínez, Jesica Montero, Adriana Pineda, Víctor Mijares, María Lares, Emily Catalano, Elizabeth Ferrer
Background: Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis caused by canine and feline Toxocara spp. In Venezuela, seroepidemiological studies in Aragua State have been carried out only in preschool children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies and identify clinical symptoms and risk factors of Toxocara spp. infection in school children in two municipalities of Aragua State of Venezuela. Methods: A cross-sectional field study with 259 children between 6 and 12 y of age was conducted in six schools in Aragua State...
June 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arminder S Kaura, Dhivya R Srinivasa, Steven J Kasten
PURPOSE: Timing of bone grafting for maxillary alveolar clefts is not standardized. Secondary bone grafting is often performed; however, consensus does not exist regarding use of chronologic versus dental age to guide treatment. Several authors suggest an early chronologic age is associated with greater success. Available literature was systematically reviewed for evidence for optimal timing for grafting maxillary alveolar clefts. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials databases were queried for manuscripts pertaining to maxillary alveolar cleft bone grafting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Galina V Ilyinskaya, Elena V Mukhina, Alesya V Soboleva, Olga V Matveeva, Peter M Chumakov
Background: Canine mastocytomas (mast cell tumors) represent a common malignancy among many dog breeds. A typical treatment strategy for canine mastocytomas includes surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy, although in many cases the therapy fails and the disease progression resumes. New treatment approaches are needed. Aims: The goal of this pilot study was to examine safety and efficacy of oncolytic Sendai virus therapy administered to canine patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous mastocytomas. Materials and Methods: Six canine patients, with variable grades and stages of the disease, received virus therapy, either as a monotherapy, or in combination with surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tippawan Jantafong, Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Kazuaki Takehara
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the fourth-generation quaternary ammonium compounds, didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), on the efficacy of bacterial and viral decontamination against pathogens commonly found in livestock industry including Salmonella infantis (SI), Escherichia coli , and avian influenza virus (AIV). Materials and Methods: The DDAB was prepared at 500, 250, and 125 parts per million (ppm) for absent and present organic material...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Paoul S Martinez, Eric S Storey, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to use a multiplexed assay to measure cytokines in normal stimulated canine tears. METHODS: 25 healthy dogs were included in the study. Stimulated tears were collected in capillary tubes from the right (OD) and left (OS) eyes and stored at -80 °C until batch sample analysis was performed. The samples were analyzed utilizing Luminex® canine-validated multiplex beads on a Bio-Rad multiplex analyzer for IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Marcus Vinicius Candido, Pernilla Syrjä, Susanne Kilpinen, Thomas Spillmann
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland...
June 18, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kirsty Thomson, Tal Yaaran, Alex Belshaw, Lucia Curson, Laurence Tisi, Sarah Maurice, Guy Kiddle
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichiosis is an important emerging infectious disease of the canid family and humans worldwide. To date, no extensive evaluation or validation of a molecular diagnostic test for ehrlichiosis has been published. Here, we present data for a newly designed TaqMan assay and compare its performance to a commercial technology (PCRun®). Both of these real-time methods of analysis were evaluated using a comprehensive number of prospective and retrospective samples collected from dogs exhibiting symptoms of ehrlichiosis...
June 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Outi Vainio
Background and purpose The use of laboratory animals in pain research has powerfully contributed to our detailed understanding of the physiological mechanisms of pain. Animal models also represent an essential tool to screen and select novel drug molecules with potentially analgesic properties. Despite of the inevitable input of laboratory animal trials, recent studies have shown that animal pain models have repeatedly failed to predict clinical analgesic efficacy and adverse side effects of potential drug molecules in human pain patients...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
M Faya, C Marchetti, M Priotto, M Grisolía, F D'Francisco, C Gobello
The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency and clinical safety of postnatal administration of a GnRH agonist on canine puberty postponement. Sexual steroids and histological gonadal changes were also described. Twenty-four littermate puppies were randomly assigned to: Deslorelin acetate 18.8 mg sc (DESLO; n = 12) or Placebo: sc (PLACE; n = 12) postnatally. The dogs were clinically and endocrinologically followed up until puberty when they were gonadectomized and their gonads histomorphometrically studied...
June 2, 2018: Theriogenology
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