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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453604/modelling-seasonal-and-spatio-temporal-variation-in-respiratory-prescribing
#1
Eleni Sofianopoulou, Tanja Pless-Mulloli, Stephen Rushton, Peter J Diggle
Many measures of chronic diseases including respiratory disease exhibit seasonal variation together with residual correlation between consecutive time-periods and neighboring areas. We demonstrate a modern strategy for modelling data that exhibit both seasonal trend and spatio-temporal correlation, through an application to respiratory prescribing. We analyzed 55 months (2002-2006) of prescribing data, in the northeast of England, UK. We estimated the seasonal pattern of prescribing by fitting a dynamic harmonic regression (DHR) model to salbutamol prescribing in relation to temperature...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#2
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431453/carboxymethyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-chiral-selector-in-capillary-electrophoresis-enantioseparation-of-16-basic-chiral-drugs-and-its-chiral-recognition-mechanism-associated-with-drugs-structural-features
#3
Linlin Fang, Yueying Du, Xiaoyu Hu, Linda Luo, Xin Guo, Xingjie Guo, Jia Yu
Herein we present the enantioseparation of 10 cardiovascular agents and 6 bronchiectasis drugs including propranolol, carteolol, metoprolol, atenolol, pindolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, sotalol, clenbuterol, procaterol, bambuterol, tranterol, salbutamol and terbutaline sulfate using carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) as chiral selector. To our knowledge, there is no literature about using CM-β-CD for separating carteolol, esmolol, bisoprolol, bevantolol, arotinolol, procaterol, bambuterol and tranterol...
April 21, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412680/study-on-effect-of-combivent-combined-with-glucocorticoids-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-aecopd
#4
Xin Zhao, Hongling Wang, Dalu Song, Yanwei Wang, Hong Yu, Shuhong Yu
We observed the effect of Combivent combined with glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with AECOPD to explore a better drug treatment for AECOPD. The clinical observation of two clinical curative effective was carried out. Firstly, 100 patients were equally divided into treatment group and control group, who were given basic treatment. The control group was treated with inhalation of salbutamol sulfate and the other was with inhalation of Combivent and glucocorticoid. The clinical effect, dyspnea score, PaO2, PaCO2 and pulmonary function index were observed and compared...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410672/effects-of-sedation-and-salbutamol-administration-on-hyperpnoea-and-tidal-breathing-spirometry-in-healthy-horses
#5
S L Raidal, K Burnheim, D Evans, K J Hughes
Sedation is often required to perform pulmonary function testing (PFT) in horses, but drug effects may influence respiratory function. The current study was designed to characterise the effects of sedation and bronchodilator administration on absolute and relative indices of pulmonary function during eupnoeic respiration and carbon dioxide-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) in healthy horses using a pneumotachographic spirometry system. Sedation with acetylpromazine (ACP), xylazine, or both drugs in combination was associated with significant reductions in respiratory frequency, minute ventilation and peak airflows during eupnoeic respiration...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402017/asthma-education-for-school-staff
#6
REVIEW
Kayleigh M Kew, Robin Carr, Tim Donovan, Morris Gordon
BACKGROUND: Teachers and school staff should be competent in managing asthma in schools. Demonstrated low levels of asthma knowledge mean that staff may not know how best to protect a child with asthma in their care, or may fail to take appropriate action in the event of a serious attack. Education about asthma could help to improve this knowledge and lead to better asthma outcomes for children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of asthma education programmes for school staff, and to identify content and attributes underpinning them...
April 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398844/breathlessness-at-high-altitude-first-episode-of-bronchoconstriction-in-an-otherwise-healthy-sojourner
#7
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala, Sadichhya Lohani, Pratibha Phuyal, Buddha Basnyat
Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan, Pranawa Koirala, Sadichhya Lohani, Pratibha Phuyal, and Buddha Basnyat. Breathlessness at high altitude: first episode of bronchoconstriction in an otherwise healthy sojourner. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2017-High-altitude illness is a collective term for less severe acute mountain sickness and more severe high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high-altitude cerebral edema, which we can experience while traveling to high altitude. These get better when we get down to the lower altitudes...
February 21, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394653/in-vitro-in-vivo-comparison-of-inhaled-salbutamol-dose-delivered-by-jet-nebulizer-vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-and-metered-dose-inhaler-with-spacer-during-non-invasive-ventilation
#8
Ahmed Hassan, Randa Salah Eldin, Maha M Abdelrahman, Mohamed E Abdelrahim
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may benefit from medical aerosol, but most guidance on dosing with different aerosol devices is limited to in-vitro studies. The study was designed to in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo compare aerosol delivery during bilevel NIV with three types of aerosol generators: metered dose inhaler with AeroChamber-MV spacer (AC), Aerogen Pro vibrating mesh nebulizer (PRO), and Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A bilevel ventilator with dry single limb circuit and fixed expiratory port was set in spontaneous mode with initial inspiratory and expiratory pressures of 20 and 5 cmH20, 1:3 inspiratory-expiratory ratio, and 15 breaths...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370275/rp-hplc-enantioseparation-of-%C3%AE-adrenolytics-using-micellar-mobile-phasewithout-organic-solvents
#9
Shiv Alwera, Ravi Bhushan
Enantioseparation of a few commonly administered racemic β-adrenolytics (namely, carvedilol, betaxolol, salbutamol, and bisoprolol) has been achieved using a water micellar mobile phase containing surfactants (SDS and Brij-35) without organic solvents as a new approach in RPHPLC. Two CDRs based on enantiomerically pure (S)-(-)-levofloxacin were synthesized using N-hydroxysuccinimide and N-hydroxybenzotriazole as the activation auxiliaries. Diastereomeric derivatives of the chosen β-adrenolytics were synthesized under microwave irradiation in a very short reaction time...
March 31, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359245/the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-salbutamol-inhibits-migration-invasion-and-metastasis-of-the-human-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cell-line
#10
Ezequiel Mariano Rivero, Cecilia Pérez Piñero, Lucía Gargiulo, Frank Entschladen, Kurt Zänker, Ariana Bruzzone, Isabel Alicia Lüthy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most diagnosed and the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Metastasis is the main cause of these deaths. The metastatic cascade involves multiple steps and it has been described that adrenergic receptors can modulate this process at multiple levels. However, β-adrenergic action in breast cancer is controversial. We have previously shown that β-adrenergic agonists inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth of numerous breast cancer models...
March 30, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356729/measures-of-bronchodilator-response-of-fev1-fvc-and-svc-in-a-swedish-general-population-sample-aged-50-64-years-the-scapis-pilot-study
#11
K Torén, B Bake, A-C Olin, G Engström, A Blomberg, J Vikgren, J Hedner, J Brandberg, H L Persson, C M Sköld, A Rosengren, G Bergström, C Janson
BACKGROUND: Data are lacking from general population studies on how to define changes in lung function after bronchodilation. This study aimed to analyze different measures of bronchodilator response of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and slow vital capacity (SVC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were derived from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study (SCAPIS) Pilot study. This analysis comprised 1,050 participants aged 50-64 years from the general population...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351789/comparative-effectiveness-of-step-up-therapies-in-children-with-asthma-prescribed-inhaled-corticosteroids-a-historical-cohort-study
#12
Clare S Murray, Mike Thomas, Kathryn Richardson, David B Price, Steve W Turner
BACKGROUND: In children with uncontrolled asthma prescribed low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), various step-up options are available: fixed-dose combination ICS/long-acting β2-agonist (FDC), increasing ICS dose, or adding leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). However, evidence of their relative effectiveness is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of step-up treatment to FDC in children with asthma versus increased ICS dose, or LTRA. METHODS: This matched cohort study used UK primary-care databases to study children prescribed their first step-up treatment to FDC, increased ICS dose, or LTRA...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347847/dry-powder-inhaler-performance-of-spray-dried-mannitol-with-tailored-surface-morphologies-as-carrier-and-salbutamol-sulphate
#13
M Mönckedieck, J Kamplade, P Fakner, N A Urbanetz, P Walzel, H Steckel, R Scherließ
Nowadays, dry powder inhalation as applied in the therapy of pulmonary diseases is known as a very effective route of drug delivery to the lungs. Here, the system of coarse carrier and fine drug particles attached to the carrier surface has successfully been applied to overcome the cohesiveness of small drug particles. Particle properties of both carrier and drug are known to affect drug dispersion as has widely been discussed for lactose monohydrate and various drugs. This study utilises particle-engineered mannitol as an alternative carrier to discover the effect of mannitol carrier particle properties like particle shape, surface roughness, flowability or particle size on aerodynamic performance during inhalation...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330941/nurse-driven-clinical-pathway-for-inpatient-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Catherine M Pound, Victoria Gelt, Salwa Akiki, Kaylee Eady, Katherine Moreau, Franco Momoli, Barbara Murchison, Roger Zemek, Brett Mulholland, Tom Kovesi
OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a nurse-driven clinical pathway on length of stay (LOS) for children hospitalized with asthma. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving children hospitalized with asthma. Nurses of children in the intervention group weaned salbutamol frequency using an asthma scoring tool, whereas physicians weaned salbutamol frequency for the control group patients as per standard care. The primary outcome was LOS in hours...
March 22, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328824/early-use-of-noninvasive-techniques-for-clearing-respiratory-secretions-during-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-hypercapnic-encephalopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Jinrong Wang, Zhaobo Cui, Shuhong Liu, Xiuling Gao, Pan Gao, Yi Shi, Shufen Guo, Peipei Li
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327457/beta2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-haplotypes-and-bronchodilator-response-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Mohammad H Hussein, Khaled E Sobhy, Irene M Sabry, Ahmed T El Serafi, Eman A Toraih
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-factorial disorder caused by environmental determinants and genetic risk factors. Understanding the genetic predisposition of COPD is essential to develop personalized treatment regimens. Beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. This study was conducted to assess the genetic association between Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms and COPD in the Egyptian patients, and to analyze their impact on the clinical outcome and therapeutic response...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322048/residues-of-salbutamol-and-identification-of-its-metabolites-in-beef-cattle
#17
Kai Zhang, Chaohua Tang, Qingshi Meng, Wei Du, Tao Bo, Qingyu Zhao, Xiaowei Liang, Shengsheng Liu, Zhixu Zhang, Junmin Zhang
Salbutamol, a selective β2-agonist, endangers the safety of animal products because of its illegal use in food animals. In this work, residues of salbutamol and its metabolites were investigated to select appropriate targets and marker residues for monitoring the illegal use of salbutamol. Ten metabolites of salbutamol were identified from plasma, urine, liver, and kidney samples; of these, six were newly identified. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the parent (nonconjugated) and total (conjugated + nonconjugated) salbutamol concentrations in plasma, urine, liver, and kidney tissues...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318879/evidences-for-salbutamol-metabolism-by-respiratory-and-liver-cell-lines
#18
Titpawan Nakpheng, Supreedee Songkarak, Tan Suwandecha, Rutthapol Sritharadol, Charisopon Chunhachaichana, Teerapol Srichana
This study aimed to investigate the enantiomeric biotransformation of salbutamol in the human respiratory and liver cells. The cells from the different cell growth cycles were treated with various concentrations of salbutamol sulfate. Salbutamol and its metabolites were analyzed using chiral liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. There were no metabolites of salbutamol found in the extracellular medium, intracellular, and cell lysate of respiratory cell lines. The S/R ratios of salbutamol were found to be 0...
November 17, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302974/effect-of-the-chain-length-of-a-modified-layer-and-surface-roughness-of-an-electrode-on-impedimetric-immunosensors
#19
Chia-Hung Lin, Ming-Jie Lin, Ching-Chou Wu
An ultrasensitive label-free impedimetric immunosensor is constructed by modifying a 3-mercaptoproponic acid (MPA) monolayer on highly rough gold nanostructure (AuNS)-electrodeposited screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of small molecular weight drugs (SMWDs), such as salbutamol (SAL). The SPCEs preoxidized in a 0.1 M H2SO4 solution (called po-SPCEH2SO4) are electrodeposited with the AuNS to increase the roughness factor to 23.64 ± 1.76, larger than the AuNS/po-SPCENaOH or the AuNS/po-SPCEPBS...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294577/the-enigma-of-inhaled-salbutamol-and-sport-unresolved-after-45-years
#20
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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