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Kung-Jong Lui
Under the three-treatment three-period crossover design with simple carry-over effects, we derive the least-squares estimators for period effects, treatment effects and carry-over effects, as well as their covariance matrix in closed and explicit expressions. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we compare the test procedure adjusting carry-over with that ignoring carry-over with respect to Type I error and power. We further compare interval estimators adjusting carry-over with those ignoring carry-over with respect to the coverage probability and the average length...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biostatistics
Giulia Milano, Stefania Chiappini, Francesca Mattioli, Antonietta Martelli, Fabrizio Schifano
A recent years' increase in misusing levels of image- and performance- enhancing drugs (IPEDs) has been observed. Out of these drugs, beta-2 agonists have recently emerged for their potential of misuse, especially for slimming and bodybuilding purposes. To this perspective, clenbuterol ('the size zero pill') has been reported as being both popular and widely available from the illegal market. All clenbuterol and salbutamol misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal/overdose/off-label spontaneous reports (2006-2016) from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) EudraVigilance (EV) database were collected and analysed by age range, gender, concomitant therapies and source of information...
March 2, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Samuel L Sidharta, Timothy J Baillie, Stuart Howell, Stephen J Nicholls, Natalie Montarello, Satoshi Honda, Daisuke Shishikura, Sinny Delacroix, Susan Kim, John F Beltrame, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen G Worthley, Matthew I Worthley
OBJECTIVE: Coronary vasodilator function and atherosclerotic plaque progression have both been shown to be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between these factors and the lipid burden of coronary plaque remains unknown. These experiments focus on investigating the relationship between impaired coronary vasodilator function (endothelium dependent (salbutamol) and endothelium independent (glyceryl trinitrate)) and the natural history of atheroma plaque progression and lipid burden using dual modality intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging...
March 1, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
David M P van Meenen, Sophia M van der Hoeven, Jan M Binnekade, Corianne A J M de Borgie, Maruschka P Merkus, Frank H Bosch, Henrik Endeman, Jasper J Haringman, Nardo J M van der Meer, Hazra S Moeniralam, Mathilde Slabbekoorn, Marcella C A Muller, Willemke Stilma, Bart van Silfhout, Ary Serpa Neto, Hans F M Ter Haar, Jan Van Vliet, Jan Willem Wijnhoven, Janneke Horn, Nicole P Juffermans, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J Schultz, Frederique Paulus
Importance: It remains uncertain whether nebulization of mucolytics with bronchodilators should be applied for clinical indication or preventively in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving invasive ventilation. Objective: To determine if a strategy that uses nebulization for clinical indication (on-demand) is noninferior to one that uses preventive (routine) nebulization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial enrolling adult patients expected to need invasive ventilation for more than 24 hours at 7 ICUs in the Netherlands...
February 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Matthew L Bradshaw, Alexandre Déragon, Pramod Puligandla, Guillaume Emeriaud, Anne-Marie Canakis, Patricia S Fontela
OBJECTIVE: To describe management practices and the factors guiding admission and treatment decisions for viral bronchiolitis across Canadian pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Canadian PICUs. SUBJECTS: Pediatric intensivists. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A survey using two case scenarios (non-intubated vs intubated patients) was developed using focus groups and a literature review...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Antti J Tikkakoski, Pauliina Kangas, Lauri Suojanen, Anna M Tahvanainen, Arttu Eräranta, Mika A P Kähönen, Kalle Sipilä, Jukka T Mustonen, Ilkka H Pörsti
The change in augmentation index following salbutamol inhalation has been applied to evaluate endothelial function. We examined the contribution of salbutamol-induced increase in heart rate to the observed decrease in augmentation index. Haemodynamics were recorded using whole body impedance cardiography and continuous pulse-wave analysis from tonometric radial blood pressure. All subjects (n=335, mean age 46, body mass index 26, 48% men) were without medications with cardiovascular influences. The effects of salbutamol inhalation (0...
February 24, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Md Mustafezur Rahman, Parash Ullah, Abdul Mumith Ruhan, Md Shafiqul Bari, M M Jahangir Alam, Md Moyeen Uddin, Shomik Maruf, Md Ismail Patwary, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute organophosphorus (OP) insecticide poisoning is difficult, with many patients dying despite best care. Pre-clinical studies have shown benefit from salbutamol, possibly due speeding alveolar fluid clearance or reducing bronchoconstriction. In this small pilot dose-response study, we aimed to explore whether addition of nebulized salbutamol to standard care might improve resuscitation. METHODS: We performed a single-blind phase II study comparing the effect of two different doses of nebulized salbutamol versus saline placebo, in addition to standard treatment...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Grace McMacken, Dan Cox, Andreas Roos, Juliane Müller, Roger Whittaker, Hanns Lochmüller
Inherited defects of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) comprise an increasingly diverse range of disorders, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). Therapies acting on the sympathetic nervous system, including the selective β2 adrenergic agonist salbutamol and the α and β adrenergic agonist ephedrine, have become standard treatment for several types of CMS. However, the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of sympathomimetics in these disorders is not understood. Here, we examined the effect of salbutamol on NMJ development using zebrafish with deficiency of the key postsynaptic proteins Dok-7 and MuSK...
February 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Mohamed Anwar Hammad, Balamurugan Tangiisuran, Abeer Mohamed Kharshid, Noorizan Abdul-Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Nor Azizah Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Elsayed
Context: The literature of drug-drug interaction (DDI)-related uncontrolled causality, and preventability of DDI-induced UCG (HbA1c >7%) in outpatients glycemia (UCG) among outpatients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is still limited. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence, mechanism, severity, with Type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang General Hospital. Methods: A computerized system for DDI checking was used to assess the severity and mechanism of DDIs...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Mona G Arafa, Bassam M Ayoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Li Zhang, Guangyin Huang, Long Jin, Shuhua Han
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of tiotropium bromide on asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 patients with moderate persistent asthma were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40): the 3 control groups were given fluticasone propionate aerosol (group A), salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group B), and tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group C), respectively, and the experimental group received tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol (group D) and salbutamol was used to relieve symptoms when necessary...
February 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Paulo Vinicius F da Costa, Rejane Maria P da Silva, Hugo B Suffredini, Wendel A Alves
This work describes the electro polymerization of a poly-L-arginine film onto boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces. The morphological and electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes were studied by atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods, and their potential for terbutaline sulfate (TBS) detection was determined by voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Our results demonstrate that the electrochemical surface area of both uncoated-bare electrodes (GCE e BDD) did not have significant differences in performance...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Alice Bonanni, Marta Calatroni, Matteo D'Alessandro, Sara Signa, Enrica Bertelli, Michela Cioni, Eddi Di Marco, Roberto Biassoni, Gianluca Caridi, Giulia Ingrasciotta, Roberta Bertelli, Armando Di Donato, Maurizio Bruschi, Alberto Canepa, Giorgio Piaggio, Pietro Ravani, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
AIMS: Anti-CD20 antibodies are increasingly being used to treat idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children. While they may allow steroid and calcineurin-inhibitor withdrawal, repeated infusions of anti-CD20 antibodies are often required to maintain remission. Data on their potential toxicity in INS are needed to consider repeated infusions. METHODS: We reported data on side effects related to the use of rituximab (a chimeric anti-body; 130 pts) and ofatumumab (a humanized anti-body; 37 pts) in children with INS (steroid-dependent and steroid/calcineurin-inhibitor dependent disease) treated in a national referral center during a 9-year period (400 treatments; follow-up 1-9 years)...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Omar S Usmani, Martyn F Biddiscombe, Shuying Yang, Sally Meah, Eunice Oballa, Juliet K Simpson, William A Fahy, Richard P Marshall, Pauline T Lukey, Toby M Maher
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate total and regional lung delivery of salbutamol in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: The TOPICAL study was a 4-period, partially-randomised, controlled, crossover study to investigate four aerosolised approaches in IPF subjects. Nine subjects were randomised to receive 99mTechnetium-labelled monodisperse salbutamol (1.5 μm or 6 μm; periods 1 and 2). Subjects also received radio-labelled salbutamol using a polydisperse nebuliser (period 3) and unlabelled salbutamol (400 μg) using a polydisperse pressurized metered dose inhaler with volumatic spacer (pMDI; period 4)...
February 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
Soledad Paola Rossi, Lena Walenta, Verónica Rey-Ares, Frank-Michael Köhn, J Ullrich Schwarzer, Harald Welter, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Artur Mayerhofer
Stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and is linked to impaired fertility in man. We hypothesized that catecholamines by acting on testicular cells have a role in these events, possibly by fostering an inflammatory environment. The cells of the wall of seminiferous tubules, human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), express adrenergic receptors (ADRs) α1B, α1D, β1 and β2. A selective α1-ADR agonist, phenylephrine, increased intracellular Ca2+-levels in cultured HTPCs and induced COX-2, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression without affecting IL-1β mRNA...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Qinhong Kang, Xiaoying Zhang, Shanjuan Liu, Fang Huang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the correlation between the vitamin D (VitD) levels and asthma attack in children, and to evaluate the effects of combination therapy of atomization inhalation of budesonide, albuterol and VitD supplementation on asthmatic children. The total sample size comprised of 96 children with asthma from the time period between May 2015 to April 2016. At the same time, 96 healthy children were also selected from the physical examination center for comparison study. The levels of serum VitD in both groups were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hacer Durmus, Xin-Ming Shen, Piraye Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Bulent Kara, Yesim Parman-Gulsen, Coskun Ozdemir, Joan Brengman, Feza Deymeer, Andrew G Engel
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of hereditary disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Here, we present clinical, electrophysiological and genetic findings of 69 patients from 51 unrelated kinships from Turkey. Genetic tests of 60 patients were performed at Mayo Clinic. Median follow-up time was 9.8 years (range 1-22 years). The most common CMS was primary acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency (31/51) and the most common mutations in AChR were c.1219 + 2T > G (12/51) and c...
November 28, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Mariana Santos, Simão Cruz, João Peres, Luís Santos, Purificação Tavares, Jorge Pinto Basto, Vasco Salgado, Ana Herrero Valverde
DOK7 congenital myasthenic syndrome (DOK7-CMS) generally presents early in life and is treated with salbutamol or ephedrine. This report describes an atypical case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with proximal upper limb weakness in the third trimester of pregnancy and was initially diagnosed with seronegative myasthenia gravis. Dramatic clinical worsening under pyridostigmine and further inefficacy of steroids, intravenous human immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasma exchange (PLEX) led to the presumptive diagnosis of a CMS...
December 13, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Julien Laurent, Michel Guinot, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Mathieu Marillier, Julie Larribaut, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Ergogenic effect in physically active subjects has been reported following acute salbutamol (SAL) intake. β2-agonists have potential stimulant effects within the central nervous system that could be involved in this ergogenic effect. We hypothesized that acute SAL intake would induce changes in cerebral responses during exercise, with significant improvement in cerebral oxygenation and voluntary activation (VA) contributing to an increase in muscle performance. METHODS: Fourteen trained male subjects (25 ± 5 years) performed repeated isometric knee extensions until task failure (TF) following 4 mg (oral) SAL, 800 μg (inhaled) SAL, or placebo intake...
January 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mari Akagawa, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara
Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is formed as a by-product of glycolysis and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including diabetic retinopathy. However, it remains to be determined how methylglyoxal affects the regulatory mechanisms of retinal blood flow. In this study, we examined the effects of methylglyoxal on β2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms in rat retinal arterioles. The retinal vasodilator responses were assessed by measuring the diameter of retinal arterioles in the fundus images...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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