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Luca Carena, Mariagrazia Proto, Marco Minella, Giovanni Ghigo, Cristina Giovannoli, Marcello Brigante, Gilles Mailhot, Valter Maurino, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione
The secondary pollutant 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is produced by the biological degradation of several herbicides, including propanil in paddy fields. The enzymatic hydrolysis of propanil yields DCA with almost quantitative yield. DCA undergoes rather fast photodegradation in paddy water, mostly by direct photolysis. An exception might be represented by the cases (rather rare in paddies) of quite high nitrate concentration (around 50 mgNO3- L-1), when DCA degradation by CO3·- would play a comparable role as the direct photolysis...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Alberto Martini, Akriti Gupta, Sara C Lewis, Shivaram Cumarasamy, Kenneth G Haines, Alberto Briganti, Francesco Montorsi, Ash K Tewari
OBJECTIVES: To develop a nomogram for predicting side-specific extracapsular extension (ECE) for planning nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 561 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy between February 2014 and October 2015. To develop a side-specific predictive model, we considered the prostatic lobes separately. Four variables were included: PSA, highest ipsilateral biopsy Gleason grade, highest ipsilateral percentage core involvement and ECE on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)...
April 19, 2018: BJU International
Fan Dong, Yifan Shen, Fengbin Gao, Xiao Shi, Tianyuan Xu, Xianjin Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Shan Zhong, Minguang Zhang, Shanwen Chen, Zhoujun Shen
Objectives: To develop reliable nomograms to estimate individualized overall survival (OS) and cancer specific survival (CSS) for patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) and compare the predictive value with the AJCC stages. Patients and Methods: 582 eligible SCCB patients identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset were randomly divided into training (n=482) and validation (n=100) cohorts. Akaike information criterion was used to select the clinically important variables in multivariate Cox models when establishing nomograms...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie Louise Davey, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud
Analysis of microbial community structure by multivariate ordination methods, using data obtained by high throughput sequencing of amplified markers (i.e., DNA metabarcoding), often requires clustering of DNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Parameters for the clustering procedure tend not to be justified but are set by tradition rather than being based on explicit knowledge. In this study, we explore the extent to which ordination results are affected by variation in parameter settings for the clustering procedure...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Nai-Fang Chi, Cheng-Yen Wang, Lung Chan, Han-Hwa Hu
We compared the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) indices between 5- and 10-minute data lengths by analyzing 37 patients with ischemic stroke and 51 controls in this study. Correlation coefficient ( Mx ) and transfer function analysis were applied for dCA analysis. Mx and phase shift in all frequency bands were not significantly different between 5- and 10-minute recordings [mean difference: Mx = 0.02; phase shift of very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) = 0.3°, low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) = 0.6°, and high frequency (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jenghwa Chang, A Gabriella Wernicke, Susan C Pannullo
Purpose/Objectives: In stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the multiple isocenters for multiple targets dynamic conformal arc (MIMT DCA) technique is traditionally used to treat multiple brain metastases, with one isocenter for each target. The single isocenter for multiple targets (SIMT) technique has recently been adopted to reduce the treatment time at the cost of plan quality. The objective of this study was to develop a restricted single isocenter for multiple targets DCA (RSIMT DCA) technique that can significantly reduce the treatment time but still maintain similar plan quality as the MIMT DCA technique...
2018: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
Rune E Kuhre, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Olav Larsen, Sara L Jepsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Daniel B Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Kristina Schoonjans, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Reidar Albrechtsen, Bolette Hartmann, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Teresa Cunha-Oliveira, Luciana L Ferreira, Ana Raquel Coelho, Cláudia M Deus, Paulo J Oliveira
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer drug that could be even more effective if its clinical dosage was not limited because of delayed cardiotoxicity. Beating stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are a preferred in vitro model to further uncover the mechanisms of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objective was to use cultured induced-pluripotent stem cell(iPSC)-derived mouse cardiomyocytes (Cor.At) to investigate the effects of DOX on cell and mitochondrial metabolism, as well as on stress responses. Non-proliferating and beating Cor...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Juliana R Caldas, Ronney B Panerai, Angela S M Salinet, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Filomena R B G Galas, Graziela S R Ferreira, Ligia Camara, Rogerio Hora Passos, Juliano P Almeida, Ricardo C Nogueira, Marcelo de Lima Oliveira M, Thompson G Robinson, Ludhmila A Hajjar
BACKGROUND: The incidence of neurological complications, including stroke and cognitive dysfunction is elevated in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction. We hypothesized that the cerebrovascular response to isometric handgrip (iHG) is altered in HF patients. METHODS: Adults with HF and healthy volunteers were included. Cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, middle cerebral artery) and arterial blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were continuously recorded supine for 6 minutes, corresponding to one min baseline, three min of iHG exercise, at 30% maximum voluntary contraction, followed by two min of recovery...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jack Guinan, Pedro Villa, Shankar Thangamani
Candida albicans is one of the most common causes of fungal infections in humans with a significant mortality rate. However, the factors involved in C. albicans gastrointestinal (GI) colonization remain unclear. We hypothesize that secondary bile acids have direct antifungal activity against C. albicans and may play a critical role in maintaining GI colonization resistance against C. albicans. In this study, we investigated the effect of secondary bile acids including lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on C...
April 10, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Stephan C Jahn, Marci G Smeltz, Zhiwei Hu, Laura Rowland-Faux, Guo Zhong, Ryan J Lorenzo, Katherine V Cisneros, Peter W Stacpoole, Margaret O James
Biotransformation of dichloroacetate (DCA) to glyoxylate by hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) is considered the principal determinant of the rate of plasma clearance of the drug. However, several other organismal and subcellular factors are also known to influence DCA metabolism. We utilized a female rat model to study these poorly understood processes. Rats aged 4 weeks (young) and 42 to 52 weeks (adult) were used to model children and adults, respectively. Hepatic chloride concentrations, which influence the rate of GSTZ1 inactivation by DCA, were lower in rat than in human tissues and rats did not show the age dependence previously seen in humans...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Una Ørvim Sølvik, Aslaug Johanne Risøy, Reidun L S Kjome, Sverre Sandberg
BACKGROUND: Many pharmacy services involve laboratory testing using point-of-care (POC) instruments. Our aim was to describe the implementation of quality control of the HbA1c POC instruments and investigate the performance in internal quality control (IQC) and external quality control (EQA) for HbA1c POC instruments in Norwegian community pharmacies. METHODS: Two project pharmacists from each of 11 pharmacies participated in a training program covering capillary blood sampling, how to use the POC HbA1c instrument (DCA Vantage) and IQC and EQA...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
C Beinke, M Port, R Ullmann, K Gilbertz, M Majewski, M Abend
Dicentric chromosome analysis (DCA) is the gold standard for individual radiation dose assessment. However, DCA is limited by the time-consuming phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-mediated lymphocyte activation. In this study using human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we investigated PHA-associated whole genome gene expression changes to elucidate this process and sought to identify suitable gene targets as a means of meeting our long-term objective of accelerating cell cycle kinetics to reduce DCA culture time. Human peripheral whole blood from three healthy donors was separately cultured in RPMI/FCS/antibiotics with BrdU and PHA-M...
April 3, 2018: Radiation Research
Yan Shi, Dong-Mei Sun, Jing Xiong, Feng Wei, Shuang-Cheng Ma
An HPLC-ELSD method for quantitation of GCANa, CA, HDCA, CDCA and DCA in artificial cow-bezoar was developed in this study. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Wondasil CC₁₈(4.6 mmχ250 mm,5 μm) column at a column temperature of 25 °C and liquid flow-rate of 1.0 mL·min⁻¹. Acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid solution were used as mobile phase with a linear gradient and injection volume was 10 μL. An ELSD was used with a nitrogen flow-rate of 2.3 L·h⁻¹at a drift tube temperature of 110 °C...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Wen-Li Yuan, Xiao Yang, Ling He, Ying Xue, Song Qin, Guo-Hong Tao
The instructive structure-property relationships of ionic liquids (ILs) can be put to task-specific design of new functionalized ILs. The dicyanamide (DCA) ILs are typical CHN type ILs which are halogen free, chemical stable, low-viscous, and fuel-rich. The transport properties of DCA ionic liquids are significant for their applications as solvents, electrolytes, and hypergolic propellants. This work systematically investigates several important transport properties of four DCA ILs ([C4 mim][N(CN)2 ], [C4 m2 im][N(CN)2 ], N4442 [N(CN)2 ], and N8444 [N(CN)2 ]) including viscosity, conductivity, and electrochemical property at different temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Nuno Pereira-Azevedo, Jan F M Verbeek, Daan Nieboer, Chris H Bangma, Monique J Roobol
Background: Multivariable risk calculators (RCs) predicting prostate cancer (PCa) aim to reduce unnecessary workup (e.g., MRI and biopsy) by selectively identifying those men at risk for PCa or clinically significant PCa (csPCa) (Gleason ≥7). The lack of an adequate comparison makes choosing between RCs difficult for patients, clinicians and guideline developers. We aim to perform a head-to-head comparison of seven well known RCs predicting biopsy outcome. Methods: Our study comprised 7,119 men from ten independent contemporary cohorts in Europe and Australia, who underwent prostate biopsy between 2007 and 2015...
February 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Dae Ki Hong, A Ra Kho, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Sang Hwon Lee, Kyoung-Ha Park, Jae-Bong Park, Sang Won Suh
Transient cerebral ischemia (TCI) occurs when blood flow to the brain is ceased or dramatically reduced. TCI causes energy depletion and oxidative stress, which leads to neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) acts as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Additionally, DCA is known to increase mitochondrial pyruvate uptake and promotes glucose oxidation during glycolysis, thus enhancing pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of PDK activity by DCA, which increases the rate of pyruvate conversion to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), prevents ischemia-induced neuronal death...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexandr V Ilyaskin, Sonja A Kirsch, Rainer A Böckmann, Heinrich Sticht, Christoph Korbmacher, Silke Haerteis, Alexei Diakov
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. It is activated by bile acids and inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ . The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. The modulation of BASIC function by extracellular Ca2+ and tauro-deoxycholic acid (t-DCA) was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing human BASIC using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and outside-out patch-clamp techniques. Substitution of aspartate D444 to alanine or cysteine in the degenerin region of BASIC, a region known to be critically involved in channel gating, resulted in a substantial reduction of BASIC Ca2+ sensitivity...
March 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Ingrid D Dos Santos, Ionara R Pizzutti, Jonatan V Dias, Marlos E Z Fontana, Auri Brackmann, Rogério O Anese, Fabio R Thewes, Leandro N Marques, Carmem D Cardoso
The goal of this study was to evaluate patulin contamination in 'Galaxy' and 'Fuji Kiku' apples subjected to controlled atmosphere (CA) and dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) conditions. Experiments were performed and fruit were stored for nine months under refrigeration plus 7 days shelf life at 20 °C. CA and DCA were not effective in preventing patulin production in either 'Galaxy' or 'Fuji Kiku' apples. Healthy fruit were not contaminated with patulin, even when stored together with decayed apples...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Shan Lv, Zhen-Ni Guo, Hang Jin, Xin Sun, Meiyan Jia, Hongyin Ma, Yudan Lv, Quanli Qiu, Jia Liu, Yi Yang
Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in patients with epilepsy. Methods: One hundred patients with epilepsy and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Noninvasive continuous cerebral blood flow velocity of the bilateral middle artery and arterial blood pressure were recorded. Transfer function analyses were used to analyze the autoregulatory parameters (phase difference and gain). Results: The overall phase difference of patients with epilepsy was significantly lower than that of the healthy control group ( p = 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
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