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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350976/neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-common-bile-duct-case-report
#1
C Raspanti, N Falco, V Silvestri, G Rotolo, S Bonventre, G Gulotta
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a very heterogeneous group of neoplasms; in recent years we have seen an increase in their incidence (3.65 /100.000/year). They can be associated with hereditary endocrine syndromes (MEN, Von Hippel Lindau); they can occur at any age and the incidence is slightly higher in men than women. The aetiology of the neuroendocrine tumors is unclear; in most cases, inflammation of the bile ducts may be the underlying cause and for this reason, the initial patient's evaluation should be focused on the different aspects concerning the oncological one and the possible sequelae of the biliary obstructions that can evolve in biliary sepsis...
November 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350710/physical-chemistry-of-bile-detailed-pathogenesis-of-cholelithiasis
#2
Malak Itani, Theodore J Dubinsky
Despite the overwhelming prevalence of cholelithiasis, many health care professionals are not familiar with the basic pathophysiology of gallstone formation. This article provides an overview of the biochemical pathways related to bile, with a focus on the physical chemistry of bile. We describe the important factors in bile synthesis and secretion that affect the composition of bile and consequently its liquid state. Within this biochemical background lies the foundation for understanding the clinical and sonographic manifestation of cholelithiasis, including the pathophysiology of cholesterol crystallization, gallbladder sludge, and gallstones...
March 27, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345673/sex-dependent-effects-on-gut-microbiota-regulate-hepatic-carcinogenic-outcomes
#3
Guoxiang Xie, Xiaoning Wang, Aihua Zhao, Jingyu Yan, Wenlian Chen, Runqiu Jiang, Junfang Ji, Fengjie Huang, Yunjing Zhang, Sha Lei, Kun Ge, Xiaojiao Zheng, Cynthia Rajani, Rosanna A Alegado, Jiajian Liu, Ping Liu, Jeremy Nicholson, Wei Jia
Emerging evidence points to a strong association between sex and gut microbiota, bile acids (BAs), and gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we investigated the mechanistic link between microbiota and hepatocellular carcinogenesis using a streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) murine model and compared results for both sexes. STZ-HFD feeding induced a much higher incidence of HCC in male mice with substantially increased intrahepatic retention of hydrophobic BAs and decreased hepatic expression of tumor-suppressive microRNAs...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345209/high-olfactory-sensitivity-to-conspecific-intestinal-fluid-in-the-chameleon-cichlid-australoheros-facetus-could-faeces-signal-dominance
#4
P C Hubbard, F Baduy, J L Saraiva, P M Guerreiro, A V M Canário
The present study shows that the olfactory potency of intestinal and bile fluids taken from dominant male chameleon cichlids Australoheros facetus is greater than those from subordinate males. Thus, dominant status may be communicated by odorants released in the intestinal fluid and bile acids may contribute towards this.
March 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344983/effects-of-bile-acids-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells-implications-for-aerodigestive-diseases
#5
Adil Aldhahrani, Bernard Verdon, Chris Ward, Jeffery Pearson
Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration have been associated with chronic and end-stage lung disease and with allograft injury following lung transplantation. This raises the possibility that bile acids may cause lung injury by damaging airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bile acid challenge using the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was cultured. A 48-h challenge evaluated the effect of individual primary and secondary bile acids...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344685/focal-biliary-system-obstruction-and-atypical-liver-mass-intrabiliary-ruptured-cyst-hydatid-case-report
#6
Esra Ummuhan Mermi, Nurdan Fidan, Muammer Murat
BACKGROUND: Hydatid disease can involve any part of the body, but the liver is the most frequently affected organ. Intrabiliary rupture is one of the most serious complications of a hepatic hydatid cyst. Radiological findings, especially magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP), are helpful in the diagnosis of hydatid disease. CASE REPORT: We present a 48-year-old female patient with complaints of abdominal pain and jaundice...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344557/dissecting-target-toxic-tissue-and-tissue-specific-responses-of-irinotecan-in-rats-using-metabolomics-approach
#7
Yiran Yao, Pei Zhang, Jing Wang, Jiaqing Chen, Yong Wang, Yin Huang, Zunjian Zhang, Fengguo Xu
As an anticancer agent, irinotecan (CPT-11) has been widely applied in clinical, especially in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, its clinical use has long been limited by the side effects and potential tissue toxicity. To discriminate the target toxic tissues and dissect the specific response of target tissues after CPT-11 administration in rats, untargeted metabolomic study was conducted. First, differential metabolites between CPT-11 treated group and control group in each tissue were screened out...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344104/antimicrobial-medium-and-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-prevent-prfa-dependent-activation-of-virulence-genes-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#8
Eva Maria Sternkopf Lillebæk, Stine Lambert Nielsen, Rikke Scheel Thomasen, Nils J Færgeman, Birgitte H Kallipolitis
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344051/massive-biliary-dilation-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-is-it-ampullary-achalasia
#9
Jeffrey L Ponsky, Noble Jones, John H Rodriguez, Matthew D Kroh, Andrew T Strong
BACKGROUND: This series of patients with a history of roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and cholecystectomy presented with symptoms consistent with obstructive biliary disease and massive biliary dilation of 15 mm or greater, suggesting a structural etiology. Findings from laparoscopic assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (TGERCP) were a normal appearing ampulla without structural lesions or stones, suggesting a functional etiology, instead. STUDY DESIGN: Patients who underwent TGERCP from January 2008 to October 2016 and had a previous surgical history of RYGB and cholecystectomy were identified from an institutional database...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343411/3d-liver-surgery-simulation-computer-assisted-surgical-planning-with-3d-simulation-software-and-3d-printing
#10
Yukio Oshiro, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS...
March 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343205/-biliary-atresia-signs-and-symptoms-diagnosis-clinical-management
#11
Ewa Orłowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Piotr Socha
Biliary atresia is a chronic cholangiopathy leading to progressive fibrosis of both intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The cause of the condition is unknown. Fundamental management of biliary atresia is surgical intervention and the outcomes of the treatment depend on the child's age with best results when performed within the first 2 months of life. Thus, the main role of pediatric healthcare is an urgent differential diagnosis and prompt qualification for the surgery, optimal postoperative management and early qualification for the liver transplantation in patients with persistent cholestasis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342710/emerging-role-of-chemoprotective-agents-in-the-dynamic-shaping-of-plasma-membrane-organization
#12
REVIEW
Natividad R Fuentes, Michael L Salinas, Eunjoo Kim, Robert S Chapkin
In the context of an organism, epithelial cells by nature are designed to be the defining barrier between self and the outside world. This is especially true for the epithelial cells that form the lining of the digestive tract, which absorb nutrients and serve as a barrier against harmful substances. These cells are constantly bathed by a complex mixture of endogenous (bile acids, mucus, microbial metabolites) and exogenous (food, nutrients, drugs) bioactive compounds. From a cell biology perspective, this type of exposure would directly impact the plasma membrane, which consists of a myriad of complex lipids and proteins...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342305/metabolic-profiling-of-nuciferine-in-rat-urine-plasma-bile-and-feces-after-oral-administration-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-diode-array-detection-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#13
Xiao-Lei Wu, Ming-Jiang Wu, Xin-Ze Chen, Hao-Ling Ma, Li-Qin Ding, Feng Qiu, Qin Pan, De-Qin Zhang
Nuciferine, a major alkaloid found in Nelumbinis Folium, exhibits a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as antiobesity, anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory. However, many research regarding nuciferine focused on the extraction, isolation and biological activity, the metabolism is not comprehensively explained in vivo. Thence, the present of this paper is to establish a simple method for speculating metabolites of nuciferine. A total of 15 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified through ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS), including 7 new metabolites...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342275/use-of-lc-qqq-ms-for-the-detection-of-emodin-metabolites-in-rat-bile-and-urine
#14
Songyan Wu, Yaqing Zhang, Zunjian Zhang, Rui Song
Emodin is the representative form of rhubarb, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiviral, etc. Previous reports demonstrated that emodin glucuronide was the major metabolite in plasma. Due to the extensive conjugation reactions of polyphenols, the aim of this study was to identify the metabolites of emodin in rat bile and urine. Neutral loss and precursor ion scan methods of triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed 13 conjugated metabolites in rat bile and 22 metabolites in rat urine, which including 4 phase I and 18 phase II metabolites...
March 25, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342102/the-value-of-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-mri-for-differentiation-between-hepatic-microabscesses-and-metastases-in-patients-with-periampullary-cancer
#15
Seo-Youn Choi, Young Kon Kim, Ji Hye Min, Dong Ik Cha, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Won Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify features that differentiate hepatic microabscess from hepatic metastasis on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with periampullary cancer. METHODS: We included 72 patients (31 patients with 83 hepatic microabscesses and 41 patients with 71 hepatic metastases) who had a history of periampullary cancer and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Image analysis was performed for margin, signal intensity, rim enhancement, perilesional hyperaemia, pattern on DWI and dynamic phases, and size discrepancy between sequences by consensus of two observers...
March 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341748/drug-induced-liver-injury-recent-advances-in-diagnosis-and-risk-assessment
#16
REVIEW
Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Raul J Andrade, Michael Merz, Peter End, Andreas Benesic, Alexander L Gerbes, Guruprasad P Aithal
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a rare but potentially severe adverse drug reaction that should be considered in patients who develop laboratory criteria for liver injury secondary to the administration of a potentially hepatotoxic drug. Although currently used liver parameters are sensitive in detecting DILI, they are neither specific nor able to predict the patient's subsequent clinical course. Genetic risk assessment is useful mainly due to its high negative predictive value, with several human leucocyte antigen alleles being associated with DILI...
March 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341659/chronic-microaspiration-of-bile-acids-induces-lung-fibrosis-through-multiple-mechanisms-in-rats
#17
Bi Chen, Wen Jie You, Xue Qing Liu, Shan Xue, Hui Qin, Han Dong Jiang
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and microaspiration of duodenogastric refluxate have been recognized as a risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis. Recent evidence implicates that bile acid microaspiration may contribute to the development of lung fibrosis. However, the molecular evidences are scarce and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that bile acids induce activation of alveolar epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts in vitro In this study, a rat model of bile acid microaspiration was established by weekly intratracheal instillation of three major bile acids including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) ...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340928/the-difficult-gall-bladder-outcomes-following-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-and-the-need-for-open-conversion
#18
A Ashfaq, K Ahmadieh, A A Shah, A B Chapital, K L Harold, D J Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Surgery for the difficult gallbladder (DGB) is associated with increased risk compared to more routine laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). Laparoscopic "damage control" methods including cholecystostomy, fundus-down approach and subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) have been proposed to avoid conversion to open. We hypothesized that a Total LC (TLC) for DBG can be completed safely with an acceptably low conversion rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients that underwent LC from January 2005-June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338651/dichotomy-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinomas-based-on-histologic-similarities-to-hilar-cholangiocarcinomas
#19
Masayuki Akita, Kohei Fujikura, Tetsuo Ajiki, Takumi Fukumoto, Kyoko Otani, Takeshi Azuma, Tomoo Itoh, Yonson Ku, Yoh Zen
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were classified into two types based on their microscopic appearance. Tumors with histologic similarities to hilar cholangiocarcinomas (predominantly ductal adenocarcinomas with minor tubular components, if present, restricted to the invasive front) were defined as the perihilar type, whereas the others were classified as peripheral cholangiocarcinomas. Among the 47 cases examined in the present study, 26 (55%) were classified as the perihilar type, whereas 21 (45%) were the peripheral type...
March 24, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338522/developments-in-intestinal-cholesterol-transport-and-triglyceride-absorption
#20
Yared Paalvast, Jan Freark de Boer, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent advances in research focused on intestinal lipid handling. RECENT FINDINGS: An important strategy in reducing atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular events is to increase the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, including its final step; cholesterol excretion from the body. The rate of removal is determined by a complex interplay between the factors involved in regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. One of these factors is a process known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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