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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243897/when-should-a-drain-be-left-in-the-abdominal-cavity-upon-surgery
#1
Mikael Laine, Panu Mentula, Laura Koskenvuo, Arno Nordin, Ville Sallinen
Passive or active drainage can be used after abdominal surgery. Drains aim at eradicating infected or inflammatory tissue fluids and to alarm of undesired events such as bile, pancreatic, or bowel leak. Drains may, however, occlude or be situated away from the postoperative dilemma. Furthermore, drains themselves are susceptible to cause or maintain infection by retrograde contamination, may irritate the peritoneum causing excess ascites formation, and cause pain. Recent scientific evidence suggests that drains are unnecessary after most abdominal operations...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242796/bilateral-femoral-neck-fractures-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-treated-by-hip-arthroplasties-the-first-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Witchuree Wejjakul, Swist Chatmaitri, Thongek Wattanarojanaporn, Anuwat Pongkunakorn, Chupong Ittiwut, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
Introduction: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease caused by mutations of the CYP27A1 gene and deficiency of the sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. It is characterized by the accumulation of cholestanol and bile alcohols in plasma, the formation of xanthomatous lesions in various tissues, and organ degeneration. This disorder is also associated with osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. To date, only two CTX patients with femoral neck fractures have been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241102/utility-of-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-for-recurrent-reflux-cholangitis-following-choledochojejunostomy-a-case-report
#4
Masateru Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tahara, Michinori Hamaoka, Seiichi Shimizu, Shintaro Kuroda, Masahiro Ohira, Kentaro Ide, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Hideki Ohdan
INTRODUCTION: Reflux cholangitis is a frequent complication of Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 68-year-old male underwent left lobectomy of the liver, bile duct resection and choledochojejunostomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma located in Segment 2 of the liver, 40mm in diameter with a lymph node metastasis 5 years ago. He had frequent recurrences of postoperative reflux cholangitis and hepatic abscesses and was treated with antibiotics each time...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240507/neonatal-jaundice-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Subhabrata Mitra, Janet Rennie
A significant proportion of term and preterm infants develop neonatal jaundice. Jaundice in an otherwise healthy term infant is the most common reason for readmission to hospital. Jaundice is caused by an increase in serum bilirubin levels, largely as a result of breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is conveyed in the blood as 'unconjugated' bilirubin, largely bound to albumin. The liver converts bilirubin into a conjugated form which is excreted in the bile. Very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240010/well-preserved-renal-function-in-children-with-untreated-chronic-liver-disease
#6
Ulla B Berg, Antal Németh
OBJECTIVES: Based on studies with hepatorenal syndrome, it is widely regarded that renal function is impacted in chronic liver disease. Therefore we investigated renal function in our children with chronic liver disease. METHODS: In a retrospective study of 277 children with chronic liver disease, renal function was investigated as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), measured as clearance of inulin and para-amino hippuric acid or clearance of iohexol...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239298/optimized-conditions-for-the-in-vitro-excystment-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-metacercariae
#7
Kathryn M Huson, Charlotte Wild, Caroline Fenn, Mark W Robinson
Paramphistomosis, caused by Calicophoron daubneyi, is an emerging infection of ruminants throughout Western Europe. Despite its prevalence, many questions remain regarding the basic biology of this parasite and how it interacts with its host. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods to study C. daubneyi in vitro to improve our understanding of rumen fluke biology. Towards this, we aimed to identify a suitable protocol for in vitro excystment of C. daubneyi metacercariae. Six methods that have been used to excyst metacercariae from a number of trematode species were tested with C...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239127/prognostic-predictability-of-the-new-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-8th-staging-system-for-distal-bile-duct-cancer-limited-usefulness-compared-with-the-7th-staging-system
#8
Jae Seung Kang, Seungyeoun Lee, Donghee Son, Youngmin Han, Kyung Bun Lee, Jae Ri Kim, Wooil Kwon, Sun-Whe Kim, Jin-Young Jang
BACKGROUND: The new 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging has recently been released and there are major changes in distal bile duct (DBD) cancer staging. However, clinical validation is needed before the changes can be widely implemented. METHODS: This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic predictability of the 8th AJCC staging compared with that of the 7th using C statistics. RESULTS: A total of 293 consecutive patients who had curative-intended surgery were enrolled...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239077/high-incidence-of-biliary-stricture-after-associating-liver-partition-and-portal-vein-ligation-for-staged-hepatectomy
#9
Srinivas Sanjeevi, Ernesto Sparrelid, Stefan Gilg, Eduard Jonas, Bengt Isaksson
BACKGROUND: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a two-stage procedure most frequently applied in the setting of an extended right-sided hemi-hepatectomy. Initial reports of high mortality have sparked debate regarding the safety and efficacy of the procedure. We describe a higher incidence of early post-operative bile duct strictures after ALPPS, a complication rarely seen after conventional liver resection. METHODS: An institutional review was conducted to assess the incidence of post-operative biliary strictures following conventional right-sided or extended right-sided hemi-hepatectomy and ALPPS...
December 14, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238888/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-bile-acid-amides-of-formula-see-text-cyanostilbenes-as-anticancer-agents
#10
Devesh S Agarwal, Rajnish Prakash Singh, K Lohitesh, Prabhat N Jha, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Rajeev Sakhuja
A series of amino-substituted [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene derivatives and their bile acid (cholic and deoxycholic acid) amides were designed and synthesized. A comparative study on the anticancer and antibacterial activity evaluation on the synthesized analogs was carried against the human osteosarcoma (HOS) cancer cell line, and two gram -ve (E. coli and S. typhi) and two gram [Formula: see text]ve (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacterial strains. All the cholic acid [Formula: see text]-cyanostilbene amides showed an [Formula: see text] in the range 2-13 [Formula: see text] against human osteosarcoma cells (HOS) with the most active analog (6g) possessing an [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238877/cryptogenic-cholestasis-in-young-and-adults-atp8b1-abcb11-abcb4-and-tjp2-gene-variants-analysis-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#11
Giovanni Vitale, Stefano Gitto, Francesco Raimondi, Alessandro Mattiaccio, Vilma Mantovani, Ranka Vukotic, Antonietta D'Errico, Marco Seri, Robert B Russell, Pietro Andreone
BACKGROUND: Mutations in ATP-transporters ATPB81, ABCB11, and ABCB4 are responsible for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) 1, 2 and 3, and recently the gene for tight junction protein-2 (TJP2) has been linked to PFIC4. AIM: As these four genes have been poorly studied in young people and adults, we investigated them in this context here. METHODS: In patients with cryptogenic cholestasis, we analyzed the presence of mutations by high-throughput sequencing...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238459/isolation-and-characterization-of-probiotics-from-dairies
#12
Babak Haghshenas, Yousef Nami, Ali Almasi, Norhafizah Abdullah, Dayang Radiah, Rozita Rosli, Abolfazl Barzegari, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
Background and Objectives: Probiotics are live microorganisms, which show beneficial health effects on hosts once consumed in sufficient amounts. LAB group can be isolated and characterized from traditional dairy sources. This study aimed at isolating, identifying, and in vitro characterizing (low pH/high bile salt tolerance, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility) LAB strains from traditional Iranian dairy products. Materials and Methods: Isolated strains were identified by Gram staining, catalase assay, and 3 molecular identification methods; namely, (GTG) 5-PCR fingerprinting, ARDRA, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238458/bacteriocinogenic-potential-and-virulence-traits-of-enterococcus-faecium-and-e-faecalis-isolated-from-human-milk
#13
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
Background and Objectives: Human milk is a continuous supply of Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB), including enterococci with probiotic potentials. The aim of this study was to analyze two Enterococcus species, isolated from human milk for their probiotic potential, bacteriocin producing ability and virulence traits. Materials and Methods: Enterococcus faecium TA0033 and E. faecalis TA102 were tested for acid and bile tolerance, survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237721/rev-erba-regulates-cyp7a1-through-repression-of-liver-receptor-homolog-1
#14
Tianpeng Zhang, Mengjing Zhao, Danyi Lu, Shuai Wang, Fangjun Yu, Lianxia Guo, Shijun Wen, Baojian Wu
REV-ERBα is a nuclear heme receptor (as known as a transcriptional repressor) that orchestrates circadian rhythms and cell metabolism. Here we investigate the role of LRH-1 in REV-ERBα regulation of CYP7A1 and cholesterol metabolism. We first characterized the tertiary amine GSK2945 as a highly specific Rev-erbα/REV-ERBα antagonist using cell-based assays and confirmed expression of Rev-erbα in mouse liver. GSK2945 treatment increased hepatic Cyp7a1 level and lowered plasma cholesterol in wild-type mice...
December 13, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235899/metabolic-profiles-of-corydaline-in-rats-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#15
Liwei Chai, Paul Owusu Donkor, Kun Wang, Yingjie Sun, Mahmood Brobbey Oppong, Kai Wang, Liqin Ding, Feng Qiu
Corydaline, an isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from the rhizomes of Corydalis yanhusuo, exhibits anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-angiogenic, anti-allergic and gastric emptying activities. In this study, a rapid and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) method was developed and employed for the comprehensive study of the metabolites of corydaline in rats. Altogether, 43 metabolites were identified in the plasma (11), bile (9), urine (34) and feces (21) of rats after oral administration of corydaline at a dose of 4...
December 13, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235891/lipid-biomarkers-for-the-peroxisomal-and-lysosomal-disorders-their-formation-metabolism-and-measurement
#16
Ryuichi Mashima, Masamitsu Maekawa
Lipid biomarkers play important roles in the diagnosis of and monitoring of treatment in peroxisomal disorders and lysosomal storage disorders. Today, a variety of lipids, including very long chain fatty acids, glycolipids, bile acids and the oxidation products of cholesterol, have been considered as biomarkers for these disorders. In this brief review, the authors summarized the recent advances regarding these lipid biomarkers in terms of their formation, metabolism and measurement in these disorders. An understanding of these biomarkers will offer a key to the development of novel diagnoses and help create more effective therapies in the future...
December 13, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235670/presumptive-migrating-gall-bladder-mucocoele-in-two-dogs-with-gall-bladder-rupture
#17
R K Burchell, L Thornton, C K Lim, M Murakami, Y Nakamura, A Gal
A 10-year-old neutered female soft-coated wheaten terrier and a 10-year-old, entire female Pomeranian were presented for vomiting and anorexia. Using ultrasound, an oval structure with a stellate, kiwifruit-like appearance typical of a gall bladder mucocoele was observed in the caudal abdomen of the soft-coated wheaten terrier and adjacent to the liver in the Pomeranian. There was also a moderate volume of abdominal effusion in both dogs. Cytology of the peritoneal fluid indicated a sterile exudative process but varied between the two dogs, with an absence of bile pigment in the soft-coated wheaten terrier and marked bile peritonitis in the Pomeranian...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235599/modelling-oral-up-take-of-hydrophobic-and-super-hydrophobic-chemicals-in-fish
#18
Wolfgang Larisch, Kai-Uwe Goss
We have extended a recently published toxicokinetic model for fish (TK-fish) towards the oral up-take of contaminants. Validation with hydrophobic chemicals revealed that diffusive transport through aqueous boundary layers in the gastro-intestinal tract and in the blood is the limiting process. This process can only be modelled correctly if facilitated transport by albumin or bile micelles through these boundary layers is accounted for. In a case study we have investigated the up-take of a super hydrophobic chemical, Dechlorane Plus...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235297/-simultaneous-determination-of-8-constituents-of-desmodii-styracifolii-herba-in-rat-bile-with-hplc-ms-ms-and-their-excretion-pharmacokinetics
#19
Xue-Yan Fan, Xin Wang, Xiao-Chen Liu, Chun-Ying Wang
To establish a HPLC-MS/MS quantitative method for analysis of 8 constituents in rat bile. The method was applied in the biliary excretion study after oral administration of Desmodii Styracifolii Herba extract. The rat bile samples were collected during 0-1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-12, 12-24 h. Diamonsil C₁₈column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was adopted and eluted with methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in a gradient mode. The flow rate was 0.8 mL•min⁻¹, and the column temperature was set at 40 ℃. The detection was carried out by a triple quadrupole linearion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode with an electrospray source...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235252/closure-of-the-cystic-duct-orifice-in-laparoscopic-subtotal-cholecystectomy-for-severe-cholecystitis
#20
Tatsuki Matsumura, Shunichiro Komatsu, Kenichi Komaya, Keiichi Ando, Takashi Arikawa, Seiji Ishiguro, Takuya Saito, Takaaki Osawa, Shintaro Kurahashi, Tairin Uchino, Kohei Yasui, Shoko Kato, Kenta Suzuki, Yoko Kato, Tsuyoshi Sano
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) has been recognized as an alternative to conversion to laparotomy for severe cholecystitis. However, it may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent stones in the gallbladder remnant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the complete removal of the gallbladder cavity in LSC for severe cholecystitis using the cystic duct orifice suturing (CDOS) technique. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 412 laparoscopic cholecystectomies that were performed from January 2015 to June 2017, 12 patients who underwent LSC with CDOS were enrolled in this retrospective study...
December 13, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
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