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Radiation risk from tablets

Monica Novoa, Eulalia Baselga, Sandra Beltran, Lucia Giraldo, Ali Shahbaz, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Infantile haemangiomas (previously known as strawberry birthmarks) are soft, raised swellings of the skin that occur in 3% to 10% of infants. These benign vascular tumours are usually uncomplicated and tend to regress spontaneously. However, when haemangiomas occur in high-risk areas, such as near the eyes, throat, or nose, impairing their function, or when complications develop, intervention may be necessary. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2011...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Titus Josef Brinker, Marlene Heckl, Martina Gatzka, Markus V Heppt, Henrique Resende Rodrigues, Sven Schneider, Wiebke Sondermann, Carolina de Almeida E Silva, Michael C Kirchberger, Joachim Klode, Alexander H Enk, Sarah Knispel, Christof von Kalle, Ingo Stoffels, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Stefan Esser, Aisllan Assis, Breno Bernardes-Souza
BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents' interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany...
March 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Titus Josef Brinker, Bianca Lisa Faria, Martina Gatzka, Olber Moreira de Faria, Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fabian Buslaff, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Henrique Augusto Lino, Breno Bernardes-Souza
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. The Southeast of Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to UV radiation represents a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation for adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that harnesses the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may represent a novel method to improve skin cancer prevention...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Theresa A Lawrie, John T Green, Mark Beresford, Linda Wedlake, Sorrel Burden, Susan E Davidson, Simon Lal, Caroline C Henson, H Jervoise N Andreyev
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of people survive cancer but a significant proportion have gastrointestinal side effects as a result of radiotherapy (RT), which impairs their quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: To determine which prophylactic interventions reduce the incidence, severity or both of adverse gastrointestinal effects among adults receiving radiotherapy to treat primary pelvic cancers. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase in September 2016 and updated them on 2 November 2017...
January 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Igor Belyaev, Amy Dean, Horst Eger, Gerhard Hubmann, Reinhold Jandrisovits, Markus Kern, Michael Kundi, Hanns Moshammer, Piero Lercher, Kurt Müller, Gerd Oberfeld, Peter Ohnsorge, Peter Pelzmann, Claus Scheingraber, Roby Thill
Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Luc J M Mortelmans, Stef J M Bouman, Menno I Gaakeer, Greet Dieltiens, Kurt Anseeuw, Marc B Sabbe
BACKGROUND: Medical students have been deployed in victim care of several disasters throughout history. They are corner stones in first-line care in recent pandemic planning. Furthermore, every physician and senior medical student is expected to assist in case of disaster situations, but are they educated to do so? Being one of Europe's densest populated countries with multiple nuclear installations, a large petrochemical industry and also at risk for terrorist attacks, The Netherlands bear some risks for incidents...
December 2015: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Tanja Perko, Baldwin van Gorp, Catrinel Turcanu, Peter Thijssen, Benny Carle
Preparedness of the general population plays a key role in the effective implementation of protective actions in case of a nuclear emergency (e.g., evacuation or intake of iodine tablets). In this context, a good communication of emergency management actors with the public along the entire cycle of preparedness-response-recovery is of paramount importance. This article aims at providing a better understanding of the way people process communicated messages and the factors that may influence how they do this...
November 2013: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Brittany Wood, Mark S Rea, Barbara Plitnick, Mariana G Figueiro
Exposure to light from self-luminous displays may be linked to increased risk for sleep disorders because these devices emit optical radiation at short wavelengths, close to the peak sensitivity of melatonin suppression. Thirteen participants experienced three experimental conditions in a within-subjects design to investigate the impact of self-luminous tablet displays on nocturnal melatonin suppression: 1) tablets-only set to the highest brightness, 2) tablets viewed through clear-lens goggles equipped with blue light-emitting diodes that provided 40 lux of 470-nm light at the cornea, and 3) tablets viewed through orange-tinted glasses (dark control; optical radiation <525 nm ≈ 0)...
March 2013: Applied Ergonomics
Rossella Di Franco, MariaGrazia Calvanese, Paola Murino, Roberto Manzo, Cesare Guida, Davide Di Gennaro, Caterina Anania, Vincenzo Ravo
INTRODUCTION: This is an observational study and the aim is to evaluate the effect of dietary supplements based on Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanins (Ixor®) in reducing skin toxicity due to external beam radiotherapy in patients affected by breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 71 patients were enrolled and they were divided in two different groups: a control group (CG) of 41 patients treated with prophylactic topical therapy based on hyaluronic acid and topical steroid therapy in case of occurrence of radiodermatitis, and a Ixor-Group (IG) of 30 patients treated also with an oral therapy based on Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanin (Ixor®) at a dose of 2 tablets/day, starting from 10 days before the radiation treatment until 10 days after the end of treatment...
2012: Radiation Oncology
Yvo Kok-Palma, Marianne Leenders, Jan Meulenbelt
Rapid administration of stable iodine is essential for the saturation and subsequent protection of the thyroid gland against the potential harm caused by radioiodines. This paper proposes the Dutch risk analysis that uses an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the size of the zones around nuclear power plants where radiological thyroid doses for children might be sufficiently high to warrant iodine administration. Dose calculations for possible releases from the nuclear power plants of Borssele (The Netherlands), Doel (Belgium) and Emsland (Germany) are based on two scenarios in combination with a 1-y set of authentic, high-resolution meteorological data...
August 2010: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Alicja Jaworska
Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years...
January 4, 2007: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Bartosz Bilski
BACKGROUND: Cytostatic drugs pose a quite specific occupational risk to health care workers. There is a wide range of potential harmful effects, including remote effects, exerted by this group of drugs. In Polish and international regulations, standards of work safety and hygiene concerning these substances are clearly defined. Nevertheless working conditions in Polish health care institutions are now mostly influenced by economic and organizational problems, which may also be reflected in the compliance with the work safety rules...
2004: Medycyna Pracy
T A Benline, J French
The central objectives of this study were to evaluate the cognitive, psychomotor and subjective effects of two anti-emetic drugs of established value in the prophylaxis of radiation induced nausea and vomiting. The drugs of interest were granisetron (Kytril, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA; 1 mg tablets/2 mg dose) and ondansetron (Zofran, Glaxo Welcome, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC; 8 mg tablets/8 mg dose). The experimental approach, involving 24 active-duty military subjects, was a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design with a positive control (prochlorperazine, 10 mg tablets/10 mg dose) condition...
June 1997: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
R T Scheife, W R Cramer, E L Decker
BACKGROUND: The relative phototoxic risk of ofloxacin, one of the newer fluoroquinolones, was compared with that of an active control of known but low phototoxic risk, naproxen. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, open-label trial was used with a standardized phototoxic assay completed at baseline, midway through, and at the termination of the 12-day trial. The trial was held at a dermatology research laboratory located at a large tertiary referral and teaching hospital...
June 1993: International Journal of Dermatology
R Lanciano, B Corn, E Martin, T Schultheiss, W M Hogan, N Rosenblum
PURPOSE: To define the incidence and severity of perioperative morbidity and its subsequent management with standard tandem and ovoid insertions and to evaluate pretreatment and treatment factors associated with an increased risk of perioperative morbidity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-five tandem and ovoid insertions were performed at the Fox Chase Cancer Center between 1985 and 1992 for cervical (n = 91) and endometrial (n = 4) cancer. Patients were placed on antibiotics in 19%, usually for a positive routine preoperative urine culture, but no patient was given prophylactic antibiotic therapy...
July 30, 1994: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
M F Holick
All vertebrates, including humans, obtain most of their daily vitamin D requirement from casual exposure to sunlight. During exposure to sunlight, the solar ultraviolet B photons (290-315 nm) penetrate into the skin where they cause the photolysis of 7-dehydrocholesterol to precholecalciferol. Once formed, precholecalciferol undergoes a thermally induced rearrangement of its double bonds to form cholecalciferol. An increase in skin pigmentation, aging, and the topical application of a sunscreen diminishes the cutaneous production of cholecalciferol...
March 1995: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J W Rieke, M D Hafermann, J T Johnson, F G LeVeque, R Iwamoto, B W Steiger, C Muscoplat, S C Gallagher
PURPOSE: Pilocarpine hydrochloride administered in either a fixed-dose or in a dose-titration protocol three times a day for 12 weeks was evaluated for its ability to relieve symptoms of postradiation xerostomia and to improve saliva production. The studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trials. A total of 369 patients who had received at least 40 Gy of radiation to the head and neck with clinically significant xerostomia were enrolled in the two studies...
February 1, 1995: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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