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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432498/co-cultivation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-with-azotobacter-chroococcum-improved-h2-production
#2
Lili Xu, Xianglong Cheng, Shuangxiu Wu, Quanxi Wang
OBJECTIVES: To improve H2 production, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cc849 was co-cultured with Azotobacter chroococcum. RESULTS: The maximum H2 production of the co-culture was 350% greater than that of the pure algal cultures under optimal H2 production conditions. The maximum growth and the respiratory rate of the co-cultures were about 320 and 300% of the controls, and the dissolved O2 of co-cultures was decreased 74%. Furthermore, the in vitro maximum hydrogenase activity of the co-culture was 250% greater than that of the control, and the in vivo maximum hydrogenase activity of the co-culture was 1...
April 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431961/ionizing-radiation-induces-long-term-senescence-in-endothelial-cells-through-mitochondrial-respiratory-complex-ii-dysfunction-and-superoxide-generation
#3
Audrey Lafargue, Charlotte Degorre, Isabelle Corre, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Marie-Hélène Gaugler, François Vallette, Claire Pecqueur, François Paris
Ionizing radiation causes oxidative stress, leading to acute and late cellular responses. We previously demonstrated that irradiation of non-proliferating endothelial cells, as observed in normal tissues, induces early apoptosis, which can be inhibited by pretreatment with Sphingosine-1-Phosphate. We now propose to better characterize the long-term radiation response of endothelial cells by studying the molecular pathways associated with senescence and its link with acute apoptosis. First, senescence was validated in irradiated quiescent microvascular HMVEC-L in a dose- and time-dependent manner by SA β-galactosidase staining, p16(Ink4a) and p21(Waf1) expression, pro-inflammatory IL-8 secretion and DNA damage response activation...
April 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431934/etiological-analysis-and-epidemiological-comparison-among-adult-cap-and-nhcap-patients-in-okinawa-japan
#4
Gretchen Parrott, Daijiro Nebeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues for CAP and NHCAP. Despite the availability of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality ensues. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology of 200 pneumonia patients at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Patients were categorized into CAP (n = 97) or NHCAP (n = 103), according to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines. Diagnoses were made using clinical tests including, Gram stain, bacterial culture, serum and urinary tests...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431550/the-physiological-cost-of-male-biased-parasitism-in-a-nearly-monomorphic-mammal
#5
Arturo Oliver-Guimerá, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, María Rocío Ruiz de Ybáñez, Jordi Martínez-Guijosa, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Gregorio Mentaberre, Roser Velarde, Diana Gassó, Mathieu Garel, Luca Rossi, Santiago Lavín, Emmanuel Serrano
BACKGROUND: Even though male-biased parasitism is common in mammals, little effort has been made to evaluate whether higher parasitic burden in males results in an extra biological cost, and thus a decrease in fitness. Body condition impairment and the augmentation of oxidative stress can be used as indicators of the cost of parasite infections. Here, we examined relationships between gastrointestinal and respiratory helminths, body condition and oxidative stress markers (glutathione peroxidase, paraoxonase-1) in 28 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p...
April 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431445/-near-drowning-with-good-outcome-after-ecmo-therapy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-despite-20-minutes-of-anoxia-and-16-hours-of-hypoxia
#6
Peter Stachon, Johannes Kalbhenn, Stephan Walterspacher, Christoph Bode, Dawid Staudacher
Introduction Drowning with submersion over 10 minutes is associated with a high mortality. Here, we present a case, in which a good neurological outcome was achieved after interdisciplinary, intensive care therapy despite submersion of 20 minutes followed by 16 hours of hypoxia. History A 19 year old man drowned in fresh-water. After 20 minutes submersion he was localized and salvaged from 8 meters depth and primarily resuscitated successfully after 10 minutes. Within the next hour, there condition worsened by respiratory deterioration due to a massive capillary leak syndrome in addition to a disseminated intravascular coagulation...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#7
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429678/intraperitoneal-administration-of-ethanol-as-a-means-of-euthanasia-for-neonatal-mice-mus-musculus
#8
Cecilia de Souza Dyer Angela K Brice And James O Marx
The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differentlyto euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitonealinjection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups(C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429504/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reduce-neutrophil-chemotaxis-via-activating-grk2-in-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury
#9
Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Shiuan Lin, Wei-Chih Chen, Wen-Kuang Yu, Yen-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yu Chen, Kuang-Yao Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in moderating neutrophil chemotaxis in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice at 8-12 weeks of age were studied. Murine iPSCs were delivered through the tail veins of mice 4 h after intratracheal instillation of endotoxin. Lung histopathological findings, neutrophil counts in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), bone marrow (BM) cell distribution, expression of chemokine receptors and regulatory signalling pathways were analysed after 24 h...
April 21, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429311/improving-animal-welfare-using-continuous-nalbuphine-infusion-in-a-long-term-rat-model-of-sepsis
#10
Victor Jeger, Mattia Arrigo, Florian F Hildenbrand, Daniel Müller, Paulin Jirkof, Till Hauffe, Burkhardt Seifert, Margarete Arras, Donat R Spahn, Dominique Bettex, Alain Rudiger
BACKGROUND: Sepsis research relies on animal models to investigate the mechanisms of the dysregulated host response to infection. Animal welfare concerns request the use of potent analgesics for the Refinement of existing sepsis models, according to the 3Rs principle. Nevertheless, adequate analgesia is often missing, partly because the effects of analgesics in this particular condition are unknown. We evaluated the use of nalbuphine, an opioid with kappa agonistic and mu antagonistic effects, in rats with and without experimental sepsis...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429194/photobiomodulation-therapy-associated-with-treadmill-training-in-the-oxidative-stress-in-a-collagen-induced-arthritis-model
#11
Solange Almeida Dos Santos, Marcia Ataize Dos Santos Vieira, Maira Cécilia Brandão Simões, Andrey Jorge Serra, Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by chronic and systemic inflammation, which leads to the destruction of the cartilage and bone and affects tissues in multiple joints. Oxidative stress has been implicated with regards to involvement in various disease conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative, respiratory, cardiovascular, and RA diseases. In vivo experimental studies using photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) have shown positive effects in reducing lipid peroxidation and in increasing antioxidant activity...
April 21, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428968/allergic-conjunctivitis-in-patients-with-respiratory-allergic-symptoms-a-retrospective-study-in-greece
#12
Pavlos Michailopoulos, Diamantis Almaliotis, Irini Georgiadou, Despina Papakosta, Kyriakos Gougoulias, Paschalina Giouleka, Dimitrios Gioulekas, Thomas Siempis, Vasileios Karampatakis
Here, we report on the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and positive skin prick test (SPT) results in relation to respiratory allergic conditions among patients with symptoms of allergies at a respiratory outpatient clinic. A questionnaire survey of symptoms (i.e., asthma-like, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis symptoms) involving 1522 patients was carried out. The responses of 1242 patients indicated that they had allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, rhinitis, or a combination of these conditions, and 869 of these patients underwent SPTs that assessed responses to 40 allergens...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427969/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-is-associated-with-lower-short-and-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#13
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Hung-Jung Lin, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Shih-Bin Su, How-Ran Guo
BACKGROUND: To date, there has been no consensus about the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the mortality of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). This retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study from Taiwan was conducted to clarify this issue. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Poisoning Database, we identified 25,737 COP patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2012, including 7,278 patients who received HBOT and 18,459 patients who did not...
April 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427745/how-to-approach-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-prevention-plan-and-prudence
#14
REVIEW
Younsuck Koh
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is typically manifested by refractory hypoxemia with high mortality. A correct diagnosis is the first step to achieve better outcomes. An early intervention to manage modifiable risk factors of ARDS development and the avoidance of aggravating factors that increase disease severity and progression should be carefully addressed. A management plan is necessary at an early stage of ARDS to determine the level of intensive care. It should be carefully decided which therapeutic measures should be performed depending on the patient׳s underlying clinical condition...
May 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427553/familial-pulmonary-fibrosis-clinical-and-radiological-characteristics-and-progression-analysis-in-different-high-resolution-ct-patterns
#15
David Bennett, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Nevada Cioffi Squitieri, Elena Bargagli, Rosa Metella Refini, Antonella Fossi, Luca Volterrani, Paola Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) is defined as an idiopathic diffuse parenchymal lung disease affecting two or more members of the same primary biological family. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the clinical, functional and radiological characterisation of FPF with particular regards to disease progression and survival. METHODS: Baseline clinical, functional and radiological data of a FPF population (n = 46 patients) were retrospectively collected and analysed according to the 2011 IPF guidelines HRCT classification...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427547/qualitative-evaluation-of-the-st-george-s-respiratory-questionnaire-in-patients-with-severe-asthma
#16
Linda M Nelsen, Miriam Kimel, Lindsey T Murray, Hector Ortega, Sarah M Cockle, Steven W Yancey, Guy Brusselle, Frank C Albers, Paul W Jones
PURPOSE: Content validity is the extent to which a patient-reported outcome measure evaluates the concepts most relevant to a patient's condition and treatment. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has been validated in a range of respiratory conditions. This study evaluated the content validity of the SGRQ in patients with severe asthma. METHODS: A qualitative study, guided by a protocol, which included concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing of the SGRQ, was conducted in patients aged ≥18 years with history of severe asthma and blood eosinophil counts of ≥150/μL (past month) or ≥300/μL (past 12 months)...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426897/the-effects-of-awareness-and-count-duration-on-adult-respiratory-rate-measurements-an-experimental-study
#17
Andrew Hill, Eliza Kelly, Mark S Horswill, Marcus O Watson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether awareness of manual respiratory rate monitoring affects respiratory rate in adults, and whether count duration influences respiratory rate estimates. BACKGROUND: Nursing textbooks typically suggest that the patient should ideally be unaware of respiratory rate observations; however, there is little published evidence of the effect of awareness on respiratory rate, and none specific to manual measurement. In addition, recommendations about the length of the respiratory rate count vary from text-to-text, and the relevant empirical evidence is scant, inconsistent and subject to substantial methodological limitations...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426759/health-related-quality-of-life-in-south-african-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Tanja Kastien-Hilka, Bernd Rosenkranz, Edina Sinanovic, Bryan Bennett, Matthias Schwenkglenks
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the burden associated with this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the overall impact of TB on the health status and on single health domains identified in the WHO definition of health, including physical, mental and social health aspects. METHODS: Four instruments for HRQOL evaluation were applied in a longitudinal multicentre study during six-month standard TB treatment in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426726/vibrotactile-stimulation-a-non-pharmacological-intervention-for-opioid-exposed-newborns
#19
Ian Zuzarte, Premananda Indic, Bruce Barton, David Paydarfar, Francis Bednarek, Elisabeth Bloch-Salisbury
OBJECTIVE: To examine the therapeutic potential of stochastic vibrotactile stimulation (SVS) as a complementary non-pharmacological intervention for withdrawal in opioid-exposed newborns. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, within-subjects single-center study was conducted in 26 opioid-exposed newborns (>37 weeks; 16 male) hospitalized since birth and treated pharmacologically for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. A specially-constructed mattress delivered low-level SVS (30-60Hz, 10-12μm RMS), alternated in 30-min intervals between continuous vibration (ON) and no vibration (OFF) over a 6-8 hr session...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426557/loop-ileostomy-vs-total-colectomy-as-surgical-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-disease-an-eastern-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-multicenter-trial
#20
Paula Ferrada, Rachael Callcut, Martin D Zielinski, Brandon Bruns, Daniel Dante Yeh, Tanya L Zakrison, Jonathan P Meizoso, Babak Sarani, Richard D Catalano, Peter Kim, Valerie Plant, Amelia Pasley, Linda A Dultz, Asad J Choudhry, Elliott R Haut
OBJECTIVES: The mortality of patients with Clostridum Dificile Associated Disease (CDAD) requiring surgery continues to be very high. Loop ileostomy (LI) was introduced as an alternative procedure to total colectomy (TC) for CDAD by a single center study. To date, no reproducible results have been published. The objective of this study is to compare these two procedures in a multicentric approach to help the surgeon decide what procedure is best suited for the patient in need. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study conducted under the sponsorship of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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