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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#1
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792372/sativex%C3%A2-as-add-on-therapy-vs-further-optimized-first-line-antispastics-savant-in-resistant-multiple-sclerosis-spasticity-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-clinical-trial
#2
Jolana Markovà, Ute Essner, Bülent Akmaz, Marcella Marinelli, Christiane Trompke, Arnd Lentschat, Carlos Vila Silván
Purpose/aim: To evaluate the efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]:cannabidiol [CBD] oromucosal spray (Sativex®) as add-on therapy to optimized standard antispasticity treatment in patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. METHODS: Sativex as Add-on therapy Vs. further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT) was a two-phase trial. In Phase A, eligible patients received add-on THC:CBD spray for 4 weeks to identify initial responders (≥ 20% improvement from baseline in spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale [NRS] score)...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791499/perturbation-of-the-metabolic-network-in-salmonella-enterica-reveals-cross-talk-between-coenzyme-a-and-thiamine-pathways
#3
Dustin C Ernst, Andrew J Borchert, Diana M Downs
Microorganisms respond to a variety of metabolic perturbations by repurposing or recruiting pathways to reroute metabolic flux and overcome the perturbation. Elimination of the 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase, PanE, both reduces total coenzyme A (CoA) levels and causes a conditional HMP-P auxotrophy in Salmonella enterica. CoA or acetyl-CoA has no demonstrable effect on the HMP-P synthase, ThiC, in vitro. Suppressors aimed at probing the connection between the biosynthesis of thiamine and CoA contained mutations in the gene encoding the ilvC transcriptional regulator, ilvY...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791433/the-belfast-youth-development-study-byds-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-initiation-persistence-and-desistance-of-substance-use-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-in-northern-ireland
#4
Kathryn Higgins, Aisling McLaughlin, Oliver Perra, Claire McCartan, Mark McCann, Andrew Percy, Julie-Ann Jordan
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS), one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791071/plastic-rates-of-development-and-the-effect-of-thermal-extremes-on-offspring-fitness-in-a-cold-climate-viviparous-lizard
#5
George D Cunningham, Luisa J Fitzpatrick, Geoffrey M While, Erik Wapstra
Populations at the climatic margins of a species' distribution can be exposed to conditions that cause developmental stress, resulting in developmental abnormalities. Even within the thermal range of normal development, phenotypes often vary with developmental temperature (i.e., thermal phenotypic plasticity). These effects can have significant consequences for organismal fitness and, thus, population persistence. Reptiles, as ectotherms, are particularly vulnerable to thermal effects on development and are, therefore, considered to be at comparatively high risk from changing climates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791053/impact-of-ruxolitinib-pretreatment-on-outcomes-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-myelofibrosis
#6
Sharifah Shahnaz Syed Abd Kadir, Maximilian Christopeit, Wulf Gerald, Eva Wagner, Martin Bornhauser, Thomas Schroeder, Martina Crysandt, Karin Mayer, Julia Jonas, Matthias Stelljes, Anita Badbaran, Francis Ayuketang Ayuk, Ioanna Triviai, Dominik Wolf, Christine Wolschke, Nicolaus Kröger
INTRODUCTION: Ruxolitinib is the first approved drug for treatment of myelofibrosis, but its impact of outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reported on 159 myelofibrosis patients (pts) with a median age of 59 years (r: 28 - 74) who received reduced intensity ASCT between 2000 and 2015 in 8 German centers from related (n = 23), matched (n=86) or mismatched (n=50) unrelated donors. Forty-six (29%) patients received ruxolitinib at any time point prior to ASCT...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790771/child-abuse-awareness-is-the-first-step-to-action
#7
L Paglia
Most of the physical injuries that children are subjected to affect the head and neck region; approximately 50% of injuries due to child abuse occur in the orofacial region and almost 15% of these injuries are confined to the head region (Cairns A.M.). For this reason, the dental team has a key role in identifying and detecting child abuse. In addition, having paediatric dentists an ongoing relationship with their young patients and families give them the opportunity to observe and assess not only the physical and psychological condition of the children, but also the family environment (the majority of abuse cases toward children are from the caregiver or the parents)...
June 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790347/hydrophobic-collapse-of-ubiquitin-generates-rapid-protein-water-motions
#8
Hanna Wirtz, Sarah Schaefer, Claudius Hoberg, Korey M Reid, David M Leitner, Martina Havenith
We report time resolved measurements of the coupled protein-water modes of solvated ubiquitin during protein folding. Kinetic terahertz absorption (KITA) spectroscopy serves as a label-free technique to monitor large-scale conformational changes and folding of proteins subsequent to a sudden T-jump. Our KITA measurements reveal a significant change in the coupled ubiquitin-solvent dynamics even in the initial phase of hydrophobic collapse. Complementary equilibrium experiments and molecular simulations of ubiquitin solutions were carried out to clarify non-equilibrium contributions and reveal the molecular picture upon structural change, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790243/identifying-language-impairment-in-bilingual-children-in-france-and-in-germany
#9
Laurice Tuller, Cornelia Hamann, Solveig Chilla, Sandrine Ferré, Eléonore Morin, Philippe Prevost, Christophe Dos Santos, Lina Abed Ibrahim, Racha Zebib
BACKGROUND: The detection of specific language impairment (SLI) in children growing up bilingually presents particular challenges for clinicians. Non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks have proven to be the most accurate diagnostic tools for monolingual populations, raising the question of the extent of their usefulness in different bilingual populations. AIMS: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of NWR and SR tasks that incorporate phonological/syntactic complexity as discussed in recent linguistic theory...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789823/influenza-a-m2-transmembrane-domain-tunes-its-conformational-heterogeneity-and-structural-plasticity-in-the-lipid-bilayer-by-forming-loop-structures
#10
Yue Liu, Junjun Tan, Jiahui Zhang, Chuanzhao Li, Yi Luo, Shuji Ye
We discovered for the first time that the influenza A virus M2TM tunes its conformational heterogeneity and structural plasticity to respond to environmental cues by undergoing a helix-to-loop transition, resolving controversies regarding the mechanism of proton conduction and plasticity of the M2TM in lipid bilayers.
May 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789591/a-study-of-wound-repair-in-dictyostelium-cells-by-using-novel-laserporation
#11
Mst Shaela Pervin, Go Itoh, Md Shahabe Uddin Talukder, Koushiro Fujimoto, Yusuke V Morimoto, Masamitsu Tanaka, Masahiro Ueda, Shigehiko Yumura
We examined the mechanism of cell membrane repair in Dictyostelium cells by using a novel laser-based cell poration method. The dynamics of wound pores opening and closing were characterized by live imaging of fluorescent cell membrane proteins, influx of fluorescent dye, and Ca2+ imaging. The wound closed within 2-4 sec, depending on the wound size. Cells could tolerate a wound size of less than 2.0 µm. In the absence of Ca2+ in the external medium, the wound pore did not close and cells ruptured. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores also contributed to the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ but not to wound repair...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789458/flying-real-time-network-to-coordinate-disaster-relief-activities-in-urban-areas-%C3%A2
#12
Matias Micheletto, Vinicius Petrucci, Rodrigo Santos, Javier Orozco, Daniel Mosse, Sergio F Ochoa, Roc Meseguer
While there have been important advances within wireless communication technology, the provision of communication support during disaster relief activities remains an open issue. The literature in disaster research reports several major restrictions to conducting first response activities in urban areas, given the limitations of telephone networks and radio systems to provide digital communication in the field. In search-and-rescue operations, the communication requirements are increased, since the first responders need to rely on real-time and reliable communication to perform their activities and coordinate their efforts with other teams...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789390/the-assembly-of-lipid-droplets-and-their-roles-in-challenged-cells
#13
REVIEW
W Mike Henne, Michael L Reese, Joel M Goodman
Cytoplasmic lipid droplets are important organelles in nearly every eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells. Storing and providing energy is their main function, but they do not work in isolation. They respond to stimuli initiated either on the cell surface or in the cytoplasm as conditions change. Cellular stresses such as starvation and invasion are internal insults that evoke changes in droplet metabolism and dynamics. This review will first outline lipid droplet assembly and then discuss how droplets respond to stress and in particular nutrient starvation...
May 22, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789260/respondent-driven-sampling-in-a-biomonitoring-study-of-refugees-from-burma-in-buffalo-new-york-who-eat-great-lakes-fish
#14
Ming Liu, Molly McCann, Elizabeth Lewis-Michl, Syni-An Hwang
BACKGROUND: Refugees from Burma who consume fish caught from local waterbodies have increased risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to sample this hard-to-reach population for the first Biomonitoring of Great Lakes Populations program. In the current study, we examined the interview data and assessed the effectiveness of RDS to sample the unique population. METHODS: In 2013, we used RDS to sample 205 Burmese refugees and immigrants residing in Buffalo, New York who consumed fish caught from Great Lakes waters...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788933/continue-adjust-or-stop-antipsychotic-medication-developing-and-user-testing-an-encounter-decision-aid-for-people-with-first-episode-and-long-term-psychosis
#15
Yaara Zisman-Ilani, David Shern, Patricia Deegan, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Lisa Dixon, Robert Drake, William Torrey, Manish Mishra, Ksenia Gorbenko, Glyn Elwyn
BACKGROUND: People with psychosis struggle with decisions about their use of antipsychotics. They often want to reduce the dose or stop, while facing uncertainty regarding the effects these decisions will have on their treatment and recovery. They may also fear raising this issue with clinicians. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a shared decision making (SDM) tool to support patients and clinicians in making decisions about antipsychotics. METHODS: A diverse editorial research team developed an Encounter Decision Aid (EDA) for patients and clinicians to use as part of the psychiatric consultation...
May 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788907/mycobacterium-avium-complex-vertebral-osteomyelitis-in-the-absence-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review
#16
Megan E Gray, Peter W Liu, Brian Wispelwey
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is an established microbiologic cause of pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease in cases of advanced immune suppression. However, MAC manifesting as vertebral osteomyelitis is less common, and is particularly rare in the absence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Prompt diagnosis of MAC vertebral osteomyelitis is challenging, but necessary to prevent serious morbidity or mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of MAC osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine in a 70-year-old woman on extended duration corticosteroid therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with progressive back pain...
May 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788789/measuring-functional-impairment-in-children-and-adolescents-psychometric-properties-of-the-columbia-impairment-scale-cis
#17
Brandon K Attell, Christopher Cappelli, Brigitte Manteuffel, Hongli Li
The role of measuring functional impairment holds an important place in research, clinical practice, and service provision for children and adolescents. Responding to the growing need to measure serious emotional disturbances at the local, state, and national level, the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) was developed in the early 1990s and has remained one of the several popular scales for assessing functional impairment. However, despite the growing popularity of the instrument in research and practice, only a few studies to date have specifically examined the psychometric properties of the CIS...
January 1, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788427/changes-in-corticotrope-gene-expression-upon-increased-expression-of-peptidylglycine-%C3%AE-amidating-monooxygenase
#18
Richard E Mains, Crysten Blaby-Haas, Bruce A Rheaume, Betty A Eipper
Throughout evolution, secretion has played an essential role in the ability of organisms and single cells to survive in the face of a changing environment. PAM (peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase) is an integral membrane monooxygenase, first identified for its role in the biosynthesis of neuroendocrine peptides released by the regulated secretory pathway. PAM was subsequently identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, where it plays an essential role in constitutive secretion and in ciliogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788332/constitutive-interferon-pathway-activation-in-tumors-as-an-efficacy-determinant-following-oncolytic-virotherapy
#19
Cheyne Kurokawa, Ianko D Iankov, S Keith Anderson, Ileana Aderca, Alexey A Leontovich, Matthew J Maurer, Ann L Oberg, Mark A Schroeder, Caterina Giannini, Suzanne M Greiner, Marc A Becker, E Aubrey Thompson, Paul Haluska, Mark E Jentoft, Ian F Parney, S John Weroha, Jin Jen, Jann N Sarkaria, Evanthia Galanis
Background: Attenuated measles virus (MV) strains are promising agents currently being tested against solid tumors or hematologic malignancies in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials; factors determining oncolytic virotherapy success remain poorly understood, however. Methods: We performed RNA sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis to identify pathways differentially activated in MV-resistant (n = 3) and -permissive (n = 2) tumors derived from resected human glioblastoma (GBM) specimens and propagated as xenografts (PDX)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787821/slc25a13-c-1610_1612delinsat-mutation-in-an-indian-patient-and-literature-review-of-79-cases-of-citrin-deficiency-for-genotype-phenotype-associations
#20
A Radha Rama Devi, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
Here, we report SLC25A13 c.1610_1612delinsAT mutation from India in a 13-year old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of delirium and hyperammonemia. This is the second case with this mutation; the first case was of Pakistani origin. The boy responded to diet modification, sodium benzoate and arginine supplementation. Furthermore, we have aimed to establish genotype-phenotype correlation of 79 cases of citrin deficiency (46 males and 33 females) reported in 24 studies from all over the world. Inverse association was observed between age of onset and jaundice (r = -0...
May 19, 2018: Gene
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