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Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Reza Falak, Mansour Heidari, Mahshid Sharzad, Elham Kalantari
Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse damages brain cells. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported previously, but its exact mechanism of action still remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo role of various doses of TPM in the protection of rat amygdala cells against methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Seventy adult male rats were divided into seven groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg), respectively, for 21 days...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Rong Lin, Yunxia Zhang, Dongjing Yan, Xiaoping Liao, Yunxin Fu, Wangwei Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Guangwei Zhong, Yusi Chen, Lihua Liu, Yingzhe Liu, Liu Yang, Yanli Luo, Jiamei Yao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 4 (CAMK4) and the therapeutic effect of amlodipine in essential hypertensive patients in Chinese Han nationality.
 METHODS: A total of 108 mild-to-moderate essential hypertension patients in Chinese Han nationality were treated with amlodipine for 8 weeks at a dosage of 5 mg/d. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect the genotypes (rs10491334)...
August 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
B K Binukumar, Steven L Pelech, Catherine Sutter, Varsha Shukla, Niranjana D Amin, Philip Grant, Manju Bhaskar, Suzanne Skuntz, Joseph Steiner, Harish C Pant
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that regulates a large number of neuronal processes essential for nervous system development and function with its activator p35 CDK5R1. Upon neuronal insults, p35 is proteolyzed and cleaved to p25 producing deregulation and hyperactivation of CDK5 (CDK5/p25), implicated in tau hyperphosphorylation, a pathology in some neurodegenerative diseases. A truncated, 24 amino acid peptide, p5, derived from p35 inhibits the deregulated CDK5 phosphotransferase activity and ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD) phenotypes in AD model mice...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohamad Shalan, Noordin M Mustapha, Suhaila Mohamed
Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4)...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Fei Yang, Huabin Cao, Qingyang Xiao, Xiaoquan Guo, Yu Zhuang, Caiying Zhang, Tiancheng Wang, Huayuan Lin, Yalu Song, Guoliang Hu, Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, also known as Ascites syndrome (AS), remains a clinically challenging disease with a large impact on both humans and broiler chickens. Pulmonary arterial remodeling presents a key step in the development of AS. The precise molecular mechanism of pulmonary artery remodeling regulating AS progression remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained pulmonary arteries from two positive AS and two normal broilers for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and pathological observation...
2016: PloS One
Kristofer K Rau, Caitlin E Hill, Benjamin J Harrison, Gayathri Venkat, Heidi M Koenig, Sarah B Cook, Alexander G Rabchevsky, Bradley K Taylor, Tsonwin Hai, Jeffrey C Petruska
Tissue damage is one of the major etiological factors in the emergence of chronic/persistent pain, although mechanisms remain enigmatic. Using incision of the back skin of adult rats as a model for tissue damage, we observed sensitization in a nociceptive reflex enduring to 28days post-incision (DPI). To determine if the enduring behavioral changes corresponded with a long-term impact of tissue damage on sensory neurons, we examined the temporal expression profile of injury-regulated genes and the electrophysiological properties of traced dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Shijie Xu, Ung Gu Kang
The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an intracellular energy sensor that regulates and maintains energy balance. The psychostimulant drug cocaine has profound effects on behavior that are accentuated with repeated use, which is a process termed sensitization. Thus, the present study examined whether the sensitizing effects of cocaine could be observed in the AMPK system and aimed to determine whether these effects were mediated by dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 receptors. In the first set of experiments, rats were injected daily for 5days with either cocaine (15mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]) or saline...
July 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Tomohiro Koga, Kotaro Otomo, Masayuki Mizui, Nobuya Yoshida, Masataka Umeda, Kunihiro Ichinose, Atsushi Kawakami, George C Tsokos
OBJECTIVE: The recruitment of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper (Th17) cells to inflammatory sites has been implicated in the development of organ damage in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To define the mechanism of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) activation of Th17 cell recruitment to target tissues, we performed anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (AIGN) experiments in mice and studied samples from patients with SLE...
August 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
S Z Chen, Z Wang, L N Zhang, G L Lu, C M Zhou, D W Wang, Z M Tang, L Wang, L Qin, Z H Zhai
Considering that calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 4 (CAMK4) plays a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation, we investigated the association between a CAMK4 polymorphism (rs10491334) and hypertension in the Han, Kazak, and Uygur ethnic groups. We studied 1224 patients with hypertension and 967 normotensive controls classified into three ethnic groups (Han, Kazak, and Uygur). The rs10491334 polymorphism was genotyped using a TaqMan® 5'-nuclease assay. In the Uygur group, the T-allele frequency in patients with hypertension was twice that of the controls (12...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jian-Da Wang, Yu-Lan Cao, Qian Li, Ya-Ping Yang, Mengmeng Jin, Dong Chen, Fen Wang, Guang-Hui Wang, Zheng-Hong Qin, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
Autophagy dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). BECN1/Beclin 1 acts as a critical regulator of autophagy and other cellular processes; yet, little is known about the function and regulation of BECN1 in PD. In this study, we report that dopamine D2 and D3 receptor (DRD2 and DRD3) activation by pramipexole and quinpirole could enhance BECN1 transcription and promote autophagy activation in several cell lines, including PC12, MES23.5 and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, and also in tyrosine hydroxylase positive primary midbrain neurons...
November 2, 2015: Autophagy
Kunihiro Ichinose, Takeshi Ushigusa, Ayako Nishino, Yosikazu Nakashima, Takahisa Suzuki, Yoshiro Horai, Tomohiro Koga, Shin-ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Mami Tamai, Kazuhiko Arima, Hideki Nakamura, Yoko Obata, Kazuo Yamamoto, Tomoki Origuchi, Tomoya Nishino, Atsushi Kawakami, George C Tsokos
OBJECTIVE: Kidney podocytes and their slit diaphragms prevent urinary protein loss. T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus display increased expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of CaMKIV in podocyte function in lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: We treated kidney podocytes with IgG derived from healthy individuals or patients with LN and then analyzed gene expression using a DNA microarray...
April 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kotaro Otomo, Tomohiro Koga, Masayuki Mizui, Nobuya Yoshida, Christina Kriegel, Sean Bickerton, Tarek M Fahmy, George C Tsokos
Treatment of autoimmune diseases is still largely based on the use of systemically acting immunosuppressive drugs, which invariably cause severe side effects. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV is involved in the suppression of IL-2 and the production of IL-17. Its pharmacologic or genetic inhibition limits autoimmune disease in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that KN93, a small-molecule inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, targeted to CD4(+) T cells via a nanolipogel delivery system, markedly reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and was 10-fold more potent than the free systemically delivered drug in the lupus mouse models...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Abinash Padhi, Li Ma
Understanding the patterns of genetic variations within fertility-related genes and the evolutionary forces that shape such variations is crucial in predicting the fitness landscapes of subsequent generations. This study reports distinct evolutionary features of two differentially expressed mammalian proteins [CaMKIV (Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV) and CaS (calspermin)] that are encoded by a single gene, CAMK4. The multifunctional CaMKIV, which is expressed in multiple tissues including testis and ovary, is evolving at a relatively low rate (0...
December 2015: Animal Genetics
Qi-Yan Lv, Bin Wan, Liang-Hong Guo, Yu Yang, Xiao-Min Ren, Hui Zhang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is used worldwide and is continuously being detected in biota and the environment, thus presenting potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although PFOS is highly immunotoxic, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study examined PFOS-induced immunotoxicity in the mouse spleen and explored its underlying mechanisms by gene expression profiling. Oral exposure of male BALB/c mice for three weeks followed by one-week recovery showed that a 10 mg/kg/day PFOS exposure damaged the splenic architecture, inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to mitogen, and increased the percentages of T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and cytotoxic T (CD3(+)CD8(+)) cells, despite the decrease in the absolute number of these cells...
October 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
Hai Wang, Yi Jin, Jinyan Dai
OBJECTIVE: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and further analyze potential biological processes and pathways involved in isoflurane-induced anesthesia. METHODS: Microarray data (ID: GSE64617) from rat brains treated with exposure to either isoflurane in oxygen (2%) (test group) or oxygen alone (control group) for 15 min were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Data pre-processing was performed using the Affy package, followed by DEG screening using the limma package...
December 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
Nasimul Hoda, Huma Naz, Ehtesham Jameel, Ashutosh Shandilya, Sharmistha Dey, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad, B Jayaram
Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4) plays significant role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression, and thus, it is involved in varieties of cellular functions such as cell signaling and neuronal survival. On the other hand, curcumin, a naturally occurring yellow bioactive component of turmeric possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, and it is widely used to treat atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. It also acts as an antioxidant. Here, we studied the interaction of curcumin with human CAMK4 at pH 7...
2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Bingjie Shui, Weibiao Xia, Chengping Wen, Xinghong Ding
Jieduquyuziyin prescription (JP) is a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) formula which has been demonstrated to be effective for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment as an approved hospital prescription for many years in China. But its mechanism of action in combating this disease is largely unknown. Our previous studies showed that JP can slow disease progression without producing significant toxic side effects. We treated MRL/lpr mice with JP to ascertain if JP could improve SLE by the suppression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-4 (CaMK4) expression...
July 2015: Journal of Natural Medicines
Julien Braga Calais, Elida Benquique Ojopi, Edgard Morya, Koichi Sameshima, Sidarta Ribeiro
Sleep is beneficial to learning, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY) proposes that the cognitive function of sleep is related to a generalized rescaling of synaptic weights to intermediate levels, due to a passive downregulation of plasticity mechanisms. A competing hypothesis proposes that the active upscaling and downscaling of synaptic weights during sleep embosses memories in circuits respectively activated or deactivated during prior waking experience, leading to memory changes beyond rescaling...
July 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ji-Hee Kim, Ga-Young Park, Soo Young Bang, Sun Young Park, Soo-Kyung Bae, YoungHee Kim
Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment that is primarily used in various cuisines as a seasoning and coloring agent, as well as in traditional medicines for the treatment of edema, fever, and hepatic disorder. In this study, we demonstrated that crocin markedly induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which leads to an anti-inflammatory response. Crocin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide production via downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
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