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Retin a

Daniel S Joyce, Beatrix Feigl, Andrew J Zele
Purpose: We determine the effect of short-term light adaptation on the pupil light reflex and the melanopsin mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR). Inner and outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the dark-adapted pupil response were estimated. Methods: In Experiment A, light adaptation was studied using short wavelength lights ranging from subthreshold to suprathreshold irradiances for melanopsin signaling that were presented before (5-60 seconds) and after (30 seconds) a melanopsin-exciting stimulus pulse...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ji Yi, Zhen Puyang, Liang Feng, Lian Duan, Peiji Liang, Vadim Backman, Xiaorong Liu, Hao F Zhang
Purpose: Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy (ELBS) has exquisite sensitivity to the ultrastructural properties of tissue and thus has been applied to detect various diseases associated with ultrastructural alterations in their early stages. This study aims to test whether ELBS can detect early damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods: We used a mouse model of partial optic nerve crush (pONC) to induce rapid RGC death. We confirmed RGC loss by axon counting and characterized the changes in retinal morphology by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and in retinal function by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Romain Da Costa, Carsten Röger, Jasmin Segelken, Maya Barben, Christian Grimm, John Neidhardt
Purpose: Gene therapies to treat eye disorders have been extensively studied in the past 20 years. Frequently, adeno-associated viruses were applied to the subretinal or intravitreal space of the eye to transduce retinal cells with nucleotide sequences of therapeutic potential. In this study we describe a novel intravitreal injection procedure that leads to a reproducible adeno-associated virus (AAV)2/8-mediated transduction of more than 70% of the retina. Methods: Prior to a single intravitreal injection of a enhanced green fluorescent protien (GFP)-expressing viral suspension, we performed an aspiration of vitreous tissue from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Helen L May-Simera, Jessica D Gumerson, Chun Gao, Maria Campos, Stephanie M Cologna, Tina Beyer, Karsten Boldt, Koray D Kaya, Nisha Patel, Friedrich Kretschmer, Matthew W Kelley, Ronald S Petralia, Megan G Davey, Tiansen Li
Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) plays a role in the coordination of microtubules and actin in multiple cellular processes. Here, we show that MACF1 is also critical for ciliogenesis in multiple cell types. Ablation of Macf1 in the developing retina abolishes ciliogenesis, and basal bodies fail to dock to ciliary vesicles or migrate apically. Photoreceptor polarity is randomized, while inner retinal cells laminate correctly, suggesting that photoreceptor maturation is guided by polarity cues provided by cilia...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Joong Won Shin, Yong Un Shin, Ki Bang Uhm, Kyung Rim Sung, Min Ho Kang, Hee Yoon Cho, Mincheol Seong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of optic disc center displacement on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: The optic disc center was manipulated at 1-pixel intervals in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal directions. According to the manipulated optic disc center location, the RNFL thickness data were resampled: (1) at a 3.46-mm diameter circle; and (2) between a 2.5-mm diameter circle and 5...
2016: PloS One
Douglas Matsunaga, Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Keijiro Ishikawa, Hiroto Terasaki, Ernesto Barron, Pinchas Cohen, Ram Kannan, David R Hinton
Humanin (HN) is a small mitochondrial-encoded peptide with neuroprotective properties. We have recently shown protection of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells by HN in oxidative stress; however, the effect of HN on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has not been evaluated in any cell type. Our aim here was to study the effect of HN on ER stress-induced apoptosis in RPE cells with a specific focus on ER-mitochondrial cross-talk. Dose dependent effects of ER stressors (tunicamycin (TM), brefeldin A, and thapsigargin) were studied after 12 hr of treatment in confluent primary human RPE cells with or without 12 hr of HN pretreatment (1-20 μg/mL)...
2016: PloS One
Babette Bais, Wouter A Karst, Bela Kubat, Robert M Verdijk
Retinal hemosiderin deposition is a histologic indicator of sustained hemorrhage but cannot be used to precisely estimate the elapsed time since an episode of trauma. A 5-month-old male infant was admitted to hospital after acute deterioration. Examination revealed encephalopathy, subdural hematomas, and retinal hemorrhages consistent with abusive head trauma (AHT). At the age of 3, he was readmitted to hospital with spontaneous osteopenic fracture of the right femur. The patient deteriorated and died after unsuccessful resuscitation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Yannis M Paulus, Akrit Sodhi
Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of retinal vascular disease have allowed us to specifically target pathological angiogenesis while minimizing damage to the neurosensory retina. This is perhaps best exemplified by the development of therapies targeting the potent angiogenic growth factor and vascular permeability mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF therapies, initially introduced for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration, have also had a dramatic impact on the management of retinal vascular disease and are currently an indispensable component for the treatment of macular edema in patients with diabetic eye disease and retinal vein occlusions...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Burcin Yavuz, Uday B Kompella
Although the eye is an accessible organ for direct drug application, ocular drug delivery remains a major challenge due to multiple barriers within the eye. Key barriers include static barriers imposed by the cornea, conjunctiva, and retinal pigment epithelium and dynamic barriers including tear turnover and blood and lymphatic clearance mechanisms. Systemic administration by oral and parenteral routes is limited by static blood-tissue barriers that include epithelial and endothelial layers, in addition to rapid vascular clearance mechanisms...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Joseph D Boss, Kevin Rosenberg, Rajiv Shah
Resistant strains of cytomegalovirus can be difficult to treat in cases of congenital cytomegalovirus retinitis. The authors describe a case of recurrent bilateral congenital cytomegalovirus retinitis in an immunocompetent newborn with ganciclovir resistance successfully treated uniquely with dual therapy of intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet and dual intravitreal injections with ganciclovir and foscarnet. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e58-e60.].
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Charles N de Leeuw, Vivian Alonso, Diana Melchers, Bibiana K Y Wong, René Houtman, Elizabeth M Simpson
BACKGROUND: NR2E1 (Tlx) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates the maintenance and self-renewal of neural stem cells, and promotes tumourigenesis. Nr2e1-null mice exhibit reduced cortical and limbic structures and pronounced retinal dystrophy. NR2E1 functions mainly as a repressor of gene transcription in association with the co-repressors atrophin-1, LSD1, HDAC and BCL11A. Recent evidence suggests that NR2E1 also acts as an activator of gene transcription. However, co-activator complexes that interact with NR2E1 have not yet been identified...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
Rowayda M Amin, Mohamed Gowieda, Ahmed Bedda, Ahmed Kamel, Alaa Radwan
PURPOSE: To analyze the patterns and causes of intraocular inflammation in patients attending uveitis referral clinics in Egypt. METHODS: The study included 454 patients with uveitis examined both at the Department of Ophthalmology, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, and tertiary uveitis referral clinics in Cairo and the International Eye Clinic in Upper Egypt, between August 2013 and March 2016. All patients had a comprehensive ocular examination and systemic work-up...
October 26, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Qiang Chen, Sijie Niu, Songtao Yuan, Wen Fan, Qinghuai Liu
PURPOSE: The retinal vessel visualization from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for ocular disease diagnosis and multimodal retinal image processing. The purpose is to display the retinal vessel in a single projection image from 3D SD-OCT images by using the light absorption and shadow characteristics of the retinal vessel. METHODS: The authors present a novel retinal vessel projection method for SD-OCT images, which utilizes the light absorption and shadow characteristics of the retinal vessel, called high-low reflectivity enhancement (HLRE) method...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Moussa Gueye, Julien Nillon, Olivier Crégut, Jérémie Léonard
We describe a broadband transient absorption (TA) spectrometer devised to excite and probe, in the blue to UV range, vibrational coherence dynamics in organic molecules in condensed phase. A 800-nm Ti:Sa amplifier and a hollow fiber compressor are used to generate a 6-fs short pulse at 1 kHz. Broadband sum frequency generation with the fundamental pulse is implemented to produce a 400-nm, 8-fs Fourier limited short pulse. A UV-Vis white-light supercontinuum is implemented as a probe with intensity self-referencing to achieve a shot-noise-limited sensitivity...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Neelima Bhargava, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Manav Saxena, Manish Sharma, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Sushil Kumar Singh, Karuppiah Balakrishnan, Kalpana Bhargava, Mainak Das
In vitro cell culture system for adult rod and cone photoreceptor (PR) is an effective and economical model for screening drug candidates against all kinds of age related retinal blindness. Interestingly, adult PR cells have a limited survival in the culture system, thus preventing full exploitation of this in vitro approach for drug screening applications. The limited survival of the adult PR cells in culture is due to their inherently high oxidative stress and photic injury. Mixed valence-state ceria nanoparticles have the ability to scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress...
September 16, 2016: Biointerphases
Hammouda Hamdy Ghoraba, Mohamed Amin Heikal, Hosam Osman Mansour, Haithem Mamon Abdelfattah, Emad Mohamed Elgemai, Adel Galal Zaky
The aim of this study is to report the difference in either anatomical or functional outcome of vitreoretinal intervention in cases of gunshot perforating eye injury if done 2-4 weeks or after the 4th week after the original trauma. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil. Surgeries were performed in the period from February 2011 until the end of December 2014. 253 eyes of 237 patients were reviewed. 46 eyes were excluded. 207 eyes of 197 patients were analyzed. The included eyes were classified based on the timing of vitrectomy in relation to the initial trauma into two groups: 149 eyes (the first group) operated on between the 3rd and the 4th week and 58 eyes (the second group) operated on after the 4th week after the trauma...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Paul S Page, Alexander C Cambon, Robert F James
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) for the treatment of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) has demonstrated variable results for improving visual acuity and remains controversial. Despite limited evidence, time from symptom onset to thrombolysis is believed to be an important factor in predicting visual improvement after IAT. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted and individual subject level data were extracted from relevant studies...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
Jesper Hallas, Anton Pottegård, Shirley Wang, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Joshua J Gagne
Studying the effect of chronic medication exposure by means of a case-crossover design may result in an upward-biased odds ratio. In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design). Using Danish data resources from 1995-2012, we conducted case-crossover and case-time-control analyses for 3 medications (statins, insulin, and thyroxine) in relation to 3 outcomes (retinal detachment, wrist fracture, and ischemic stroke), all with assumed null associations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
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