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Boris A Feniouk, Vladimir P Skulachev
Reactive oxygen species generated in mitochondria is an important factor contributing to mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction underlying many degenerative diseases, chronic pathologies and aging. The idea of delivering antioxidant molecules to mitochondria in vivo to treat these diseases and slow aging intensively developed in the last 20 years. Derivatives of quinones covalently conjugated to a lipophilic cation (e.g., MitoQ and SkQ) were the most extensively studied mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. These compounds have now been used in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical trials in humans...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Filomena S G Silva, Rui F Simões, Renata Couto, Paulo J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main factors responsible for human morbidity and mortality. Since mitochondria play a critical role in the regulation of cardiac tissue homeostasis, this organelle is a critical target for the protective effects of several pharmaceuticals. Although specific mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and some pharmacological agents are described as potential cardioprotective agents, there are still a few effective mitochondrial therapies for the treatment of CVDs...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Daniel D Shill, W Michael Southern, T Bradley Willingham, Kasey A Lansford, Kevin K McCully, Nathan T Jenkins
Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to three weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3(+) , CD3(+) /CD31(+) , CD14(+) /CD31(+) , CD31(+) , CD34(+) /VEGFR2(+) and CD62E(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) in healthy men aged 22...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology
David M Stucki, Céline Ruegsegger, Silvio Steiner, Julika Radecke, Michael P Murphy, Benoît Zuber, Smita Saxena
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), due to an unstable polyglutamine expansion within the ubiquitously expressed Ataxin-1 protein, leads to the premature degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs), decreasing motor coordination and causing death within 10-15 years of diagnosis. Currently, there are no therapies available to slow down disease progression. As secondary cellular impairments contributing to SCA1 progression are poorly understood, here, we focused on identifying those processes by performing a PC specific proteome profiling of Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice at a symptomatic stage...
August 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Aleksandra Kezic, Ivan Spasojevic, Visnja Lezaic, Milica Bajcetic
Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury emerges in various clinical settings as a great problem complicating the course and outcome. Ischemia/reperfusion injury is still an unsolved puzzle with a great diversity of investigational approaches, putting the focus on oxidative stress and mitochondria. Mitochondria are both sources and targets of ROS. They participate in initiation and progression of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury linking oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. The dependence of kidney proximal tubule cells on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism makes them particularly prone to harmful effects of mitochondrial damage...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ashima Bhattacharjee, Haojun Yang, Megan Duffy, Emily Robinson, Arianrhod Conrad-Antoville, Ya-Wen Lu, Tony Capps, Lelita Braiterman, Michael Wolfgang, Michael P Murphy, Ling Yi, Stephen G Kaler, Svetlana Lutsenko, Martina Ralle
Copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Loss of ATP7A activity is associated with fatal Menkes disease and various other pathologies. In cells, ATP7A inactivation disrupts copper transport from the cytosol into the secretory pathway. Using fibroblasts from Menkes disease patients and mouse 3T3-L1 cells with a CRISPR/Cas9-inactivated ATP7A, we demonstrate that ATP7A dysfunction is also damaging to mitochondrial redox balance. In these cells, copper accumulates in nuclei, cytosol, and mitochondria, causing distinct changes in their redox environment...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hasibur Rehman, Qinlong Liu, Yasodha Krishnasamy, Zengdun Shi, Venkat K Ramshesh, Khujista Haque, Rick G Schnellmann, Michael P Murphy, John J Lemasters, Don C Rockey, Zhi Zhong
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Michael P Murphy, Vladimir P Skulachev, Yuri N Antonenko
Many mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (MTAs) that comprise a quinol moiety covalently attached through an aliphatic carbon chain to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation are widely used for evaluating the role of mitochondria in pathological processes involving oxidative stress. The potency of MTAs to carry electrons across biological membranes and thereby mediate transmembrane redox processes was unknown. To assess this, we measured the rate of ferricyanide reduction inside liposomes by external ascorbate...
October 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Li Liu, Mei-jiao Wang, Ting-he Yu, Zhi Cheng, Min Li, Qian-wen Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mitoquinone (MitoQ) on post-thaw human sperm. METHODS: Semen samples were collected from 60 normal fertile men, each divided into six parts of equal volume to be incubated at 37 °C in normal saline (G0, control) or in the extender with 2 nmol/L (G1), 20 nmol/L (G2), 200 nmol/L (G3), 2 µmol/L (G4), and 20 µmol/L of MitoQ (G5). After one hour of incubation, the samples were subjected to computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) for sperm motility, flow cytometry for reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid assay for the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), and MitoTracker fluorescent staining and flow cytometry for the sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
March 2016: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Michael O Breckwoldt, Antonis A Armoundas, Miguel A Aon, Martin Bendszus, Brian O'Rourke, Markus Schwarzländer, Tobias P Dick, Felix T Kurz
Redox switches are important mediators in neoplastic, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. We recently identified spontaneous redox signals in neurons at the single mitochondrion level where transients of glutathione oxidation go along with shortening and re-elongation of the organelle. We now have developed advanced image and signal-processing methods to re-assess and extend previously obtained data. Here we analyze redox and pH signals of entire mitochondrial populations. In total, we quantified the effects of 628 redox and pH events in 1797 mitochondria from intercostal axons and neuromuscular synapses using optical sensors (mito-Grx1-roGFP2; mito-SypHer)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiangling Yin, Maria Manczak, P Hemachandra Reddy
The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods...
May 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Charles Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Karen Lambert, Carla Ferreri, Jennifer Rieusset, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Jérôme Lecomte, Raymond Ebabe Elle, Eric Badia, Michael P Murphy, Christine Feillet-Coudray
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance is increasing in both developed and developing countries. It is generally accepted that the development of these features is preceded by, or accompanied with, impaired mitochondrial function. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of a mitochondrial-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) on muscle lipid profile modulation and mitochondrial function in obesogenic diet-fed rats...
April 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Emanuela Santini, Kathryn L Turner, Akila B Ramaraj, Michael P Murphy, Eric Klann, Hanoch Kaphzan
UNLABELLED: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, lack of speech, motor dysfunction, and epilepsy. In the majority of the patients, AS is caused by the deletion of small portions of maternal chromosome 15 harboring the UBE3A gene. This results in a lack of expression of the UBE3A gene because the paternal allele is genetically imprinted. The UBE3A gene encodes an enzyme termed ubiquitin ligase E3A (E6-AP) that targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Chao Xu, Ting Liu, Shu Yuan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Markus Nussbaumer, John M Asara, Larysa Teplytska, Michael P Murphy, Angela Logan, Christoph W Turck, Michaela D Filiou
Current treatment strategies for anxiety disorders are predominantly symptom-based. However, a third of anxiety patients remain unresponsive to anxiolytics highlighting the need for more effective, mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. We have previously compared high vs low anxiety mice and identified changes in mitochondrial pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress. In this work, we show that selective pharmacological targeting of these mitochondrial pathways exerts anxiolytic effects in vivo...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anil Kumar, Arti Singh
Neurodegenerative diseases are intricate in nature because of the involvement of the multiple pathophysiological events including mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease explained by extracellular amyloid β deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and mitochondrial dysfunction. Increasing evidence has indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction displays significant role in the pathophysiological processes of AD. Mitochondrial dysfunction involves alterations in mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complex activities, oxidative stress, opening of permeability transition pore, and enhanced apoptosis...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Anne O Oyewole, Mark A Birch-Machin
Redox homeostasis is maintained by the antioxidant defense system, which is responsible for eliminating a wide range of oxidants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and metals. Mitochondria-localized antioxidants are widely studied because the mitochondria, the major producers of intracellular ROS, have been linked to the cause of aging and other chronic diseases. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have shown great potential because they cross the mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer and eliminate ROS at the heart of the source...
December 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jun Li, Wang He, Bo Liao, Jingyue Yang
This study evaluated the association between free fatty acid (FFA), ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetic patients and investigated the molecular mechanism. db/db and high fat (HF)-fed mice were treated by Etomoxir, an inhibitor of CPT1, MitoQ, and PFT-α, an inhibitor of P53. Bone metabolic factors were assessed and BMSCs were isolated and induced to osteogenic differentiation. FFA, lipid peroxidation and mtDNA copy number were correlated with BMD in T2DM patients...
2015: Scientific Reports
Katalin Volgyi, Gábor Juhász, Zsolt Kovacs, Botond Penke
A common feature of neurodegenerative diseases is the formation of misfolded, mostly enzyme resistant proteins. These substances may form toxic assemblies according to the current concept of the neurodegenerative diseases. Overlapping of the misfolded proteins is typical in these disorders. The formation of misfolded proteins and toxic aggregates point to a common pathway of these disorders: failure in normal protein folding in the ER as a consequence of ER-stress and mitochondrial energy production. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rather heterogeneous, multifactorial disorder with wide clinical heterogeneity and is classified into several subtypes...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
Beth Kelly, Gillian M Tannahill, Michael P Murphy, Luke A J O'Neill
Metformin, a frontline treatment for type II diabetes mellitus, decreases production of the pro-form of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in response to LPS in macrophages. We found that it specifically inhibited pro-IL-1β production, having no effect on TNF-α. Furthermore, metformin boosted induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to LPS. We ruled out a role for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the effect of metformin because activation of AMPK with A769662 did not mimic metformin here...
August 14, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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