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Diabetes, gestational, thyroid, endocrine

Celeste C Thomas, Meltem Zeytinoglu
Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, and osteoporosis are endocrine conditions affecting a significant proportion of women presenting to the obstetrician-gynecologist. Obstetrician-gynecologists are often the first health-care providers that young women see in adulthood, and thus, have a critical opportunity to identify women at risk for gestational and overt diabetes and manage the condition in those who have developed it. The obstetrician-gynecologist should be aware of the appropriate therapeutic options and treatment goals (eg, hemoglobin A1c) for women with diabetes...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Ramandeep Kaur, Kapil Gupta
Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before it is viable, occurring at a rate of 15-20%. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) or habitual miscarriage is defined as repeated occurrence of 3 or more miscarriages before 20(th) week of gestation accounting for the most common complication of early pregnancy in humans. Various etiological factors responsible for recurrent miscarriage are anatomical, genetical, endocrinological, immunological, and infectious. The endocrinological abnormalities may be polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, luteal phase defect, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, or hyperandrogenism contributing to recurrent pregnancy loss...
April 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Annemiek M C P Joosen, Ivon J M van der Linden, Neletta de Jong-Aarts, Marieke A A Hermus, Antonius A M Ermens, Monique J M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH are recommended to assess thyroid function during pregnancy due to changes in thyroid physiology. Laboratories should verify reference intervals for their population and assay used. No consistent upper reference limit (URL) for TSH during pregnancy is reported in literature. We investigated the use of non-pregnant reference intervals for TSH, recommended during pregnancy by current Dutch guidelines, by deriving trimester-specific reference intervals in disease-free Dutch pregnant women as these are not available...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
J L Gallo-Vallejo, F J Gallo-Vallejo
The various endocrinopathies that may occur during the postpartum period are described. The most important and common is gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, but other less common, and also very important ones, are mentioned such as hypopituitarism (Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis) and thyroid disorders, pre-existing (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism), or postpartum onset (postpartum thyroiditis and Graves' disease). After describing their characteristics, the emphasis is placed on the proper management of these endocrine diseases, some of them which exclusively appear during the postpartum period...
March 2015: Semergen
Sherita Hill Golden, Arleen Brown, Jane A Cauley, Marshall H Chin, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Catherine Kim, Julie Ann Sosa, Anne E Sumner, Blair Anton
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society...
September 2012: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David M Sherer, Mudar Dalloul, Ghadir Salame, Puja Kalidas, Harry L Zinn, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2a is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by specific proto-oncogene mutations characterized by medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma, and, occasionally, multiglandular parathyroid hyperplasia, which rarely complicates pregnancy. Secondary diabetes rarely has been reported in association with principal endocrinopathies complicating pregnancy. CASE: A 34-year-old primiparous woman with recently diagnosed gestational diabetes had repeated episodes of dizziness at 30 weeks of gestation, initially attributed to glyburide...
February 2010: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Meenakshi Titoria Sahu, Vinita Das, Suneeta Mittal, Anjoo Agarwal, Monashis Sahu
PURPOSE: Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt, but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are few data from India about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. With this background, this study aims to find prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome in Indian population. METHODS: Six hundred and 33 pregnant women in second trimester were registered...
February 2010: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Christèle Dubourg, Claude Bendavid, Laurent Pasquier, Catherine Henry, Sylvie Odent, Véronique David
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a complex brain malformation resulting from incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon, occurring between the 18th and the 28th day of gestation and affecting both the forebrain and the face. It is estimated to occur in 1/16,000 live births and 1/250 conceptuses. Three ranges of increasing severity are described: lobar, semi-lobar and alobar HPE. Another milder subtype of HPE called middle interhemispheric variant (MIHF) or syntelencephaly is also reported. In most of the cases, facial anomalies are observed in HPE, like cyclopia, proboscis, median or bilateral cleft lip/palate in severe forms, ocular hypotelorism or solitary median maxillary central incisor in minor forms...
2007: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Ad Rijnberk, Hans S Kooistra, Jan A Mol
Over several millennia, humans have created hundreds of dog and cat breeds by selective breeding, including fixation of mutant genes. The domestic dog is unique in the extent of its variation in height, weight and shape as well as its behavior. It is primarily the relatively long persistence of high levels of growth hormone (GH) release at a young age that accounts for the large body size in giant breeds of dogs. Several of the endocrine diseases of humans are also known to occur as similar entities in dogs and cats...
August 2003: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Stefano Cianfarani, Arianna Maiorana, Caterina Geremia, Giuseppe Scirè, Gian Luigi Spadoni, Daniela Germani
Fetal growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. In addition, 10-20% of children born small for gestational age (SGA) do not achieve a normal final height. The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and endocrine status in SGA children, compared with that in children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Furthermore, within the SGA group, we aimed to relate postnatal growth to anthropometric, biochemical, and endocrine parameters...
June 2003: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
C P Roberts, A A Murphy
Repeated pregnancy wastage is defined as the loss of three consecutive pregnancies at less than 20 weeks of gestation andfetal weight less than 500 g. This article provides guidelines to evaluate endocrinopathies associated with recurrent abortions. Thyroid disorder, although usually obvious, has a high frequency in the female population and should be evaluated and treated, if revealed. Recent studies indicate that thyroid antibodies, even in the absence of abnormal thyroid function tests, may be related to pregnancy loss...
2000: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
L Fernandez-Soto, A Gonzalez, J A Lobón, J A Lopez, C M Peterson, F Escobar-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: To study whether the presence of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs) before gestation in IDDM affects thyroid function and metabolic control during pregnancy and early postpartum as well as neonatal outcome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective study at an outpatient endocrine-obstetric unit was carried out in 20 pregnant IDDM women. Free T4 (thyroxine), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), TPO-Abs, and HbA1c were assayed before gestation; during the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy; and 3 months postpartum...
October 1997: Diabetes Care
M Hallak, J E O'Brien, N B Isada, M P Johnson, A Drugan, M I Evans
OBJECTIVE: Endocrine alterations of metabolism such as diabetes and obesity are known to affect maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein interpretation. Thyroid function has been questioned, e.g., because of binding globulins, but not adequately studied as to its impact upon maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effects of T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on alpha-fetoprotein production, and to determine if thyroid function (hypothyroidism) alters maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein...
March 1997: Journal of Maternal-fetal Medicine
N W Shammas, J D Brown, B W Foreman, D R Marutani, D Maddela, D Tonner
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare congenital disease that has been described in association with hypothalamic dysfunction. A case of polyendocrine dysfunction is described in a 22 year-old white female with septo-optic dysplasia. Findings included atrophic optic nerves, a cavum septum pellucidum and a small pituitary gland detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient had central diabetes insipidus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and gestational diabetes mellitus. A review of the literature is presented...
1993: Journal of Medicine
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