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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431449/peripheral-and-central-glucocorticoid-signaling-contributes-to-positive-energy-balance-in-rats
#1
Tássia Karin Borba, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Raquel da Silva Aragão, Ana Elisa Toscano, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro
The obesity epidemic has been the target of several studies to understand its etiology. The pathophysiological processes that take to obesity generally relate to the rupture of energy balance. This imbalance can result from environmental and/or endogenous events. Among the endogenous events, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which promotes stress response via glucocorticoid activity, is considered a modulator of energy balance. However, it remains controversial whether the increase in plasma levels of glucocorticoids results in a positive or negative energy balance...
April 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431443/-surgical-and-interventional-therapy-of-mitral-valve-regurgitation
#2
Wolfgang Schillinger, Miriam Puls, Bernhard C Danner
Depending from the etiology of mitral valve pathology and surgical risk, mitral valve surgery is the therapy of choice for most degenerative mitral valve diseases. In isolated secondary mitral valve regurgitation, the indication for interventional or conservative therapy becomes more important. In severe left ventricular dysfunction heart transplantation has to be taken into consideration. If relevant coronary artery disease is present and bypass surgery is indicated, mitral valve surgery is mandatory in severe regurgitation and is subject to a benefit-risk evaluation in moderate regurgitation...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431429/it-takes-a-village-to-deliver-effective-and-efficient-care-team-based-performance
#3
Katherine A Meese, Nancy M Borkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#4
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431426/anesthesiologists-and-disaster-medicine-a-needs-assessment-for-education-and-training-and-reported-willingness-to-respond
#5
Heather K Hayanga, Daniel J Barnett, Natasha R Shallow, Michael Roberts, Carol B Thompson, Itay Bentov, Gozde Demiralp, Bradford D Winters, Deborah A Schwengel
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists provide comprehensive health care across the emergency department, operating room, and intensive care unit. To date, anesthesiologists' perspectives regarding disaster medicine and public health preparedness have not been described. METHODS: Anesthesiologists' thoughts and attitudes were assessed via a Web-based survey at 3 major academic institutions. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess self-reported perceptions of knowledge and skills, as well as attitudes and beliefs regarding education and training, employee development, professional obligation, safety, psychological readiness, efficacy, personal preparedness, and willingness to respond (WTR)...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431413/novel-oral-anticoagulants-and-trauma-the-results-of-a-prospective-american-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-multi-institutional-trial
#6
Leslie Kobayashi, Galinos Barmparas, Patrick Bosarge, Carlos V Brown, Marko Bukur, Matthew M Carrick, Richard D Catalano, Jan Holly-Nicolas, Kenji Inaba, Stephen Kaminski, Amanda L Klein, Tammy Kopelman, Eric J Ley, Ericca M Martinez, Forrest O Moore, Jason Murry, Raminder Nirula, Douglas Paul, Jacob Quick, Omar Rivera, Martin Schreiber, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: The number of anticoagulated trauma patients is increasing. Trauma patients on warfarin have been found to have poor outcomes, particularly after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, the effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOAs) on trauma outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that patients on NOAs would have higher rates of ICH, ICH progression, and death compared with patients on traditional anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents. METHODS: This was a prospective observational trial across 16 trauma centers...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#7
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#8
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431159/likelihood-of-tree-topologies-with-fossils-and-diversification-rate-estimation
#9
Gilles Didier, Marine Fau, Michel Laurin
Since the diversification process cannot be directly observed at the human scale, it has to be studied from the information available, namely the extant taxa and the fossil record. In this sense, phylogenetic trees including both extant taxa and fossils are the most complete representations of the diversification process that one can get. Such phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from molecular and morphological data, to some extent. Among the temporal information of such phylogenetic trees, fossil ages are by far the most precisely known (divergence times are inferences calibrated mostly with fossils)...
April 18, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#10
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431117/seeking-certainty-judicial-approaches-to-the-non-treatment-of-minimally-conscious-patients
#11
Richard Huxtable, Giles Birchley
A modest, but growing, body of case law is developing around the (non-)treatment of patients in the minimally conscious state. We sought to explore the approaches that the courts take to these decisions. Using the results of a qualitative analysis, we identify five key features of the rulings to date. First, the judges appear keen to frame the cases in such a way that these are rightly matters for judicial determination. Secondly, the judges appraise the types and forms of expertise that enter the courtroom, seeming to prefer the 'objective' and 'scientific', and particularly the views of the doctors...
April 18, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431096/a-new-rapid-resazurin-based-microdilution-assay-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#12
Sunniva Foerster, Valentino Desilvestro, Lucy J Hathaway, Christian L Althaus, Magnus Unemo
Objectives: Rapid, cost-effective and objective methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae would greatly enhance surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Etest, disc diffusion and agar dilution methods are subjective, mostly laborious for large-scale testing and take ∼24 h. We aimed to develop a rapid broth microdilution assay using resazurin (blue), which is converted into resorufin (pink fluorescence) in the presence of viable bacteria. Methods: The resazurin-based broth microdilution assay was established using 132 N...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431068/self-reported-physical-activity-and-major-adverse-events-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-report-from-the-eurobservational-research-programme-pilot-survey-on-atrial-fibrillation-eorp-af-general-registry
#13
Marco Proietti, Giuseppe Boriani, Cécile Laroche, Igor Diemberger, Mircea I Popescu, Lars H Rasmussen, Gianfranco Sinagra, Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Deirdre A Lane, Gregory Y H Lip
Aims: Physical activity is protective against cardiovascular (CV) events, both in general population and in high-risk CV cohorts. However, the relationship between physical activity with major adverse outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) is not well-established. Our aim was to analyse this relationship in a 'real-world' AF population. Second, we investigated the influence of physical activity on arrhythmia progression. Methods and Results: We studied all patients enrolled in the EURObservational Research Programme on AF (EORP-AF) Pilot Survey...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430989/gene-fractionation-and-function-in-the-ancient-subgenomes-of-maize
#14
Simon Renny-Byfield, Eli Rodgers-Melnick, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
The maize genome experienced an ancient whole genome duplication approximately 10 million years ago and the duplicate subgenomes have since experienced reciprocal gene loss (fractionation) such that many genes have returned to single-copy status. This process has not affected the subgenomes equally; reduced gene expression in one of the subgenomes mitigates the consequences of mutations and gene deletions and is thought to drive higher rates of fractionation. Here we take advantage of published genome-wide SNP and phenotype association data to show that, in accordance with predictions of this model, paralogs with greater expression contribute more to phenotypic variation compared to their lowly expressed counterparts...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430964/metalims-a-simple-open-source-laboratory-information-management-system-for-small-metagenomic-labs
#15
Cassie Elizabeth Heinle, Nicolas Paul Eugène Gaultier, Dana Miller, Rikky Wenang Purbojati, Federico M Lauro
BACKGROUND: As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated IT position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430667/investigating-point-to-point-emissivity-variation-of-wounded-tissue
#16
Ellen Keenan, Georgina Gethin, Louisa Flynn, David Watterson, Gerard O'Connor
Infrared cameras are becoming increasingly popular in clinical applications as they allow fast, non-contact temperature measurements. As abnormal heat distribution can indicate illness, infrared cameras have been applied in the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of conditions (Lahiri, Bagavathiappan, Jayakumar, & Philip, 2012). Current practices, however, often overlook the importance of emissivity when taking thermal measurements. The consensus is that human skin has an emissivity of 0.98 (Soerensen et al...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430666/myc-induced-glutaminolysis-bypasses-hif-driven-glycolysis-in-hypoxic-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-cells
#17
Matilda Munksgaard Thorén, Marica Vaapil, Johan Staaf, Maria Planck, Martin E Johansson, Sofie Mohlin, Sven Påhlman
We previously demonstrated that small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells lack HIF-2α protein expression, whereas HIF-1α in these cells is expressed at both acute and prolonged hypoxia. Here we show that low HIF2A expression correlates with high expression of MYC genes. Knockdown of HIF1A expression had no or limited effect on cell survival and growth in vitro. Unexpectedly, hypoxic ATP levels were not affected by HIF-1α knockdown and SCLC cell viability did not decrease upon glucose deprivation. In line with these in vitro data, xenograft tumor-take and growth were not significantly affected by repressed HIF1A expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430571/forty-years-since-taking-care-of-the-hateful-patient
#18
Richard B Gunderman, Peter R Gunderman
Using the word "hateful" is not the only option in describing patients who induce in clinicians feelings of dread. We suggest an alternative approach to the language of hate, one that seeks dignity and perhaps even a divine spark in every patient.
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430570/repairing-difficult-patient-clinician-relationships
#19
Denise M Dudzinski, Carrol Alvarez
Using a case example, we offer guidance for improving "difficult" clinician-patient relationships. These relationships may be repaired by acknowledging a clinician's part in conflict, empathizing with patients, identifying a patient's skill deficits, and employing communication and engagement techniques used by mental health professionals. Clinicians will inevitably take on more of the work of repairing damaged relationships, but doing so improves the odds of these patients receiving the help they need.
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430498/interfacial-dzyaloshinskii-moriya-interaction-in-pt-cofeb-films-effect-of-the-heavy-metal-thickness
#20
S Tacchi, R E Troncoso, M Ahlberg, G Gubbiotti, M Madami, J Åkerman, P Landeros
We report the observation of a Pt layer thickness dependence on the induced interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ultrathin Pt(d_{Pt})/CoFeB films. Taking advantage of the large spin-orbit coupling of the heavy metal, the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is quantified by Brillouin light scattering measurements of the frequency nonreciprocity of spin waves in the ferromagnet. The magnitude of the induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling is found to saturate to a value of 0.45  mJ/m^{2} for Pt thicknesses larger than ∼2  nm...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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