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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779222/downwards-trends-in-adolescent-risk-taking-behaviours-in-new-zealand-exploring-driving-forces-for-change
#1
Sonia Lewycka, Terryann Clark, Roshini Peiris-John, John Fenaughty, Pat Bullen, Simon Denny, Theresa Fleming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#2
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779160/an-event-level-analysis-of-condomless-anal-intercourse-with-a-hiv-discordant-or-hiv-status-unknown-partner-among-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-a-multi-site-study
#3
Cui Yang, Carl Latkin, Karin Tobin, David Seal, Beryl Koblin, Geetanjali Chander, Daniel Siconolfi, Stephen Flores, Pilgrim Spikes
Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779089/duration-of-opening-statement-of-patients-attending-a-chronic-pain-clinic-consultation
#4
Ather Imran, Deepak Doltani, Jean Saunders, Dominic Harmon
BACKGROUND: The opening patient statement is an important part of the medical consultation. It is where after the initial solicitation the physician gets information about the patient's current problems and concerns. Previous research shows that 23-28% of patients are allowed to complete their opening statement un-interruptedly in the general practice setting. Interruption results in fewer patient concerns expressed and failure to gather potentially important patient information. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the duration of opening statements of patients attending a chronic pain clinic consultation...
May 19, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779054/dietary-modifications-and-lipid-accumulation-product-are-associated-with-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressures-in-the-women-s-health-trial-feasibility-study-in-minority-populations
#5
REVIEW
Alok Bhargava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 65% of adults over 60 years in the USA are hypertensive. Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are fueling the hypertension epidemic. The effects of higher intakes of fruits and vegetables and whole-grain products on systolic and diastolic blood pressures were analyzed using data at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months on 349 and 573 subjects, respectively, in the control and intervention groups of the Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778931/monitoring-tool-usage-in-surgery-videos-using-boosted-convolutional-and-recurrent-neural-networks
#6
Hassan Al Hajj, Mathieu Lamard, Pierre-Henri Conze, Béatrice Cochener, Gwenolé Quellec
This paper investigates the automatic monitoring of tool usage during a surgery, with potential applications in report generation, surgical training and real-time decision support. Two surgeries are considered: cataract surgery, the most common surgical procedure, and cholecystectomy, one of the most common digestive surgeries. Tool usage is monitored in videos recorded either through a microscope (cataract surgery) or an endoscope (cholecystectomy). Following state-of-the-art video analysis solutions, each frame of the video is analyzed by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) whose outputs are fed to recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in order to take temporal relationships between events into account...
May 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778917/favorite-odor-induces-negative-dream-emotion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#7
Satomi Okabe, Kazuhiko Fukuda, Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai, Kazuo Yamada
OBJECTIVE: As connections between nightmares and various psychiatric disorders have been reported, the clinical significance of studying dream emotionality is now growing in importance. Because the olfactory bulb connects directly to the amygdala odor presentation may be a crucial tool to study dream emotions. Previous studies have demonstrated that presentation of positive/negative odors during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep affects various aspects of dreaming. Although olfactory perception can be influenced by personal experiences, the role of individual preferences in the effects of olfactory stimuli on dreaming has not yet been clarified...
April 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778896/formation-and-transformation-of-calcium-phosphate-phases-under-biologically-relevant-conditions-experiments-and-modelling
#8
Agnese Carino, Christian Ludwig, Antonio Cervellino, Elisabeth Müller, Andrea Testino
The experimental data on calcium phosphates formation were collected in dilute solution at constant pH (7.40) and temperature (37.0 °C) at different levels of ionic strength (IS). The evolution of the solid phase formation is described in detail using a thermodynamic-kinetic model. The thermodynamic model takes into account all relevant chemical species as well as Posner's clusters; the kinetic model, based on the discretized population balance approach, accounts for the solid formation from solution. The experimental data are consistent with an initial formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite), which dominates the nucleation rate, and its rapid transformation into octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or hydroxyapatite (HA), which dominates the growth rate...
May 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778895/therapeutic-antibody-directed-osteogenic-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mscs
#9
Qingqing Wu, Bo Yang, Cong Cao, Kevin Hu, Ping Wang, Yi Man
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a new cell source for regenerative medicine. Recent advances in tissue engineering have brought to light the therapeutic application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in bone defect repair. However, a safe and efficient way to differentiate iPSCs into osteogenic lineage remains to be a major challenge. Here we describe an approach using anti-BMP2 antibodies (Abs) to mediate osteogenic differentiation of iPSC-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iMSCs)...
May 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778649/fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-combining-kinetic-modeling-and-optimization-techniques-points-out-avenues-to-effective-process-design
#10
Johannes Scheiblauer, Stefan Scheiner, Martin Joksch, Barbara Kavsek
A combined experimental/theoretical approach is presented, for improving the predictability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations. In particular, a mathematical model was developed explicitly taking into account the main mechanisms of the fermentation process, allowing for continuous computation of key process variables, including the biomass concentration and the respiratory quotient (RQ). For model calibration and experimental validation, batch and fed-batch fermentations were carried out. Comparison of the model-predicted biomass concentrations and RQ developments with the corresponding experimentally recorded values shows a remarkably good agreement for both batch and fed-batch processes, confirming the adequacy of the model...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778630/bcg-vaccination-protects-against-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ascertained-by-tuberculin-skin-testing
#11
Pelzer Pt, Mutayoba B, Cobelens Fgj
OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting evidence as to whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination offers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ascertained by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We investigated the association between BCG vaccination status and TST results in a set of surveys at increasing TST cut-off values to take cross-reactions to BCG vaccination into account. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from three consecutive tuberculin surveys done among schoolchildren in Tanzania between 1990 and 2002...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778626/factors-underlying-risk-taking-in-heroin-dependent-individuals-feedback-processing-and-environmental-contingencies
#12
Daniella M Saleme, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Abdrabo Soliman, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs)...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778536/enhanced-pkmt-substrate-recognition-through-non-active-site-interactions
#13
Margarita Kublanovsky, Amir Aharoni, Dan Levy
Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) catalyze the methylation of lysine residues on many different cellular proteins. Despite extensive biochemical and structural studies, focusing on PKMT active site-peptide interactions, little is known regarding how PKMTs recognize globular substrates. To examine whether these enzymes recognize protein substrates through interactions that take place outside of the active site, we have measured SETD6 and SETD7 activity with both protein and peptide RelA substrate. We have utilized the MTase-Glo™ methyltransferase assay to measure the activity of SETD6 and SETD7 with the different RelA substrates and calculated the Michaelis-Menten (MM) parameters...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778529/ap-1-takes-centre-stage-in-enhancer-chromatin-dynamics
#14
Pedro Madrigal, Kaur Alasoo
Recent studies involving induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming in mice and monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in humans have revealed a role for the transcription factor (TF) activator protein 1 (AP-1) in chromatin accessibility. Enhancer selection may be determined not only by cell type-specific sets of TFs but also by broadly expressed ones like AP-1.
May 16, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778468/herd-level-associations-between-human-animal-relationship-management-fecal-cortisol-metabolites-and-udder-health-of-organic-dairy-cows
#15
S Ivemeyer, C Simantke, A Ebinghaus, P H Poulsen, J T Sorensen, T Rousing, R Palme, U Knierim
Impact patterns of human-animal relationship (HAR) and herd stress level on udder health were investigated in a cross-sectional study on 30 German and Danish organic dairy herds also taking into account influencing factors regarding housing and management. Cow behavior (avoidance distance, tolerance to tactile interaction, release behavior) was assessed in tests, milkers' behavior recorded during milking, and information about contacts with animals during routine work gathered by interview. Additionally, stockpersons' attitudes were recorded via questionnaires...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778410/paleo-oncology-taking-stock-and-moving-forward
#16
Casey L Kirkpatrick, Roselyn A Campbell, Kathryn J Hunt
This article serves as an introduction to the International Journal of Paleopathology's special issue, Paleo-oncology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Reflecting the goals of the special issue, this paper has been designed to provide an overview of the current state of paleo-oncology, to introduce new and innovative paleo-oncological research and ideas, and to serve as a catalyst for future discussions and progress. This paper begins with an overview of the paleo-oncological evidence that can be found in ancient remains, followed by a summary of significant paleo-oncological findings and methodological advances to date...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778345/health-literacy-and-uptake-of-anti-fracture-medications-in-a-population-based-sample-of-australian-women
#17
Sarah M Hosking, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Alison Beauchamp, Rachelle Buchbinder, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
This study investigated associations between health literacy and use of anti-fracture medications in women with osteoporosis. Data were collected for women participating in the population-based Geelong Osteoporosis Study in Australia. Health literacy was ascertained using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) and bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Self-reported current medications were classified using MIMS codes, with the category 'Agent affecting calcium and bone metabolism' indicating osteoporosis treatment...
May 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778205/immunopathological-changes-and-apparent-recovery-from-infection-revealed-in-cattle-in-an-experimental-model-of-johne-s-disease-using-a-lyophilised-culture-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#18
Douglas J Begg, Karren M Plain, Kumudika de Silva, Ratna Gurung, Alison Gunn, Auriol C Purdie, Richard J Whittington
Johne's disease (JD) or paratuberculosis is an economically significant, chronic enteropathy of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Experimental models of JD in cattle are logistically challenging due to the need for long term monitoring, because the clinical disease can take years to manifest. Three trials were undertaken, the largest involving 20 cattle exposed orally to a low dose of C strain MAP and 10 controls studied for 4.75 years. Frequent blood and faecal sampling was used to monitor immunological and infection parameters, and intestinal biopsies were performed at two time points during the subclinical disease phase...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778122/provider-language-proficiency-and-decision-making-when-caring-for-limited-english-proficiency-children-and-families
#19
Yolanda N Evans, Sarah A Rafton, Eriberto Michel, Beth E Ebel
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between self-assessed language ability and provision of clinical care without professional interpretation. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous web-based survey of pediatric residents at a large pediatric training program. Respondents self-rated their language ability, and then reported on their willingness to deliver clinical care without professional interpretation in standardized clinical scenarios. RESULTS: All pediatric residents completed the survey (n=81; 100%)...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778098/hydrochlorothiazide-and-risk-of-hearing-disorder-a-case-series
#20
Natnael Belai, Selamawit Gebrehiwet, Yodit Fitsum, Mulugeta Russom
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide is not known to cause hearing disorder. The Eritrean Pharmacovigilance Centre, however, has received cases of hearing disorder, including irreversible deafness, associated with hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the causal relationship between hydrochlorothiazide and hearing disorder. METHODS: Data was retrieved from the WHO global adverse drug reaction database, VigiBase™. A search on VigiBase™ was made on August 6, 2017 using "hydrochlorothiazide" as drug substance, and "ototoxicity", "decreased hearing", and "vestibular disorder" as reaction terms...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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