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Dose response

Tianyi Wang, Hui Cai, Shizuka Sasazuki, Shoichiro Tsugane, Wei Zheng, Eo Rin Cho, Sun Ha Jee, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei-Cheng You, Meira Epplein
Epidemiological findings on the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present analysis included 810 prospectively ascertained non-cardia gastric cancer cases and 1,160 matched controls from the Helicobacter pylori Biomarker Cohort Consortium, which collected blood samples, demographic, lifestyle, and dietary data at baseline. Conditional logistic regression adjusting for total energy intake, smoking, and H. pylori status, was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for gastric cancer risk across cohort- and sex-specific quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sandeep Prabhu, Vincent Mackin, Alex Ja McLellan, Tuong Phan, Desmond McGlade, Liang-Han Ling, Kah Y Peck, Alexandr Voskoboinik, Bupesh Pathik, Chrishan J Nalliah, Geoff R Wong, Sonia M Azzopardi, Geoffrey Lee, Justin Mariani, Andrew J Taylor, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
INTRODUCTION: The significance of adenosine induced dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction in AF ablation remains controversial. The optimal dose of adenosine to determine dormant PV conduction is yet to be systematically explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing index AF ablation received 3 adenosine doses (12mg, 18mg, 24mg) in a randomized blinded order, immediately after PVI. Electrophysiological (PR prolongation, AV block (AVB) and PV reconnection) and hemodynamic (BP) parameters were measured...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Tatiane Fernandes Farias, Karina da Silva Aguiar, Inajara Rotta, Klezia Morais da Silva Belletti, Juliane Carlotto
Objective: To implement a clinical pharmacy service focused on the comprehensive review of antineoplastic drugs used in therapy of hematological diseases. Methods: An interventional study was conducted in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital in two different periods, with and without a clinical pharmacy service, respectively. This service consisted of an antineoplastic prescription validation (analysis of patients' characteristics, laboratory tests, compliance with the therapeutic protocol and with pharmacotechnical parameters)...
July 2016: Einstein
Dale Ding, Zhiyuan Xu, Han-Hsun Shih, Robert M Starke, Chun-Po Yen, Or Cohen-Inbar, Jason P Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Incompletely obliterated cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after initial treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be treated with a repeat session of SRS. However, the relative efficacy of repeat vs initial SRS is not well specified. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare in matched cohorts the outcomes of repeat vs initial SRS for the treatment of matched cohorts with angioarchitecturally similar AVMs. METHODS: We studied a data set of patients with AVM treated with radiosurgery during the period spanning 1989 to 2013...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Zhengwei Wen, Qunying Jia, Xiaojuan Kang, Yongliang Lou, Lilin Zou, Jifeng Yang, Jimin Gao, Liping Han, Xiang Li
Interferon (IFN) regulates immune responses and antitumor activity. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides can specifically bind to integrin αvβ3, a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed on the surface of various cancer cells. In this study, we expressed recombinant RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and assessed their antitumor activity in vitro. Two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and a negative control protein were expressed in vitro. These two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins could bind the tumor cell surface specifically and did not bind to normal cells...
October 18, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kristian Reich, Craig Leonardi, Mark Lebwohl, Francisco Kerdel, Yukari Okubo, Ricardo Romiti, Orin Goldblum, Ellen B Dennehy, Lisa Kerr, Howard Sofen
BACKGROUND: Scalp is a frequently affected and difficult-to-treat area in psoriasis patients. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the efficacy of ixekizumab in the treatment of patients with scalp psoriasis over 60 weeks using the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI). METHODS: In three Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in UNCOVER-1 (N = 1296), UNCOVER-2 (N = 1224), and UNCOVER-3 (N = 1346) were randomized to subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every 2 weeks (Q2W) or every 4 weeks (Q4W) after a 160 mg starting dose, or placebo through Week 12...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hiromitsu Kumada, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Taro Muramatsu, Naoki Ando, Takanori Oh, Kenji Takamori, Hidetomo Nakamoto
AIMS: Patients with chronic liver disease sometimes develop cholestasis, which induces severe whole-body pruritus that may disrupt daily activities and sleep. To determine the efficacy of nalfurafine hydrochloride (5 µg), which is a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, in improving pruritus, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled study in patients with chronic liver disease with refractory pruritus. Nalfurafine hydrochloride at 2.5 µg was also used to evaluate the dose-response relationship...
October 18, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
James H Yiin, Jeri L Anderson, Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, Donald A Fleming, David J Tollerud, Chih-Yu Tseng, Pi-Hsueh Chen, Kathleen M Waters
OBJECTIVE: To examine the patterns of cause-specific mortality and relationship between internal exposure to uranium and specific causes in a pooled cohort of 29,303 workers employed at three former uranium enrichment facilities in the United States with follow-up through 2011. METHODS: Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the full cohort were calculated with the U.S. population as referent. Internal comparison of the dose-response relation between selected outcomes and estimated organ doses was evaluated using regression models...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Peter P Fong, Taylor B S Bury, Elizabeth E Donovan, Olivia J Lambert, Julia R Palmucci, Stephnie K Adamczak
Exposure to human antidepressants has been shown to disrupt locomotion and other foot-mediated mechanisms in aquatic snails. We tested the effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- and one selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-type antidepressants on the righting response in the marine snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta. All four antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, venlafaxine) significantly increased righting time compared with controls with an exposure time as short as 1 h...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hanne Kuitunen, Susanna Tokola, Topi Siniluoto, Matti Isokangas, Eila Sonkajärvi, Seppo Alahuhta, Taina Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Esa Jantunen, Tapio Nousiainen, Kaija Vasala, Outi Kuittinen
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare brain tumour with a dismal prognosis. Several phase II studies with high-dose methotrexate-based regimens have shown promising early results, but in all hospital-based data published so far, the disease outcome has been poor. Patients with relapsed or refractory disease have a dismal prognosis. We performed retrospective analysis to evaluate results and tolerabilities of BBBD therapy in combination with high-dose therapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Vibeke Strand, Eun Bong Lee, Roy Fleischmann, Rieke E Alten, Tamas Koncz, Samuel H Zwillich, David Gruben, Bethanie Wilkinson, Sriram Krishnaswami, Gene Wallenstein
OBJECTIVES: To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients (defined as no prior treatment or ≤3 doses) receiving tofacitinib versus MTX. METHODS: In the 24-month, phase III, randomised, controlled, ORAL Start trial (NCT01039688), patients were randomised 2:2:1 to receive tofacitinib 5 mg two times per day (n=373), tofacitinib 10 mg two times per day (n=397) or MTX (n=186). PROs assessed included Patient Global Assessment of disease (PtGA), pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36])...
2016: RMD Open
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mayadah B Shehadeh, Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Eman A Hammad
Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and posteducation. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
X R Feng, M L Liu, F Liu, Y Fan, Q P Tian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences of switching aspirin dosage from 100 mg/d to 40 mg/d on cardiovascular benefit, bleeding risk and platelet aggregation in very elderly patients. METHODS: Arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation(AA-Ag) was measured in 537 patients aged 80 or older treated with aspirin (100 mg/d). In the study, 100 patients with low on-treatment platelet aggregation and at high risk of bleeding and low risk of cardiovascular events, were switched to aspirin (40 mg/d) and their platelet aggregation was measured again 7 days later...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Z H Wang, W Zhang, Y Q Zhang, C Y Pang, Y F Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of CD40 siRNA on expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4 and anti-dsDNA antibody of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) animal model MRL/Lpr mice and to discuss its therapy on MRL/Lpr mice. METHODS: In the study, 16 female MRL/Lpr mice were randomly divided into control group (n=4), empty vector group (n=4), CD40-siRNA1 group (n=4) and CD40-siRNA2 group (n=4). The vectors expressing siRNA against CD40 were injected by tail veil into MRL/Lpr mice, while MRL/Lpr mice in control group and empty vector group were injected with the same dose of PBS and pGFP-V-RS vector respectively...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
R E Frye, J Slattery, L Delhey, B Furgerson, T Strickland, M Tippett, A Sailey, R Wynne, S Rose, S Melnyk, S Jill James, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
We sought to determine whether high-dose folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language impairment in a double-blind placebo control setting. Forty-eight children (mean age 7 years 4  months; 82% male) with ASD and language impairment were randomized to receive 12 weeks of high-dose folinic acid (2 mg kg(-1) per day, maximum 50 mg per day; n=23) or placebo (n=25). Children were subtyped by glutathione and folate receptor-α autoantibody (FRAA) status...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Imen Gorsane, I Helal, I Yacoub, F Ben Hamida, E Abderrahim, T Ben Abdallah
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous entity. Previous few studies have evaluated the efficacy of calcineurin inhibitors in primary FSGS and have suggested positive benefit. In this single-center, retrospective study (1975-2014), we report our experience in Tunisian adults with primary FSGS treated with cyclosporine A (CsA). It includes patients histologically proven FSGS and managed in the Charles Nicolle Hospital at Tunis, Tunisia. The dose of CsA was adjusted to maintain a whole blood trough level of 80-150 ng/mL...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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