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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#1
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936468/rosiglitazone-reduces-breast-cancer-risk-in-taiwanese-female-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
This study investigated whether rosiglitazone may affect breast cancer risk in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The reimbursement database of all female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under oral antidiabetic agents or insulin from 1996 to 2009 was retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set on 1 January 2006 and a total of 431447 patients were followed up for breast cancer incidence till the end of 2009. Incidences for ever users, never users and subgroups of rosiglitazone dose-response parameters (tertile cutoffs of cumulative duration and cumulative dose) were calculated and hazard ratios estimated by Cox regression...
December 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936392/rutin-protects-endothelial-dysfunction-by-disturbing-nox4-and-ros-sensitive-nlrp3-inflammasome
#3
Wei Wang, Qiu-Hong Wu, Yong Sui, Yan Wang, Xin Qiu
High glucose induced endothelial dysfunction is blamed for initiation of vascular complication in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rutin has been described in possessing comprehensive pharmacological activities, but the mechanism involved in endothelial protection through regulating oxidative stress and damage is still ambiguous. In the present study, rutin was evaluated in high glucose stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and high glucose diet-treated SD rats were applied to explored the molecular mechanism in rutin counteracting oxidative stress and damage...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936390/irap-inhibition-using-hfi419-prevents-moderate-to-severe-acetylcholine-mediated-vasoconstriction-in-a-rabbit-model
#4
Aisha El-Hawli, Tawar Qaradakhi, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Renee Smith, Martin Caprnda, Radka Opatrilova, Katarina Gazdikova, Maria Benckova, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
Coronary artery vasospasm (constriction) caused by reduced nitric oxide bioavailability leads to myocardial infarction. Reduced endothelial release of nitric oxide by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, leads to paradoxical vasoconstriction as it binds to smooth muscle cell M3 receptors. Thus, inhibition of coronary artery vasospasm will improve clinical outcomes. Inhibition of insulin regulated aminopeptidase has been shown to improve vessel function, thus we tested the hypothesis that HFI419, an inhibitor of insulin regulated aminopeptidase, could reduce blood vessel constriction to acetylcholine...
December 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936352/prescott-tests-of-equality-in-binary-data-under-a-three-treatment-three-perod-crossover-design
#5
Lixia Zhu, Kung-Jong Lui
Three test procedures accounting for patients with tied responses based on Prescott's ideas are developed for comparing three treatments under a three-period crossover trial in binary data. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to evaluate the performance of these test procedures in a variety of situations. The test procedures proposed here are noted to have power larger than those procedures, which utilize only those patients with un-tied responses. The data taken from a three-period crossover trial comparing two different doses of an analgesic with placebo for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea are used to illustrate the use of the test procedures developed here...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936344/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-in-japanese-population-aged-%C3%A2-50%C3%A2-years-when-administered-subcutaneously-versus-intramuscularly
#6
Peter Vink, Masanari Shiramoto, Masayuki Ogawa, Masahiro Eda, Martine Douha, Thomas Heineman, Himal Lal
The impact of alternate routes of vaccine administration, subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM), on the safety and immunogenicity of herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) was assessed in Japanese adults aged ≥ 50 years. During this phase III open-label study, 60 subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive HZ/su through SC or IM routes in a 0, 2 month schedule. Vaccine response rates (VRRs) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE)-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA...
December 9, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936104/mechanical-loading-attenuates-radiation-induced-bone-loss-in-bone-marrow-transplanted-mice
#7
Peter M Govey, Yue Zhang, Henry J Donahue
Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone's capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935886/-adjuvant-phlebotrophic-therapy-and-its-effect-on-anti-inflammatory-response-after-sclerotherapy
#8
V Yu Bogachev, B V Boldin, V N Lobanov, N R Arkadan, M Yu Ermak
The study was aimed at evaluating the degree of the systemic and local inflammatory reaction after sclerotherapy, as well as the effect of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (Detralex) thereupon. The study comprised a total of 60 female patients presenting with reticular veins and telangiectasias (clinical class C1 according to the CEAP classification). The patients were subdivided into two groups, each comprising 30 women. The Study Group patients two weeks prior to the forthcoming sclerotherapy had been taking Detralex prescribed at a daily dose of 1,000 mg whose administration was prolonged by not less than 2 months after the procedure...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935783/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-anesthesia-pharmacology
#9
Brett Morgan, Edwin N Aroke, Jennifer Dungan
The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to identify the impact of genetic variants on drug dosing, response, metabolism, and safety outcomes. The narrow therapeutic indices for anesthesia drugs, variability of patient responses to anesthesia, and the risks associated with surgery make anesthetics and the perioperative period prime targets for pharmacogenetic research. Anesthesia providers strive to optimize anesthesia delivery and patient outcomes and to specifically reduce anesthesia-related risks and negative outcomes...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935219/the-influence-of-a-chronic-l-carnitine-administration-on-the-plasma-metabolome-of-male-fischer%C3%A2-344-rats
#10
Christoph H Weinert, Michael T Empl, Ralf Krüger, Lara Frommherz, Björn Egert, Pablo Steinberg, Sabine E Kulling
SCOPE: L-carnitine has been advertised as a fat-lowering and performance-enhancing supplement, although scientific evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. The uptake of about 1-2 g of L-carnitine per day may result in the formation of metabolites like trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which in turn may be converted to potential carcinogens or promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess whether an L-carnitine supplementation changes overall metabolism or causes the formation of previously unknown metabolites, we analyzed plasma samples from Fischer 344 rats originating from a previous study 2 using a multi-platform metabolomics approach comprising LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-MS methods...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935166/time-to-viral-suppression-is-not-related-to-achievement-of-svr12-in-hcv-gt1-infected-patients-treated-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin
#11
S Alqahtani, R Ozaras, V Isakov, D Wyles, P Ferenci, J J Feld, F Calinas, M Gschwantler, E Gane, D Crawford, I M Jacobson, E O Dumas, M King, M Sulkowski
High rates of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) were achieved in six phase 3 trials of ombitasvir (OBV, an NS5A inhibitor), paritaprevir (an NS3/4A protease inhibitor) co-dosed with ritonavir (PTV/r) + dasabuvir (DSV, an NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitor) (ie, 3D regimen) with or without ribavirin (RBV) in adults with chronic genotype (GT) 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We assessed whether time to first HCV RNA value below the lower limit of quantification in patients with and without cirrhosis was associated with achievement of SVR12...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935054/damaging-effects-of-ultraviolet-radiation-on-the-cornea
#12
Naomi C Delic, J Guy Lyons, Nick Di Girolamo, Gary M Halliday
The cornea sits at the anterior aspect of the eye and additionally to the skin, is highly exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The cornea blocks a significant proportion of UVB from reaching the posterior structures of the eye. However, UVA can penetrate the full thickness of the cornea, even reaching the anterior portion of the lens. Epidemiological data indicate that UVR is a contributing factor for a multitude of corneal diseases of the cornea including pterygium, photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy, (CDK) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), although the pathogenic mechanisms of each require further elucidation...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934810/effect-of-hypertension-at-presentation-on-prognosis-in-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-presenting-with-normal-renal-angiogram
#13
Swetha Balije, Ashutosh Kumar, Goru Bhawani, Kasturi S N Murthy, Neera Kumari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive disease of heart with systolic and diastolic dysfunction carrying a poor long-term prognosis. The prognostic index and predictors of mortality are considered to be useful in guiding the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of hypertension at presentation on prognosis in patients with DCM presenting with normal renal and coronary angiogram. METHODS: An observational, analytical, non-interventional and a combination of retrospective and prospective study was conducted in patients between 15 and 75 yr of age with DCM having on and off symptoms while receiving treatment in a cardiology outpatient department for more than a year...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934653/leucine-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-dependent-activation-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aging
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal De Bandt
The preservation or restoration of muscle mass is of prime importance for healthy aging. However, aging has been repeatedly shown to be associated with resistance of muscle to the anabolic effects of feeding. Leucine supplementation has been proposed as a possible strategy because of its regulatory role on protein homeostasis. Indeed, it acts independently of growth factors and leads to enhanced cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation and increased protein synthesis. Leucine acts as a signaling molecule directly at the muscle level via the activation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933737/testing-the-influence-of-surfactant-based-wound-dressings-on-proteinase-activity
#15
Sunyoung Jeong, Gregory S Schultz, Daniel J Gibson
Proteinases are enzymes that can digest other proteins. In chronic wounds, a sub-class of these enzymes with the ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) have been found to both inhibit healing and to be able to aid in enzymatically debriding a wound. Enzymatic debridement using the enzymes present in a wound is generally called autolytic debridement. Clinicians seeking to employ autolytic debridement typically use occlusive materials such as medical honey, alginate dressings and other occlusive dressings...
December 8, 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933726/inheritance-of-evolved-clethodim-resistance-in-lolium-rigidum-populations-from-australia
#16
Rupinder Kaur Saini, Jenna Malone, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: In Australia, the extensive use of clethodim for the control of Lolium rigidum has resulted in the evolution of many clethodim-resistant L.rigidum populations. Five clethodim-resistant populations of L. rigidum were analysed for the inheritance of clethodim resistance. RESULTS: Reciprocal crosses were made between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) populations. Within crosses, dose responses of reciprocal F1 families of all populations, except A61 were similar each other, indicating clethodim resistance in these populations is encoded on the nuclear genome...
December 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933547/anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-of-fucoxanthin-via-inhibition-of-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapks-ap-1-pathways-and-activation-of-pka-creb-pathway-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-bv-2-microglial-cells
#17
Dong Zhao, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Yoon Sun Chun, Ming-Yao Gu, Hyun Ok Yang
Microglia play a critical role in controlling the homeostasis of the brain, but over-activated microglia secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which induce neuronal cell death. Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid, has demonstrated a variety of beneficial health effects. Despite accumulating evidence supporting the immune-modulating effects of Fx in vitro, the underlying signaling pathways remain unknown. In the present study, Fx dose-dependently inhibited the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and nitric oxide (NO) productions, and also suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933371/phase-i-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-s-1-plus-oral-leucovorin-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#18
Takayuki Yoshino, Ichinosuke Hyodo, Tomohiro Nishina, Hiroyuki Narahara, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Kunihiro Yoshisue, Narikazu Boku
PURPOSE: S-1 has shown a response rate of 35% in chemonaïve patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Leucovorin enhances the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil, and concurrent oral administration of S-1 and leucovorin may represent a more active treatment option for mCRC. METHODS: S-1 (35 mg/m(2)) and leucovorin (25 mg/body) were orally administered twice daily to chemonaïve patients with mCRC. Predefined dose (schedule)-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the first course and treatment continuity during the first two courses were evaluated during three periods of treatment with S-1 plus leucovorin (level 0, 2 weeks; level 1, 3 weeks; and level 2, 4 weeks), each followed by a 2-week rest...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933365/ketamine-decreases-sensitivity-of-male-rats-to-misleading-negative-feedback-in-a-probabilistic-reversal-learning-task
#19
Michal Rychlik, Eva Bollen, Rafal Rygula
RATIONALE: Depression is characterized by an excessive attribution of value to negative feedback. This imbalance in feedback sensitivity can be measured using the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) task. This task was initially designed for clinical research, but introduction of its rodent version provides a new and much needed translational paradigm to evaluate potential novel antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of a compound showing clear antidepressant properties-ketamine (KET)-on the sensitivity of rats to positive and negative feedback in the PRL paradigm...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933364/behavioral-alterations-of-zebrafish-larvae-after-early-embryonic-exposure-to-ketamine
#20
Luís M Félix, Luís M Antunes, Ana M Coimbra, Ana M Valentim
RATIONALE: Ketamine has been associated with pediatric risks that include neurocognitive impairment and long-term behavioral disorders. However, the neurobehavioral effects of ketamine exposure in early development remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test stage- and dose-dependent effects of ketamine exposure on certain brain functions by evaluating alterations in locomotion, anxiety-like and avoidance behaviors, as well as socialization. METHODS: Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of ketamine (0, 0...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
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