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Edward Yu, Frank B Hu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent literature on dairy products, dairy fatty acids, and cardiometabolic disease. Primary questions of interest include what unique challenges researchers face when investigating dairy products/biomarkers, whether one should consume dairy to reduce disease risk, whether dairy fatty acids may be beneficial for health, and whether one should prefer low- or high-fat dairy products. RECENT FINDINGS: Dairy composes about 10% of the calories in a typical American diet, about half of that coming from fluid milk, half coming from cheese, and small amounts from yogurt...
March 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Benjamin Zeeb, Merve Yavuz-Düzgun, Johannes Dreher, Jacob Evert, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Beraat Özcelik, Jochen Weiss
The incorporation of novel plant-based proteins into foods is often challenging due to an unacceptable bitter sensation. Typically, a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contributes to the proteins' bitterness. The current study therefore focuses on the development of electrical properties on cationic plant proteins to reduce their overall bitterness in order to improve the perceived sensorial acceptance. As such, we utilized a simple mixing process to induce complex coacervation of oppositely charged biopolymers under acidic conditions...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Israel Sunmola Afolabi, Irene Chiamaka Nwachukwu, Chinemelum Sandra Ezeoke, Ruth Chineme Woke, Olawunmi Adebisi Adegbite, Tolulope Dorcas Olawole, Olubukola C Martins
A new plant milk was discovered from the seed of Adenanthera pavonina . The physicochemical and nutritional properties of the new pro-milk extract were assessed, and their biochemical effects were compared with those of soy bean extracts. Eleven groups of three albino rats each were used to assess the health benefits of the pro-milk. Groups were separately administered 3.1, 6.1, and 9.2 µl/g animal wt. pro-milk extract from A. pavonina seed, 6.1 µl/g animal wt. milk extract from soybean, and 6.1 µl/g animal wt...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Jian Zha, Mattheos A G Koffas
Microbial production of plant-derived natural products by engineered microorganisms has achieved great success thanks to large extend to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Anthocyanins, the water-soluble colored pigments found in terrestrial plants that are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many flowers and fruits, are extensively used in food and cosmetics industry; however, their current supply heavily relies on complex extraction from plant-based materials. A promising alternative is their sustainable production in metabolically engineered microbes...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Hege Berg Henriksen, Monica Hauger Carlsen, Ingvild Paur, Sveinung Berntsen, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Anne Juul Skjetne, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Christine Henriksen, Lene Frost Andersen, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
Background: The Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim at reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases and promote overall health. We studied the effect of the Norwegian FBDG in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. There is a need for a time-efficient dietary assessment tool measuring adherence to these guidelines in patients treated for dietary dependent cancer, such as CRC patients. Objective: To evaluate a new short food frequency questionnaire (NORDIET-FFQ), developed to estimate adherence to the Norwegian FBDG among CRC patients...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
S Thiyagarajan, V Edwin Geo, Leenus Jesu Martin, B Nagalingam
This experimental study aims to mitigate harmful emissions from a CI engine using bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) approach. The engine used for this experimental work is a single cylinder CI engine with a rated power of 5.2 kW at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The BECCS approach is a combination of plant-based biofuels and carbon capture and storage system. The whole investigation was done in four phases: (1) Substituting diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) (2) Equal volume blending of Orange oil (ORG) with KOME (3) 20% blending of n-butanol (B) with KOME-ORG blend (4) Carbon capture and storage (CCS) system with zeolite based non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and mono ethanolamine (MEA) based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system with KOME-ORG + B20 blend...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Jun-Xiu Chen, Hanyi Mei, Hao Ai, Guohua Xu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plant growth and is acquired by plants mainly as phosphate (P). Phosphate transporters (Phts) are responsible for P and arsenate (AsV) uptake in plants including arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. It is efficient in AsV uptake and P utilization, but P uptake in P. vittata is largely unknown. In this study, a P. vittata Pht, PvPht1;2, was identified and cloned. After transforming it into tobacco (N. tabacum), three independent transgenic lines (Ox1, Ox10, and Ox21) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Maryam Malmir, Rita Serrano, Manuela Caniça, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Olga Silva
Abstract : Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Asphodelus L. ( Asphodelaceae ) is a genus of 18 species and of a total of 27 species, sub-species and varieties, distributed along the Mediterranean basin, and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on ethnomedical, phytochemical, and biological data related to the genus Asphodelus as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity...
March 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Seunghyeon Kim, Michael F Fenech, Pan-Jun Kim
Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
Cytosine DNA methylation is highly conserved epigenetic modification involved in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes. It was established and maintained by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) in plants. Through genome-wide identification, eight putative SmC5-MTase genes were identified from the genome of Salvia miltiorrhiza , a well-known traditional Chinese medicine material and an emerging model medicinal plant. Based on conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis, eight SmC5-MTase genes were divided into four subfamilies, including MET , CMT , DRM and DNMT2 ...
2018: PeerJ
Mónica Herrero-Huerta, Roderik Lindenbergh, Wolfgang Gard
Plant leaf movement is induced by some combination of different external and internal stimuli. Detailed geometric characterization of such movement is expected to improve understanding of these mechanisms. A metric high-quality, non-invasive and innovative sensor system to analyze plant movement is Terrestrial LiDAR (TLiDAR). This technique has an active sensor and is, therefore, independent of light conditions, able to obtain accurate high spatial and temporal resolution point clouds. In this study, a movement parameterization approach of leaf plants based on TLiDAR is introduced...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
You-Kwan Oh, Kyung-Ran Hwang, Changman Kim, Jung Rae Kim, Jin-Suk Lee
Biofuels are regarded as one of the most viable options for reduction of CO2 emissions in the transport sector. However, conventional plant-based biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, bioethanol)'s share of total transportation-fuel consumption in 2016 was very low, about 4%, due to several major limitations including shortage of raw materials, low CO2 mitigation effect, blending wall, and poor cost competitiveness. Advanced biofuels such as drop-in, microalgal, and electro biofuels, especially from inedible biomass, are considered to be a promising solution to the problem of how to cope with the growing biofuel demand...
February 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Luciana Gueiros da Motta, Juliana Alves de Morais, Ana Carolina A M Tavares, Leonora Maciel Sousa Vianna, Marcia Renata Mortari, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista Amorim, Rosângela R Carvalho, Francisco José R Paumgartten, Aline Pic-Taylor, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Eugenia S Mardanova, Nikolai V Ravin
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a widely distributed infection that almost annually causes seasonal epidemics. The current egg-based platforms for influenza vaccine production are facing a number of challenges and are failing to satisfy the global demand in the case of pandemics due to the long production time. Recombinant vaccines are an alternative that can be quickly produced in high quantities in standard expression systems. METHODS: Plants may become a promising biofactory for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins due to low cost, scalability, and safety...
March 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Clare R Wall, Alistair W Stewart, Robert J Hancox, Rinki Murphy, Irene Braithwaite, Richard Beasley, Edwin A Mitchell
Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Jing Li, Jinlin Fan, Jian Zhang, Zhen Hu, Shuang Liang
In the present study, biochar was prepared from scrap wetland macrophyte Arundo donax at different temperatures and then was evaluated for its feasibility as substrate to enhance nitrogen removal performance of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs). Three groups of SFCW systems with different addition of biochar (0, 10, 20%, v/v) were constructed to investigate the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from biochar on nitrogen transformation. Results showed that the concentration of DOM released from biochar widely ranged from 6...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nini H Sissener
'Are we what we eat?' Yes and no. Although dietary fat affects body fat, there are many modifying mechanisms. In Atlantic salmon, there is a high level of retention of the n-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to the dietary content, whereas saturated FAs never seem to increase above a specified level, which is probably an adaptation to low and fluctuating body temperature. Net production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially DHA occurs in salmon when dietary levels are low; however, this synthesis is not sufficient to maintain EPA and DHA at similar tissue levels to those of a traditional fish oil-fed farmed salmon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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