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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#1
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785353/diet-breadth-and-exploitation-of-exotic-plants-shift-the-core-microbiome-of-cephaloleia-a-group-of-tropical-herbivorous-beetles
#2
Chelsea L Blankenchip, Dana E Michels, H Elizabeth Braker, Shana K Goffredi
The beetle genus Cephaloleia has evolved in association with tropical ginger plants and for many species their specific host plant associations are known. Here we show that the core microbiome of six closely related Costa Rican Cephaloleia species comprises only eight bacterial groups, including members of the Acinetobacter , Enterobacteriacea, Pseudomonas , Lactococcus, and Comamonas . The Acinetobacter and Enterobacteriacea together accounted for 35% of the total average 16S rRNA ribotypes recovered from all specimens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777363/high-level-production-of-single-chain-monellin-mutants-with-enhanced-sweetness-and-stability-in-tobacco-chloroplasts
#3
Daniela Castiglia, Serena Leone, Rachele Tamburino, Lorenza Sannino, Jole Fonderico, Chiara Melchiorre, Andrea Carpentieri, Stefania Grillo, Delia Picone, Nunzia Scotti
Plastid-based MNEI protein mutants retain the structure, stability and sweetness of their bacterial counterparts, confirming the attractiveness of the plastid transformation technology for high-yield production of recombinant proteins. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has dramatically increased the industrial demand for the development and use of alternatives to sugar and traditional sweeteners. Sweet proteins, such as MNEI, a single chain derivative of monellin, are the most promising candidates for industrial applications...
May 18, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776721/process-water-properties-from-hydrothermal-carbonization-of-chemical-sludge-from-a-pulp-and-board-mill
#4
Mikko Mäkelä, Julia Forsberg, Christer Söderberg, Sylvia H Larsson, Olli Dahl
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can be used to break down sludge structure and generate carbonaceous hydrochar suitable for solid fuel or value-added material applications. The separation of char and the reaction medium however generates a filtrate, which needs to treated before potential discharge. Thus, this work determined filtrate properties based on HTC temperature and sludge moisture content and estimated the discharge emissions and the potential increase in analyte loads to an industrial wastewater treatment plant based on derived regression models...
May 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771736/the-role-of-diet-for-prevention-and-management-of-hypertension
#5
Cemal Ozemek, Deepika R Laddu, Ross Arena, Carl J Lavie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regular consumption of a diet high in sodium, energy dense foods, fat content, refined carbohydrates, added sugar and low in fruits and vegetables contributes to an increased risk of developing hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to provide a synopsis of evidence-based dietary approaches that have been effective in lowering blood pressure (BP) in pre-HTN and individuals with HTN. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent dietary recommendations have emphasized overall dietary patterns and its relation between food and BP...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771153/nature-derived-microbiota-exposure-as-a-novel-immunomodulatory-approach
#6
Noora Nurminen, Jake Lin, Mira Grönroos, Riikka Puhakka, Lenka Kramna, Heli K Vari, Hanna Viskari, Sami Oikarinen, Marja Roslund, Anirudra Parajuli, Iiris Tyni, Ondrej Cinek, Olli Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Aki Sinkkonen
AIM:  Current attempts to modulate the human microbiota and immune responses are based on probiotics or human-derived bacterial transplants. We investigated microbial modulation by soil and plant-based material. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a pilot study in which healthy adults were exposed to the varied microbial community of a soil- and plant-based material. RESULTS: The method was safe and feasible; exposure was associated with an increase in gut microbial diversity...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#7
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768220/metallic-nanoparticle-synthesised-by-biological-route-safer-candidate-for-diverse-applications
#8
REVIEW
Lata Ramrakhiani, Sourja Ghosh
Biological synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) involves greater prospect; however, a detailed review is required for ecofriendly, faster and stable NP formulation in large scale for different commercial applications. The present article highlighted recent updates on biological route of single and bimetallic NP synthesis wherein the chemical reducing agents are eliminated and biological entities are utilised to convert metal ions to NPs. Application of the biological reducing agents ranging from bacteria to fungi and even natural plant extracts have emerged as eco-friendly and cost-effective routes for the synthesis of metal nanomaterials...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764766/efficient-monooxygenase-catalyzed-piceatannol-production-application-of-cyclodextrins-for-reducing-product-inhibition
#9
Toshiki Furuya, Masahiko Sai, Kuniki Kino
Piceatannol is a rare, costly plant-based stilbene derivative and exhibits various health-enhancing properties. Recently, we demonstrated that piceatannol could be produced from resveratrol through site-selective hydroxylation using Escherichia coli cells expressing the monooxygenase HpaBC. However, piceatannol production ceased at approximately 25 mM, even when sufficient levels of the substrate resveratrol remained in the reaction mixture. In this study, we found that high concentrations (>20-25 mM) of piceatannol significantly inhibited the HpaBC-catalyzed reaction...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762522/dietary-pattern-and-plasma-bcaa-variations-in-healthy-men-and-women-results-from-the-karmen-study
#10
Benedikt Merz, Lara Frommherz, Manuela J Rist, Sabine E Kulling, Achim Bub, Bernhard Watzl
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in plasma are discussed as risk factors for the onset of several diseases. Information about the contribution of the overall diet to plasma BCAA concentrations is controversial. Our objective was to investigate which dietary pattern is associated with plasma BCAA concentrations and whether other additional nutrients besides BCAA further characterize this dietary pattern. Based on the cross-sectional KarMeN study, fasting plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, as well as current and habitual dietary intake were assessed in 298 healthy individuals...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757687/a-review-of-analytical-methods-for-p-coumaric-acid-in-plant-based-products-beverages-and-biological-matrices
#11
Paula Scanavez Ferreira, Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli
p-Coumaric acid (p-CA), also known as 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is a phenolic acid, which has been widely studied due to its beneficial effects against several diseases and its wide distribution in the plant kingdom. This phenolic compound can be found in the free form or conjugated with other molecules; therefore, its bioavailability and the pathways via which it is metabolized change according to its chemical structure. p-CA has potential pharmacological effects because it has high free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial activities, among other biological properties...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757222/association-of-habitually-low-intake-of-dietary-calcium-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-in-a-population-with-predominantly-plant-based-diets
#12
Ziqi Liu, Aiping Fang, Jingjing He, Xin Shen, Rong Gao, Xintian Zhao, Keji Li
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752709/association-between-a-pro-plant-based-dietary-score-and-cancer-risk-in-the-prospective-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-cohort
#13
Abou Kane-Diallo, Bernard Srour, Laury Sellem, Mélanie Deschasaux, Paule Latino-Martel, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Philippine Fassier, Françoise Guéraud, Fabrice H Pierre, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Mathilde Touvier
Diverse plant products (e.g. fruits, vegetables, legumes) are associated with decreased cancer risk at several locations while red and processed meat were found to increase cancer risk. A pro plant-based dietary score reflecting the relative contribution of consumed plant vs animal products was developed, and was associated with lower overall mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, among omnivorous adults. For the first time, we investigated the prospective associations between this pro plant-based dietary score and cancer risk...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752697/biofortification-of-safflower-an-oil-seed-crop-engineered-for-ala-targeting-better-sustainability-and-plant-based-omega-3-fatty-acids
#14
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751696/-research-of-pollution-free-and-precision-cultivation-system-of-chinese-herbal-medicines
#15
Shi-Lin Chen, Lin-Lin Dong, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Jian-He Wei, Xi-Wen Li, Gang Li, Qi Li, Yu-de Liu, Si-Jing Liu, Hong Xu, Yu-Qi Yu, Jie Wu, Chong-Heng Liang
The issues of disordering production and non-standard pesticide application are common in the production of Chinese herbal medicines. Aimed to above problems, research groups built the pollution-free and precision cultivation system of medicinal plants. This system mainly included the precise site selection of medicinal plants based on the GIS technology, modern omics-assisted breeding, metagenomics guiding the soil complex improvement, and the precise field management based on rational application of fertilizer and comprehensive control of disease...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751024/gauging-attitudes-and-behaviours-meat-consumption-and-potential-reduction
#16
Garrett Lentz, Sean Connelly, Miranda Mirosa, Tim Jowett
The present study focused on adding to the understanding of meat consumption and potential drivers for its reduction in New Zealand. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the recently developed Meat-Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ), this study investigated New Zealand consumers' attitudes, motivations and behaviours in regards to meat consumption. Results derive from a questionnaire sent across New Zealand in March 2017, in which 841 responses were obtained from representative consumer panels. Consumer awareness of the severity of meat's environmental impacts was found to be quite low in comparison to other sustainable food behaviours...
May 8, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748819/recent-advances-in-steroidal-saponins-biosynthesis-and-in-vitro-production
#17
REVIEW
Swati Upadhyay, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Shikha, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
Steroidal saponins exhibited numerous pharmacological activities due to the modification of their backbone by different cytochrome P450s (P450) and UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Plant-derived steroidal saponins are not sufficient for utilizing them for commercial purpose so in vitro production of saponin by tissue culture, root culture, embryo culture, etc, is necessary for its large-scale production. Saponin glycosides are the important class of plant secondary metabolites, which consists of either steroidal or terpenoidal backbone...
May 10, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748650/how-empathic-are-vegan-medical-professionals-compared-to-others-leads-from-a-paper-pencil-survey
#18
Christian S Kessler, Andreas Michalsen, Sophie Holler, Vijayendra S Murthy, Holger Cramer
The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.017) and food taste (p = 0.001) as more and love of animals as less important (p < 0...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745208/-effects-of-temperature-increase-on-zooplankton-size-spectra-in-thermal-discharge-seawaters-near-a-power-plant-china
#19
Jing Yu, Yi Feng Zhu, Mei Xia Dai, Xia Lin, Shuo Qian Mao
Utilizing the plankton 1 (505 Μm), 2 (160 Μm), 3 (77 Μm) nets to seasonally collect zooplankton samples at 10 stations and the corresponding abundance data was obtained. Based on individual zooplankton biovolume, size groups were classified to test the changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of both Sheldon and normalized biovolume size spectra in thermal discharge seawaters near the Guohua Power Plant, so as to explore the effects of temperature increase on zooplankton size spectra in the seawaters. The results showed that the individual biovolume of zooplankton ranged from 0...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743923/medicinal-plants-used-for-treatment-of-diarrhoeal-related-diseases-in-ethiopia
#20
REVIEW
Bizuneh Woldeab, Reta Regassa, Tibebu Alemu, Moa Megersa
This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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