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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920817/pharmacological-characterization-of-liquiritigenin-a-chiral-flavonoid-in-licorice
#1
Samaa Alrushaid, Neal M Davies, Stephanie E Martinez, Casey L Sayre
Liquiritigenin is a chiral flavonoid present in plant based food, nutraceuticals, and traditional medicines. It is also an important ingredient present in licorice. The purpose of this study is to explore the pharmacological activity of racemic liquiritigenin utilizing several in vitro assays with relevant roles in colon cancer and diabetes. Where possible, the pure enantiomers were tested to identify the stereospecific contribution to the activity. In vitro antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activities (cyclooxygenase inhibition), antidiabetic activities (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition) as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitory activities were assessed...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919108/biocatalytic-synthesis-of-flavonoid-esters-by-lipases-and-their-biological-benefits
#2
Maria Elisa M B de Araújo, Yollanda E M Franco, Marcia C F Messias, Giovanna B Longato, João A Pamphile, Patricia de O Carvalho
Several studies have described important biological activities of flavonoids such as coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, enzyme inhibition activity, and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Flavonoids show promising activity as natural plant-based antioxidants due to their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. However, their primary applications as antioxidants in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries are limited because of their moderately hydrophilic nature...
December 5, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918906/diet-and-the-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-among-never-smokers-and-smokers-in-a-chinese-population
#3
Carrie Butler, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Shuang Li, Qian Li, Chien-Jen Chen, Wan-Lun Hsu, Pen-Jen Lou, Cairong Zhu, Jian Pan, Hongbing Shen, Hongxia Ma, Lin Cai, Baochang He, Yu Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou, Qinghai Ji, Baosen Zhou, Wei Wu, Jie Ma, Paolo Boffetta, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Min Dai, Mia Hashibe
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in China to investigate the association between diet and the risk of head-and-neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between diet and HNC risk in the Chinese population and to examine whether smoking status has any effect on the risk. METHODS: Our multicenter case-control study included 921 HNC cases and 806 controls. We obtained information on the frequency of both animal- and plant-based food consumption...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915042/non-coding-rnas-and-berberine-a-new-mechanism-of-its-anti-diabetic-activities
#4
REVIEW
Wenguang Chang
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914530/isochlorogenic-acid-a-affects-p450-and-ugt-enzymes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Jing Wang, Hong Wang, Ying Peng, Guang-Ji Wang, Hai-Ping Hao
Isochlorogenic acid A (ICQA), which has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antiviral properties, is commonly presented in fruits, vegetables, coffee, plant-based food products, and herbal medicines. These herbal medicines are usually used in combination with other medicines in the clinic. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of ICQA on drug-metabolizing enzymes and the herb-drug interactions. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potentials of ICQA on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 in vitro based on a cocktail approach...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913360/real-time-decentralized-neural-control-via-backstepping-for-a-robotic-arm-powered-by-industrial-servomotors
#6
Luis A Vazquez, Francisco Jurado, Carlos E Castaneda, Victor Santibanez
This paper presents a continuous-time decentralized neural control scheme for trajectory tracking of a two degrees of freedom direct drive vertical robotic arm. A decentralized recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN) structure is proposed to identify online, in a series-parallel configuration and using the filtered error learning law, the dynamics of the plant. Based on the RHONN subsystems, a local neural controller is derived via backstepping approach. The effectiveness of the decentralized neural controller is validated on a robotic arm platform, of our own design and unknown parameters, which uses industrial servomotors to drive the joints...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911415/extraction-of-plant-based-capsules-for-microencapsulation-applications
#7
Michael G Potroz, Raghavendra C Mundargi, Jae Hyeon Park, Ee-Lin Tan, Nam-Joon Cho
Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911404/using-capillary-electrophoresis-to-quantify-organic-acids-from-plant-tissue-a-test-case-examining-coffea-arabica-seeds
#8
Michael Joe Vaughan, Ann Chanon, Joshua J Blakeslee
Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more terminal carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. Short chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs; carboxylic acids containing three to six carbons), such as malate and citrate, are critical to the proper functioning of many biological systems, where they function in cellular respiration and can serve as indicators of cell health. In foods, organic acid content can have significant impact on taste, with increased SCCA levels resulting in a sour or "acid" taste. Because of this, methods for the rapid analysis of organic acid levels are of particular interest to the food and beverage industries...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902333/plant-produced-anti-dengue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies-exhibit-reduced-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-infection-activity
#9
Matthew Dent, Jonathan Hurtado, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Huafang Lai, Ming Yang, Adrian Esqueda, Fengwei Bai, Herta Steinkellner, Qiang Chen
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo and subjects treated animals more susceptible to develop more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898907/apparent-total-tract-macronutrient-digestibility-fecal-characteristics-and-fecal-fermentative-end-product-concentrations-of-healthy-adult-dogs-fed-bioprocessed-soy-protein
#10
A N Beloshapka, M R C de Godoy, K B Detweiler, M Newcomb, K H Ellegård, G C Fahey, K S Swanson
Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898826/quantitative-trait-loci-mapping-for-tillering-related-traits-in-two-switchgrass-populations
#11
Dan Chang, Yanqi Wu, Linglong Liu, Shuiyi Lu-Thames, Hongxu Dong, Carla Goad, Shiqie Bai, Shiva Makaju, Tilin Fang
Plant tillering and related traits are morphologically important components contributing to switchgrass ( L.) biomass yield. The objectives of this study were to estimate broad-sense heritabilities for tillering-related traits, to analyze correlations between biomass yield and the traits, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for them. A first-generation selfed population of NL94 plant and a hybrid population between NL94 and SL93 plants were field established in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Stillwater and Perkins, OK...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898676/dietary-butyrate-helps-to-restore-the-intestinal-status-of-a-marine-teleost-sparus-aurata-fed-extreme-diets-low-in-fish-meal-and-fish-oil
#12
Itziar Estensoro, Gabriel Ballester-Lozano, Laura Benedito-Palos, Fabian Grammes, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Liv-Torunn Mydland, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Juan Fuentes, Vasileios Karalazos, Álvaro Ortiz, Margareth Øverland, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896890/diterpenes-as-lead-molecules-against-neglected-tropical-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894200/differences-in-the-association-between-empirically-derived-dietary-patterns-and-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Francesca Bella, Justyna Godos, Antonella Ippolito, Alessia Di Prima, Salvatore Sciacca
Plant-based dietary patterns have been associated with decreased cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies comparing empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to cancer risk. A systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases was conducted. Eligible studies had an observational design and evaluated the association with cancer risk between a posteriori derived dietary patterns. Random-effects models were applied to calculate relative risks (RRs) of cancer between diets...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#15
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882862/milk-and-dairy-products-good-or-bad-for-human-health-an-assessment-of-the-totality-of-scientific-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Tanja Kongerslev Thorning, Anne Raben, Tine Tholstrup, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Ian Givens, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871943/understanding-the-attitudes-and-perceptions-of-vegetarian-and-plant-based-diets-to-shape-future-health-promotion-programs
#17
REVIEW
Tricia Corrin, Andrew Papadopoulos
Vegetarian diets have become a prominent area of interest. However, little research has focused on the attitudes and perceptions on vegetarian diets. The purpose of this scoping review was to methodologically search the literature and summarize public perceptions and attitudes towards a vegetarian diet. Using the information found from this review, the Health Belief Model can be applied to shape future health promotion initiatives to move individuals towards a vegetarian or plant-based diet. The main findings indicate that vegetarian diets are generally perceived in a positive light...
November 18, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869784/phytochemical-profiling-of-flavonoids-phenolic-acids-terpenoids-and-volatile-fraction-of-a-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-extract
#18
Pedro Mena, Martina Cirlini, Michele Tassotti, Kelli A Herrlinger, Chiara Dall'Asta, Daniele Del Rio
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time...
November 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868444/-plant-based-diets-a-review
#19
Zoltán Szabó, Attila Erdélyi, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Tamás Ungár, Éva Lászlóné Polyák, Szilvia Szekeresné Szabó, Réka Erika Kovács, László Bence Raposa, Mária Figler
Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859484/gram-microorganisms-dna-polymerase-inhibition-antibacterial-and-chemical-properties-of-fruit-and-leaf-extracts-of-sorbus-acuparia-and-sorbus-caucasica-var-yaltirikii
#20
Halbay Turumtay, Ahmet Midilli, Emine Akyuz Turumtay, Adem Demir, Emine Kılıçkaya Selvi, Emine Esra Budak, Havva Er, Fatih Kocaimamoglu, Hüseyin Baykal, Ali Osman Belduz, Vagif Atamov, Cemal Sandallı
Investigation of novel plant-based agents might provide alternative antibiotics and thus fight antibiotic resistance. Here, we measured the ability of fruit and leaf extracts of Sorbus aucuparia (Sauc) and endemic Sorbus caucasica var. yaltirikii (Scau) to inhibit non-replicative (Klenow Fragment-KF and Bacillus Large Fragment-BLF) and replicative (DnaE and PolC) bacterial DNA polymerases along with their antimicrobial, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA), and chemical contents by total phenolic content (TPC) and HPLC-DAD analysis...
November 17, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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