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Lei Liang, Xue Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoyong Li, Yechen Wu, Rongyu Shi, Jinghua Jiang, Lu Gao, Fei Ye, Qiudong Zhao, Rong Li, Lixin Wei, Zhipeng Han
Babao Dan (BBD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to observe the protective effect of BBD on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and explore it possible mechanism. BBD was administrated while DEN was given. After eight weeks, values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) indicated that BBD significantly protected liver from damaging by DEN and had no obvious side effect on normal rat livers...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Ranjit Singh, Ranju Bansal
Neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by activated glial and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) might contribute neuronal degeneration leading to Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an inflammogen derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone have been reported as neuroprotective steroids useful for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, several 16-arylidene steroidal derivatives have been evaluated as neuroprotective agents in LPS-treated animal models...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
D R Herrera, F C Martinho, A J de-Jesus-Soares, A A Zaia, C C Ferraz, J F Almeida, B P Gomes
AIM: This clinical study was conducted to investigate the influence of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ultrasonic activation after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) on eliminating/reducing oral bacterial lipopolysaccharides (known as endotoxins) and cultivable bacteria in teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. METHODOLOGY: Samples were taken from 24 root canals at several clinical periods: S1- before CMP; S2- after CMP; S3- after EDTA: G1- with ultrasonic activation (n=12), and G2- without ultrasonic activation (n=12)...
October 24, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Jürgen Maibaum, Sha-Mei Liao, Anna Vulpetti, Nils Ostermann, Stefan Randl, Simon Rüdisser, Edwige Lorthiois, Paul Erbel, Bernd Kinzel, Fabrice A Kolb, Samuel Barbieri, Julia Wagner, Corinne Durand, Kamal Fettis, Solene Dussauge, Nicola Hughes, Omar Delgado, Ulrich Hommel, Ty Gould, Aengus Mac Sweeney, Bernd Gerhartz, Frederic Cumin, Stefanie Flohr, Anna Schubart, Bruce Jaffee, Richard Harrison, Antonio Maria Risitano, Jörg Eder, Karen Anderson
Complement is a key component of the innate immune system, recognizing pathogens and promoting their elimination. Complement component 3 (C3) is the central component of the system. Activation of C3 can be initiated by three distinct routes-the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathways-with the alternative pathway also acting as an amplification loop for the other two pathways. The protease factor D (FD) is essential for this amplification process, which, when dysregulated, predisposes individuals to diverse disorders including age-related macular degeneration and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Sawako Moriwaki, Takeshi Into, Keiko Suzuki, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Takashi Takata, Keigo Shibayama, Shumpei Niida
Chronic inflammation-associated bone destruction, which is observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis, is mediated by excessive osteoclastogenesis. We showed previously that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism, acts as an endogenous activator of such pathological osteoclastogenesis, independent of its enzymatic activity. GGT accumulation is clinically observed in the joints of RA patients, and, in animals, the administration of recombinant GGT to the gingival sulcus as an in vivo periodontitis model induces an increase in the number of osteoclasts...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Huiling Guo, Yanping Wang, Xiaona Zhao, Panmei Liu, Yiwen Lian, Xinxin Li, Mingming Li, Minyu Ma
Objective To investigate the effect of resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the injury of PC12 cells induced by activated BV-2 microglia and the related mechanisms. Methods BV-2 cells were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated group, RvD1-treated group and RvD1 combined with LPS (RvD1-LPS)-treated group. After BV-2 cells were incubated with the corresponding substances for 12 and 24 hours, the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the supernatants were determined by ELISA...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Lijun Sun, Jingying Sun, Xueping Huo, Yaping Li, Yuan Li, Xin Xie, Jun Hu
Objective To explore the effect of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation on melanogenesis in melanocytes. Methods The primary melanocytes were isolated, cultured and then stimulated by TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Firstly, the melanin content changes were detected in melanocytes, and then quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to determine the expression levels of pre-melanosomal protein (Pmel17), tyrosinase (TYR) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Finally, the melanosomes were observed by electron microscopy...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Chang-Ling Hu, Juan Xiong, Peng Xu, Ke-Jun Cheng, Guo-Xun Yang, Jin-Feng Hu
During a further and comprehensive phytochemical investigation on the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis, one new (1) and ten known (2-11) lignans with diverse structures were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the new structure was established to be (7S,8R,8'R)-4'-methoxyl-α-conidendrin (1). Among the isolated lignans, (-)-matairesinol (5) and (-)-arctigenin (6) showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 11...
October 23, 2016: Natural Product Research
Shun-Ting Chou, Hsin-Yi Lo, Chia-Cheng Li, Lu-Chen Cheng, Pei-Chi Chou, Yu-Chen Lee, Tin-Yun Ho, Chien-Yun Hsiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., also known as roselle, is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in long-term care facilities. However, effects of roselle on UTI and renal inflammation remained to be analyzed. AIM: Here we surveyed the effect of roselle drink on the prevention of UTI in long-term care facilities and analyzed the anti-inflammatory potential of roselle on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation in mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kara J Levinson, Danielle E Baranova, Nicholas J Mantis
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, an acute diarrheal disease that remains endemic in many parts of the world. The mechanisms underlying immunity to cholera remain poorly defined, though it is increasingly clear that protection is associated with antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that ZAC-3, a monoclonal antibody against the core/lipid A region of V. cholerae LPS is a potent inhibitor of V. cholerae flagellum-based motility in viscous and liquid environments. ZAC-3 arrested motility of the classical Ogawa strain O395, as well as the El Tor Inaba strain C6706...
October 20, 2016: Vaccine
Geun Hee Seol, Ka Young Kim
Patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and neurological diseases have been shown to benefit from treatments such as aromatherapy in addition to medication. Most chronic diseases are caused by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as well as harmful factors. Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), a terpenoid oxide isolated from Eucalyptus species, is a promising compound for treating such conditions as it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various diseases, including respiratory disease, pancreatitis, colon damage, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abou El-Hamd H Mohamed, Naglaa S Mohamed, Ahmed R Hamed, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy
In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Achillea, chromatographic investigation of the methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the air-dried aerial part of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (family Asteraceae) afforded a new natural monoterpene (2), in addition to two known sesquiterpenes (3 and 4). Compound 1 was isolated as light needle crystals. Structures were established on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic (1H, 13C, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation) data and in case of compound 1 were confirmed by X-ray analysis...
October 24, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Jung Seok Hwang, Sun Ah Ham, Taesik Yoo, Won Jin Lee, Kyung Shin Paek, Jae-Hwan Kim, Chi-Ho Lee, Han Geuk Seo
Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, mediates cellular processes involved in gene silencing and aging. The regulation of lifespan by SIRT1 has been extensively investigated, but less is known about the mechanisms associated with its cellular turnover during inflammatory responses. In this study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is associated with SIRT1 stability in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Shiho Takakuwa, Natsumi Mizuno, Takayuki Takano, Sanki Asakawa, Taiki Sato, Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa
The role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in various cell types, including inflammatory cells, has been extensively studied. However, regulation of NHE1 protein level in activated inflammatory cells is yet to be characterized. In this study, we investigated whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands can regulate NHE1 protein level in the mouse macrophage-like RAW 264 cell line. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand, lowered NHE1 level and activity in RAW 264 cells and in primary murine macrophages...
October 11, 2016: Immunobiology
Conny Turni, Denise Dayao, Gorka Aduriz, Nekane Cortabarria, Carolina Tejero, Jose C Ibabe, Reema Singh, Pat Blackall
Pasteurella multocida isolates from dairy cattle on a farm in Spain were associated with pneumonia of calves (six isolates) and mastitis of heifers (five isolates). The objective was to determine if the P. multocida isolates retrieved from both disease scenarios were the same strain or whether more than one strain was present. The isolates were identified by a species-specific polymerase chain (PCR) assay, serotyped by the Heddleston scheme and then typed by a number of molecular genotyping assays including multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Ki Mo Kim, Deok Rim Heo, Young-A Kim, Jun Lee, No Soo Kim, Ok-Sun Bang
Coniferaldehyde (CA) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To define the regulation mechanism by which CA induces a cytoprotective function and HO-1 expression, the up-stream regulations involved in the activation of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2/HO-1 pathway were investigated. CA dramatically increased the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and cell death were down-regulated by CA, which were reversed by inhibition of HO-1 activity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Limin Xiang, Yihai Wang, Xiaomin Yi, Xiangjiu He
Phytochemical investigations of the rhizome of Tupistra chinensis led to the isolation of ten new furostanol saponins along with fourteen known spirostanols. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including IR, NMR, MS, and GC analyses. The antiproliferative effects against FaDu and Detroit 562 cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds...
October 19, 2016: Steroids
Dao-Ran Pang, Xiao-Qin Su, Zhi-Xiang Zhu, Jing Sun, Yue-Ting Li, Yue-Lin Song, Yun-Fang Zhao, Peng-Fei Tu, Jiao Zheng, Jun Li
Eight new flavonoid dimers, named cochinchinenins I-M (1-5), including three pairs of enantiomers (1a/1b-3a/3b) and two optically pure flavonoid dimers (4-5), along with a known analogue (6), were isolated from total phenolic extract of the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). The planar structures of 1-5 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR. Their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data...
October 18, 2016: Fitoterapia
Jing Xue, Qinglan Zhao, Vishal Sharma, Linh P Nguyen, Yvonne N Lee, Kim L Pham, Mouad Edderkaoui, Stephen J Pandol, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal models of CP. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients with CP treated at Stanford University hospital and healthy individuals (controls) and isolated CD4+ T cells; levels of interleukin-22 (IL22) were measured by ELISA and smoking histories were collected...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Jiawen Lv, Junchao Zeng, Wen Zhao, Yuanxiong Cheng, Lin Zhang, Shaoxi Cai, Guodong Hu, Yinghua Chen
BACKGROUND: After stimulation due to injury, cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42) restores and enhances barrier functions by strengthening intercellular adherens junctions; however, its influence on cell proliferation after injury remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of stimulation using small doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the proliferation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). METHODS: We stimulated PMVECs with different doses of LPS and evaluated the effects on cell proliferation...
October 18, 2016: Microvascular Research
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