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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931044/the-performance-of-a-new-local-false-discovery-rate-method-on-tests-of-association-between-coronary-artery-disease-cad-and-genome-wide-genetic-variants
#1
Shuyan Mei, Ali Karimnezhad, Marie Forest, David R Bickel, Celia M T Greenwood
The maximum entropy (ME) method is a recently-developed approach for estimating local false discovery rates (LFDR) that incorporates external information allowing assignment of a subset of tests to a category with a different prior probability of following the null hypothesis. Using this ME method, we have reanalyzed the findings from a recent large genome-wide association study of coronary artery disease (CAD), incorporating biologic annotations. Our revised LFDR estimates show many large reductions in LFDR, particularly among the genetic variants belonging to annotation categories that were known to be of particular interest for CAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931031/reducing-therapeutic-misconception-a-randomized-intervention-trial-in-hypothetical-clinical-trials
#2
Paul P Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise Maranda, Charles Lidz
BACKGROUND: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#3
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930551/uremic-toxins-are-conditional-danger-or-homeostasis-associated-molecular-patterns
#4
Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Jun Zhou, Luqiao Wang, Ya-Feng Li, Yifan Lu, Gayani Nanayakkara, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Claudette Sanchez, William Y Yang, Xin Wang, Eric T Choi, Rongshan Li, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
We mined novel uremic toxin (UT) metabolomics/gene databases, and analyzed the expression changes of UT receptors and UT synthases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We made the following observations: 1) UTs represent only 1/80(th) of human serum small-molecule metabolome; 2) Some UTs are increased in CKD and CVD; 3) UTs either induce or suppress the expression of inflammatory molecules; 4) The expression of UT genes is significantly modulated in CKD patients, and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients; 5) The expression of UT genes is upregulated by caspase-1 and TNF-alpha pathways but is inhibited in regulatory T cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930526/inflammatory-biomarkers-of-coronary-heart-disease
#5
Hongyu Li, Kai Sun, Ruiping Zhao, Jiang Hu, Zhiru Hao, Fei Wang, Yaojun Lu, Fu Liu, Yong Zhang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. CHD is characterized by formation of arterial plaques which are mainly comprised of lipids, calcium and inflammatory cells. These plaques narrow the lumen of coronary arteries leading to episodic or persistent angina. Rupture of these plaques leads to the formation of thrombus, which as a result of cessation of blood flow, causes myocardial infarct and death. CHD is exacerbated by risk factors including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930174/capsaicin-supplementation-improved-risk-factors-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-individuals-with-low-hdl-c-levels
#6
Yu Qin, Li Ran, Jing Wang, Li Yu, He-Dong Lang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Man-Tian Mi, Jun-Dong Zhu
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 42 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the capsaicin (n = 21, 4 mg of capsaicin daily) or to the control group (n = 21, 0.05 mg of capsaicin daily) and consumed two capsaicin or control capsules, which contained the powder of the skin of different peppers, twice daily for three months...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#7
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929647/-research-progress-of-guanxin-danshen-formula-and-its-effective-components-in-treating-coronary-artery-heart-disease
#8
REVIEW
Shi-Min Tang, Xiao-Yan Xing, Xue-Hong Deng, Na-Na Zhao, Guang Li, Rui-Chuang Yang, Gui-Bo Sun, Xiao-Bo Sun
Coronary artery heart disease (CHD) is one of the common cardiovascular diseases in clinical. The morbidity and mortality of CHD recently continue increasing in our country, which has aroused wide attention. Many studies confirm that traditional Chinese medicine has better therapeutic effect on CHD. Guanxin Danshen formula, widely used in the treatment of CHD, consists of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and volatile oil from Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum, and has the efficacy in promoting blood circulation to resolve stasis, regulating the circulation of Qi and alleviating pain...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929645/-analysis-on-animal-models-of-experimental-hyperlipidemia
#9
REVIEW
Hui-Ming Hu, Yan-Chen Zhu, Qiao-Qiao Zhu, Feng Shao, Qiang Shi, Min-Xia Pang, Jie Su, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lv
Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for fatty liver, atherosclerosis, hyperviscosily, coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction. In recent years, the incidence of hyperlipidemia was gradually increased and showed younger trend. It has been a research hot point to study the etiology and pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and develop a new drug reduced blood lipid. It is very important to prepare the animal model of hyperlipidemia for displaying the advantage of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929446/new-imaging-tools-in-cardiovascular-medicine-computational-fluid-dynamics-and-4d-flow-mri
#10
Keiichi Itatani, Shohei Miyazaki, Tokoki Furusawa, Satoshi Numata, Sachiko Yamazaki, Kazuki Morimoto, Rina Makino, Hiroko Morichi, Teruyasu Nishino, Hitoshi Yaku
Blood flow imaging is a novel technology in cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Today, two types of blood flow imaging tools are available: measurement-based flow visualization including 4D flow MRI (or 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging), or echocardiography flow visualization software, and computer flow simulation modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MRI and echocardiography flow visualization provide measured blood flow but have limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, whereas CFD flow calculates the flow according to assumptions instead of flow measurement, and it has sufficiently fine resolution up to the computer memory limit, and it enables even virtual surgery when combined with computer graphics...
September 19, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929388/fiber-reinforced-computational-model-of-the-aortic-root-incorporating-thoracic-aorta-and-coronary-structures
#11
Hossein Mohammadi, Raymond Cartier, Rosaire Mongrain
Cardiovascular diseases are still the leading causes of death in the developed world. The decline in the mortality associated with circulatory system diseases is accredited to development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools. It is well known that there is an inter relationship between the aortic valve impairment and pathologies of the aorta and coronary vessels. However, due to the limitations of the current tools, the possible link is not fully elucidated. Following our previous model of the aortic root including the coronaries, in this study, we have further developed the global aspect of the model by incorporating the anatomical structure of the thoracic aorta...
September 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929334/efficacy-of-biolimus-a9-eluting-stent-for-treatment-of-right-coronary-ostial-lesion-with-intravascular-ultrasound-guidance-a-multi-center-registry
#12
Kenya Nasu, Yuji Oikawa, Maoto Habara, Shinichi Shirai, Hidetoshi Abe, Makoto Kadotani, Ryo Gotoh, Hidenari Hozawa, Hiroshi Ota, Takashi Suzuki, Yoshihisa Shibata, Masaki Tanabe, Yuya Nakagawa, Takeshi Serikawa, Shiro Nagasaka, Yasuyo Takeuchi, Yoshihide Fujimoto, Hiroshi Tamura, Yuichi Kobori, Junji Yajima, Tadanori Aizawa, Takahiko Suzuki
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a biolimus A9-eluting stent in patients with a right coronary artery (RCA) ostial lesion. Ostial lesions of the RCA have been a limitation of percutaneous coronary intervention even in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. However, clinical outcomes after the deployment of a second generation DES to an RCA ostial lesion with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance have not been fully elucidated. From September 2011 to March 2013, 74 patients were enrolled in 17 centers from Japan...
September 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929333/late-iodine-enhancement-computed-tomography-with-image-subtraction-for-assessment-of-myocardial-infarction
#13
Yuki Tanabe, Teruhito Kido, Akira Kurata, Takanori Kouchi, Naoki Fukuyama, Takahiro Yokoi, Teruyoshi Uetani, Natsumi Yamashita, Masao Miyagawa, Teruhito Mochizuki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of image subtraction in late iodine enhancement CT (LIE-CT) for assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: A comprehensive cardiac CT protocol and late gadolinium enhancement MRI (LGE-MRI) was used to assess coronary artery disease in 27 patients. LIE-CT was performed after stress CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography. Subtraction LIE-CT was created by subtracting the mask volume of the left ventricle (LV) cavity from the original LIE-CT using CTP dataset...
September 19, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929036/factors-affecting-length-of-stay-following-elective-anterior-and-posterior-cervical-spine-surgery
#14
Frank J Yuk, Akbar Y Maniya, Jonathan J Rasouli, Alexa M Dessy, Patrick J McCormick, Tanvir F Choudhri
Background Disease of the cervical spine is widely prevalent, most commonly secondary to degenerative disc changes and spondylosis. Objective The goal of the paper was to identify a possible discrepancy regarding the length of stay (LOS) between the anterior and posterior approaches to elective cervical spine surgery and identify contributing factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 587 patients (341 anterior, 246 posterior) that underwent elective cervical spinal surgery between October 2001 and March 2014...
July 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928965/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-cardiomyopathy
#15
REVIEW
Paulino Alvarez, Wh Wilson Tang
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle leading to abnormal structure or function in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, or valvular or congenital heart disease. Currently, cardiomyopathy is the leading diagnosis of heart transplant patients worldwide. Incorporation of next-generation sequencing strategies will likely revolutionize genetic testing in cardiomyopathy. The use of patient-specific pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for disease modeling and therapeutic testing has opened a new avenue for precision medicine in cardiomyopathy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928803/64-slice-spiral-double-low-ct-to-evaluate-the-degree-of-stenosis-and-plaque-composition-in-diagnosing-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Xiao-Rong Feng, Li-Hua Liang, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Qiang Chen, Shuang Liang
This study examined the application of 64-slice spiral double-low computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the degree of coronary artery stenosis. We examined 45 patients with coronary heart disease by 64-slice spiral double-low CT and coronary angiography (CAG) to determine CT accuracy in evaluating coronary artery stenosis. Imaging analysis from 64-slice spiral double-low CT identified 199 segments with coronary stenosis from 45 patients, including 46 segments with mild stenosis, 38 with moderate stenosis and 115 with severe stenosis or artery occlusion...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928604/kaempferide-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#17
Dong Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Defang Li, Wenjin Hao, Fanqing Meng, Bo Wang, Jichun Han, Qiusheng Zheng
The aim of this study is to investigate both the efficacy and mechanism of action of kaempferide (Kae) as a therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. A rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by a 2 h perfusion. In our study, we show that Kae remarkably improved cardiac function, alleviated myocardial injury via a decrease in myocardial enzyme levels, and attenuated myocardial infarct size in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927989/identification-of-susceptible-genes-for-complex-chronic-diseases-based-on-disease-risk-functional-snps-and-interaction-networks
#18
Wan Li, Lina Zhu, Hao Huang, Yuehan He, Junjie Lv, Weimin Li, Lina Chen, Weiming He
Complex chronic diseases are caused by the effects of genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one common type of genetic variations, played vital roles in diseases. We hypothesized that disease risk functional SNPs in coding regions and protein interaction network modules were more likely to contribute to the identification of disease susceptible genes for complex chronic diseases. This could help to further reveal the pathogenesis of complex chronic diseases. Disease risk SNPs were first recognized from public SNP data for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927896/niacin-and-heart-disease-prevention-engraving-its-tombstone-is-a-mistake
#19
REVIEW
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927890/reduction-of-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-proteins-in-the-blood-of-psoriasis-patients-differential-responses-between-tofacitinib-and-etanercept-after-4-weeks-of-treatment
#20
Jaehwan Kim, Lewis Tomalin, Julie Lee, Lori J Fitz, Gabriel Berstein, Joel Correa-da Rosa, Sandra Garcet, Michelle A Lowes, Hernan Valdez, Robert Wolk, Mayte Suarez-Farinas, James G Krueger
Psoriasis patients have increased risk of myocardial infarction, and psoriasis is now recognized as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality. To understand the effects of psoriasis medications on systemic inflammation associated with cardiovascular risks, we studied blood proteins related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease archived from a phase 3 clinical trial of tofacitinib and etanercept in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. 157 blood proteins were quantified by a proximity extension assay from 266 patients at baseline and week 4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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