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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944034/rhododendron-aureum-georgi-formed-a-special-soil-microbial-community-and-competed-with-above-ground-plants-on-the-tundra-of-the-changbai-mountain-china
#1
Xiaolong Wang, Lin Li, Wei Zhao, Jiaxin Zhao, Xia Chen
Rhododendron aureum Georgi is a perennial evergreen dwarf shrub that grows at all elevations within the alpine tundra of northern China. Previous research has investigated the plant communities of R. aureum; however, little information is available regarding interspecific competition and underground soil microbial community composition. The objective of our study was to determine whether the presence of R. aureum creates a unique soil microbiome and to investigate the relationship between R. aureum and other plant species...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943715/methods-for-eliciting-annotating-and-analyzing-databases-for-child-speech-development
#2
Mary E Beckman, Andrew R Plummer, Benjamin Munson, Patrick F Reidy
Methods from automatic speech recognition (ASR), such as segmentation and forced alignment, have facilitated the rapid annotation and analysis of very large adult speech databases and databases of caregiver-infant interaction, enabling advances in speech science that were unimaginable just a few decades ago. This paper centers on two main problems that must be addressed in order to have analogous resources for developing and exploiting databases of young children's speech. The first problem is to understand and appreciate the differences between adult and child speech that cause ASR models developed for adult speech to fail when applied to child speech...
September 2017: Computer Speech & Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932215/identification-characterization-and-full-length-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-polerovirus-associated-with-wheat-leaf-yellowing-disease
#3
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Mengji Cao, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
To identify the pathogens responsible for leaf yellowing symptoms on wheat samples collected from Jinan, China, we tested for the presence of three known barley/wheat yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-GAV, -PAV, WYDV-GPV) (most likely pathogens) using RT-PCR. A sample that tested negative for the three viruses was selected for small RNA sequencing. Twenty-five million sequences were generated, among which 5% were of viral origin. A novel polerovirus was discovered and temporarily named wheat leaf yellowing-associated virus (WLYaV)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930082/cryptosporidium-spp-and-giardia-sp-in-aquatic-mammals-in-northern-and-northeastern-brazil
#4
João Carlos Borges, Danielle Dos Lima, Edson Moura da Silva, André Lucas de Oliveira Moreira, Miriam Marmontel, Vitor Luz Carvalho, Rodrigo de Amaral, Stella Maris Lazzarini, Leucio Câmara Alves
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918622/emission-changes-dwarf-the-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-temporal-trends-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-two-arctic-top-predators
#5
Heli Routti, Jon Aars, Eva Fuglei, Linda Hanssen, Karen Lone, Anuschka Polder, Åshild Ø Pedersen, Sabrina Tartu, Jeffrey M Welker, Nigel G Yoccoz
We monitored concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to climate-associated changes in feeding habits and food availability in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) (192 plasma and 113 liver samples, respectively) sampled from Svalbard, Norway, during 1997-2014. PFASs concentrations became greater with increasing dietary trophic level, as bears and foxes consumed more marine as opposed to terrestrial food, and as the availability of sea ice habitat increased...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918076/simultaneous-detection-of-wheat-dwarf-virus-northern-cereal-mosaic-virus-barley-yellow-striate-mosaic-virus-and-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-wheat-by-multiplex-rt-pcr
#6
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) are four viruses infecting wheat and causing similar symptoms. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these viruses. The protocol uses specific primer set for each virus and produces four distinct fragments (273, 565, 783 and 1296bp), detecting the presence of RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV and NCMV, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917319/morphological-and-molecular-analyses-of-tylodelphys-spp-metacercaria-trematoda-diplostomidae-from-the-vitreous-humour-of-two-freshwater-fish-species-channa-gachua-ham-and-puntius-sophore-ham
#7
Anshu Chaudhary, Shivi Gupta, Richa Tripathi, Hridaya S Singh
Trematodes of family Diplostomatidae consists of a large and diverse group of parasites which have larval stages that are very important pathogens of wild and cultured freshwater fishes worldwide, can cause serious impacts. Our understanding of the diplostomids diversity, though, remains deficient and limited especially in India. In the present study, the morphology and molecular characterization of Tylodelphys spp. from the vitreous humour of eye, collected from two economically important food fish, dwarf snakehead Channa gachua (Perciformes: Channidae) and pool barb Puntius sophore (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) were described from Bijnor and Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (U...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904782/molecular-phylogeny-and-phylogeography-of-genus-pseudois-bovidae-cetartiodactyla-new-insights-into-the-contrasting-phylogeographic-structure
#8
Shuai Tan, Zhihong Wang, Lichun Jiang, Rui Peng, Tao Zhang, Quekun Peng, Fangdong Zou
Blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur, is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding mountains, which are the highest-elevation areas in the world. Classical morphological taxonomy suggests that there are two subspecies in genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Artiodactyla), namely Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. However, the validity and geographic characteristics of these subspecies have never been carefully discussed and analyzed. This may be partially because previous studies have mainly focused on the vague taxonomic status of Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep)...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903535/modeling-the-multiple-facets-of-speciation-with-gene-flow-toward-inferring-the-divergence-history-of-lake-whitefish-species-pairs-coregonus-clupeaformis
#9
Clément Rougeux, Louis Bernatchez, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
Parallel divergence across replicated species pairs occurring in similar environmental contrasts may arise through distinct evolutionary scenarios. Deciphering whether such parallelism actually reflects repeated parallel divergence driven by divergent selection or a single divergence event with subsequent gene flow needs to be ascertained. Reconstructing historical gene flow is therefore of fundamental interest to understand how demography and selection jointly shaped genomic divergence during speciation. Here, we use an extended modeling framework to explore the multiple facets of speciation-with-gene-flow with demo-genetic divergence models that capture both temporal and genomic variation in effective population size and migration rate...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898651/from-early-farmers-to-norman-borlaug-the-making-of-modern-wheat
#10
David Vergauwen, Ive De Smet
If we wander through the countryside, passing fields of wheat, it is apparent that this crop is reasonably short in stature and that the stems carry large ears. However, this was not always the case. If we take a look at depictions of wheat throughout history, we observe that wheat used to be fairly tall. It was not until the second half of the 20(th) century that dwarf wheat varieties started to dominate the agricultural landscape. Underlying this short stature are the Reduced height (Rht) genes, which encode DELLA proteins and which formed the cornerstone of the Green Revolution...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893654/strain-specific-association-of-soybean-dwarf-virus-small-subgenomic-rna-with-virus-particles
#11
Thanuja Thekke-Veetil, Nancy K McCoppin, Leslie L Domier
Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) produces a large subgenomic RNA (LsgRNA) for expression of structural and movement proteins and a small subgenomic RNA (SsgRNA) that does not contain an open reading frame. Sucrose gradient-purified SbDV virions from soybean plants systemically infected with SbDV by aphids and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves agroinfiltrated with infectious clones of two red clover SbDV isolates encapsidated genomic RNA and were associated with SsgRNA in a strain-specific manner. The LsgRNA was protected from RNase degradation, but not packaged into virions as indicated by its presence primarily in ELISA-negative fractions near the tops of sucrose gradients even in mutants that did not express coat protein...
September 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893422/the-brain-is-needed-to-cure-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Tadashi Isa
Damage to corticospinal fibers in the cervical spinal cord is known to impair dexterous hand movements. However, accumulating evidence has shown that precision grip can recover considerably through rehabilitative training. Recent multidisciplinary studies have revealed that, at the spinal level, this recovery is possible due to an indirect neural pathway through propriospinal neurons (PNs), which relay cortical commands to hand motoneurons. Although this indirect spinal pathway is heavily involved in recovery, its role is dwarfed by a simultaneous large-scale network reorganization spanning motor-related cortices and mesolimbic structures...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893289/recombinant-expression-of-beak-and-feather-disease-virus-capsid-protein-and-assembly-of-virus-like-particles-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#13
Guy L Regnard, Edward P Rybicki, Inga I Hitzeroth
BACKGROUND: Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is an important disease causing agent affecting psittacines. BFDV is highly infectious and can present as acute, chronic or subclinical disease. The virus causes immunodeficiency and is often associated with secondary infections. No commercial vaccine is available and yields of recombinant BFDV capsid protein (CP) expressed in insect cells and bacteria are yet to be seen as commercially viable, although both systems produced BFDV CP that could successfully assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs)...
September 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887190/rapid-detection-of-fifteen-known-soybean-viruses-by-dot-immunobinding-assay
#14
Akhtar Ali
A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878591/mutations-in-the-gene-of-the-g%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-are-the-cause-for-the-brachytic1-semi-dwarf-phenotype-in-barley-and-applicable-for-practical-breeding
#15
Ilka Braumann, Christoph Dockter, Sebastian Beier, Axel Himmelbach, Finn Lok, Udda Lundqvist, Birgitte Skadhauge, Nils Stein, Shakhira Zakhrabekova, Ruonan Zhou, Mats Hansson
BACKGROUND: Short-culm mutants have been widely used in breeding programs to increase lodging resistance. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), several hundreds of short-culm mutants have been isolated over the years. The objective of the present study was to identify the Brachytic1 (Brh1) semi-dwarfing gene and to test its effect on yield and malting quality. RESULTS: Double-haploid lines generated through a cross between a brh1.a mutant and the European elite malting cultivar Quench, showed good malting quality but a decrease in yield...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874548/subnational-mobility-and-consumption-based-environmental-accounting-of-us-corn-in-animal-protein-and-ethanol-supply-chains
#16
Timothy M Smith, Andrew L Goodkind, Taegon Kim, Rylie E O Pelton, Kyo Suh, Jennifer Schmitt
Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873089/tempo-and-rates-of-diversification-in-the-south-american-cichlid-genus-apistogramma-teleostei-perciformes-cichlidae
#17
Christelle Tougard, Carmen R García Dávila, Uwe Römer, Fabrice Duponchelle, Frédérique Cerqueira, Emmanuel Paradis, Bruno Guinand, Carlos Angulo Chávez, Vanessa Salas, Sophie Quérouil, Susana Sirvas, Jean-François Renno
Evaluating biodiversity and understanding the processes involved in diversification are noticeable conservation issues in fishes subject to large, sometimes illegal, ornamental trade purposes. Here, the diversity and evolutionary history of the Neotropical dwarf cichlid genus Apistogramma from several South American countries are investigated. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers are used to infer phylogenetic relationships between 31 genetically identified species. The monophyly of Apistogramma is suggested, and Apistogramma species are distributed into four clades, corresponding to three morphological lineages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861231/habitat-predictors-of-genetic-diversity-for-two-sympatric-wetland-breeding-amphibian-species
#18
Anna M McKee, John C Maerz, Lora L Smith, Travis C Glenn
Population genetic diversity is widely accepted as important to the conservation and management of wildlife. However, habitat features may differentially affect evolutionary processes that facilitate population genetic diversity among sympatric species. We measured genetic diversity for two pond-breeding amphibian species (Dwarf salamanders, Eurycea quadridigitata; and Southern Leopard frogs, Lithobates sphenocephalus) to understand how habitat characteristics and spatial scale affect genetic diversity across a landscape...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858302/proper-motion-age-dating-of-the-progeny-of-nova-scorpii-ad-1437
#19
M M Shara, K Iłkiewicz, J Mikołajewska, A Pagnotta, M F Bode, L A Crause, K Drozd, J Faherty, I Fuentes-Morales, J E Grindlay, A F J Moffat, M L Pretorius, L Schmidtobreick, F R Stephenson, C Tappert, D Zurek
'Cataclysmic variables' are binary star systems in which one star of the pair is a white dwarf, and which often generate bright and energetic stellar outbursts. Classical novae are one type of outburst: when the white dwarf accretes enough matter from its companion, the resulting hydrogen-rich atmospheric envelope can host a runaway thermonuclear reaction that generates a rapid brightening. Achieving peak luminosities of up to one million times that of the Sun, all classical novae are recurrent, on timescales of months to millennia...
August 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854661/resistance-of-select-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-cultivars-to-rhopalosiphum-padi-hemiptera-aphididae
#20
John Girvin, R Jeff Whitworth, Lina Maria Aguirre Rojas, C Michael Smith
The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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