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Charles R Marshall
The foundations of several disciplines can be expressed as simple quantitative laws, for example, Newton's laws or the laws of thermodynamics. Here I present five laws derived from fossil data that describe the relationships among species extinction and longevity, species richness, origination rates, extinction rates and diversification. These statements of our palaeobiological knowledge constitute a dimension largely hidden from view when studying the living biota, which are nonetheless crucial to the study of evolution and ecology even for groups with poor or non-existent fossil records...
May 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Lu Yu, Jing Shi, Lianlian Cao, Guoping Zhang, Wenli Wang, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector...
August 15, 2017: Virology Journal
Xiaoguang Song, Zefu Lu, Hong Yu, Gaoneng Shao, Jinsong Xiong, Xiangbing Meng, Yanhui Jing, Guifu Liu, Guosheng Xiong, Jingbo Duan, Xue-Feng Yao, Chun-Ming Liu, Hongqing Li, Yonghong Wang, Jiayang Li
Strigolactones (SLs), a group of carotenoid derived terpenoid lactones, are root-to-shoot phytohormones suppressing shoot branching by inhibiting the outgrowth of axillary buds. DWARF 53 (D53), the key repressor of the SL signaling pathway, is speculated to regulate the downstream transcriptional network of the SL response. However, no downstream transcription factor targeted by D53 has yet been reported. Here we report that Ideal Plant Architecture 1 (IPA1), a key regulator of the plant architecture in rice, functions as a direct downstream component of D53 in regulating tiller number and SL-induced gene expression...
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
Gisuk Lee, Youngsung Joo, Sang-Gyu Kim, Ian T Baldwin
Herbivore attack is known to elicit systemic defense responses that spread throughout the hostplant and influence the performance of other herbivores. While these plant-mediated indirect competitive interactions are well-described, and the co-existence of herbivores from different feeding guilds is common, the mechanisms of co-existence are poorly understood. In both field and glasshouse experiments with a native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, we found no evidence of negative interactions when plants were simultaneously attacked by two spatially separated herbivores: a leaf chewer Manduca sexta and a stem borer Trichobaris mucorea...
August 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anne C Dalziel, Martin Laporte, Helga Guderley, Louis Bernatchez
Transcriptomic studies are facilitating the search for the molecular bases of adaptation in natural populations, but the impact of these differences in mRNA content on animal physiology are often unknown. One way to determine if molecular changes have the potential to influence animal physiology and performance is to test for correlated changes at higher levels of biological organization, including enzyme activity. Here, we measure the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes to test if previously documented genetic and transcriptomic variation between 'dwarf' and 'normal' Lake Whitefish ecotypes are associated with corresponding changes in enzyme activity (measured as maximal rate, Vmax) in liver and skeletal muscle...
August 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Marco O O Pellegrini, Charles N Horn
Two new and peculiar species of Heteranthera are herein described. Heteranthera catharinensis is unique in the genus due to its glomerulate, many-flowered inflorescences, in which the flowers are restricted to the base and apex of the cincinni. It also possesses the biggest flowers in the H. reniformis Ruiz & Pavón species complex, with glabrous perianth lobes, medial filament, and style. On the other hand, Heteranthera pumila is described as the smallest known species of Pontederiaceae, with its dwarf stature, petiolate leaves with especially diminute blades, inflorescences 1-2-(3)-flowered, peduncle densely covered with glandular hairs, basal bract with glandular hairs at base, and smooth seeds, rarely possessing 7-9 inconspicuous longitudinal wings...
2017: PhytoKeys
Kenji Takizawa, Jun Minagawa, Motohide Tamura, Nobuhiko Kusakabe, Norio Narita
One of the possible signs of life on distant habitable exoplanets is the red-edge, which is a rise in the reflectivity of planets between visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Previous studies suggested the possibility that the red-edge position for habitable exoplanets around M-dwarfs may be shifted to a longer wavelength than that for Earth. We investigated plausible red-edge position in terms of the light environment during the course of the evolution of phototrophs. We show that phototrophs on M-dwarf habitable exoplanets may use visible light when they first evolve in the ocean and when they first colonize the land...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shu Li, Tong Zhang, Yingzhi Zhu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) not only aggravates disease symptoms but also enhances their vector acquisition efficiencies by increasing both viruses' titers in co-infected rice plants, which may exacerbate the epidemic of both viruses and cause significant damage to rice production. The molecular mechanism of viral synergism of these two viruses remains unexplored. METHODS: Single and double infection of SRBSDV and RRSV were obtained with the viruliferous white-backed planthopper and brown planthopper inoculation on four-leaf stage rice seedlings, respectively, under experimental condition...
August 8, 2017: Virology Journal
Alessio Bortolami, Ranieri Verin, Julian Chantrey, Michela Corrò, Ian Ashpole, Javier Lopez, Dorina Timofte
Little is known about the characteristics and diseases associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nondomestic animals. Four presumptive MRSA isolates, obtained from clinical (n = 3) and surveillance specimens (n = 1) from dwarf (Helogale parvula) and yellow mongooses (Cynictis penicillata) from a United Kingdom zoo, were analyzed by PCR for detection of mecA and mecC-mediated methicillin resistance, and virulence genes. Isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and spa sequence typing...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Xiao-Jian Xia, Ping-Ping Fang, Xie Guo, Xiang-Jie Qian, Jie Zhou, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, Jing-Quan Yu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant development and stress response. Although much has been learned about their roles in plant development, the mechanisms by which BRs regulate plant stress tolerance remain unclear. Chilling is a major stress that adversely affects plant growth. Here, we report that BR positively regulates chilling tolerance in tomato. BR partial deficiency aggravated chilling-induced oxidized protein accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation and decrease of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm)...
August 4, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Patrick M Erwin, Ryan G Rhodes, Kevin B Kiser, Tiffany F Keenan-Bateman, William A McLellan, D Ann Pabst
Mammals host diverse bacterial and archaeal symbiont communities (i.e. microbiomes) that play important roles in digestive and immune system functioning, yet cetacean microbiomes remain largely unexplored, in part due to sample collection difficulties. Here, fecal samples from stranded pygmy (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf (K. sima) sperm whales were used to characterize the gut microbiomes of two closely-related species with similar diets. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed diverse microbial communities in kogiid whales dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Mohammed A Al-Hammadi, Abdul Hafeed S Daleb, Cecilio R Gonsalves
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major respiratory viral threats for chickens. Despite the intensive application of IBV vaccines, several outbreaks have been reported worldwide. Here, we report several IBV outbreaks in thirteen poultry farms in Eastern Saudi Arabia (ESA) from 2013 to 2014. The main goals of the current study were as follows: (1) isolation and molecular characterization of the currently circulating strains in ESA (Al-Hasa, Dammam, and Buqayq) and (2) evaluation of the immune status of these birds to IBV...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Narin Chomphuphuang, Deborah Smith, Sitthipong Wongvilas, Varat Sivayyapram, Chaowalit Songsangchote, Natapot Warrit
A new record of the tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 from Thailand is described. Distributional data, natural history, morphological characters, and illustrations of male and female are provided. The Thai specimens belong to a new species, Phlogiellus longipalpussp. n. The diagnosis of the new species and related species are discussed.
2017: ZooKeys
J O Daramola, E O Adekunle
BACKGROUND: Sperm washing in some species helps remove the detrimental effect of enzymes secreted from the bulbourethral gland, but such an effect has not been evaluated for cryopreserved sperm obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of washing protocols on the viability parameters of spermatozoa obtained from WAD goat bucks prior to cryopreservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples collected from WAD goat bucks with the aid of artificial vagina were subjected to washing protocols by centrifuging once, twice and thrice while the control group was not washed...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
Julien Lang, Baptiste Genot, Heribert Hirt, Jean Colcombet
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are known to be important mediators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a recent report, we enlarged the understanding of the Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 functions showing that the expression of a constitutively active (CA) form of the protein led to auto-immune phenotypes. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarf and display defense responses that are characterized by the accumulation of salicylic acid and phytoalexins as well as by the upregulation of several defense genes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ralph M Trüeb
In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh...
January 2017: International Journal of Trichology
Warinporn Klunklin, Geoffrey Savage
Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe...
July 25, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Tomasz Hura, Michał Dziurka, Katarzyna Hura, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Kinga Dziurka, Joanna Gadzinowska
The aim of the experiment was to determine phytohormone profile of triticale and quality-based relationships between the analyzed groups of phytohormones. The study involved two triticale phenotypes, a long-stemmed one and a semi-dwarf one with Dw1 gene, differing in mechanisms of acclimation to drought and controlled by wheat or rye genome. Water deficit in the leaves triggered a specific phytohormone response in both winter triticale phenotypes attributable to the dominance of wheat (semi-dwarf cultivar) or rye (long-stemmed cultivar) genome...
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qianjin Wang, Naishun Han, Cong Dang, Zengbin Lu, Fang Wang, Hongwei Yao, Yufa Peng, David Stanley, Gongyin Ye
The advent of genetically modified (GM) Bt rice creates the possibility of interactions among Bt crops, crop pathogens and non-target herbivores. In particular, information on how pathogen-infected Bt-expressing plants will influence non-target herbivores is necessary to predict the sustainability of GM cropping systems. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the potential combined impacts of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and two Bt rice lines, T1C-19 (Cry1C) and T2A-1 (Cry2A), on non-target green rice leafhopper (GRLH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)...
2017: PloS One
Bunta Watanabe, Shuji Yamamoto, Taiyo Yokoi, Airi Sugiura, Shinri Horoiwa, Takanori Aoki, Hisashi Miyagawa, Yoshiaki Nakagawa
Brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS) are the representative members of brassinosteroid class of plant steroid hormone having plant growth promoting activity. In this study, eleven CS analogs bearing a variety of side chains were synthesized to determine the effect of the side chain structures on the BL-like activity. The plant hormonal activity was evaluated in a dwarf rice lamina inclination assay, and the potency was determined as the reciprocal logarithm of the 50% effective dose (ED50) from each dose-response curve...
June 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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