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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103107/star-masses-and-star-planet-distances-for-earth-like-habitability
#1
David Waltham
This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095073/preclinical-and-potential-applications-of-common-western-herbal-supplements-as-complementary-treatment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Luke A Morgan, Oliver Grundmann
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with a complex pathological etiology, which is not fully understood. Progression of PD may be the result of a buildup of iron in the substantia nigra, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, dysfunctional mitochondria, or abnormal protein handling. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected, but as the disease progresses, a decrease in all the brain's biogenic amines occurs. Current medication used in the treatment of PD aims to prevent the breakdown of dopamine or increase dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093630/brassica-napus-ds-3-encoding-a-della-protein-negatively-regulates-stem-elongation-through-gibberellin-signaling-pathway
#3
Bo Zhao, Haitao Li, Juanjuan Li, Bo Wang, Cheng Dai, Jing Wang, Kede Liu
Identification and characterization of a semi-dwarfing gene ds-3 encoding a mutant DELLA protein regulating plant height through gibberellin signaling pathway. Lodging is one of the most important factors causing severe yield loss in oilseed rape. Utilization of semi-dwarf varieties has been proved the most effective way to increase lodging resistance and yield in many crops. To develop semi-dwarf germplasm in oilseed rape, we identified a semi-dwarf mutant ds-3 which showed a reduced response to phytohormones gibberellins (GAs)...
January 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086794/characterization-of-the-sdw1-semi-dwarf-gene-in-barley
#4
Yanhao Xu, Qiaojun Jia, Gaofeng Zhou, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Tefera Angessa, Sue Broughton, George Yan, Wenying Zhang, Chengdao Li
BACKGROUND: The dwarfing gene sdw1 has been widely used throughout the world to develop commercial barley varieties. There are at least four different alleles at the sdw1 locus. RESULTS: Mutations in the gibberellin 20-oxidase gene (HvGA20ox2) resulted in multiple alleles at the sdw1 locus. The sdw1.d allele from Diamant is due to a 7-bp deletion in exon 1, while the sdw1.c allele from Abed Denso has 1-bp deletion and a 4-bp insertion in the 5' untranslated region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081277/comparative-genomic-hybridization-analysis-of-rice-dwarf-mutants-induced-by-gamma-irradiation
#5
J E Hwang, S-H Kim, I J Jung, S M Han, J-W Ahn, S-J Kwon, S H Kim, S-Y Kang, D S Kim, J-B Kim
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful tool used to analyze changes in copy number, polymorphisms, and structural variations in the genome. Gene copy number variation (CNV) is a common form of natural diversity in the genome, which can create new genes and alter gene structure. Thus, CNVs may influence phenotypic variation and gene expression. In this study, to detect CNVs, we irradiated rice seeds with gamma rays (300 Gy) and selected two dwarf mutagenized plants, GA-III-189 and -1052, in the M3 generation...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078746/a-gly65val-substitution-in-an-actin-ghact_li1-disrupts-cell-polarity-and-f-actin-organization-resulting-in-dwarf-lintless-cotton-plants
#6
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075434/diagnosis-and-surgical-correction-of-congenital-bilateral-patellar-luxation-in-two-dwarf-zebu-calves
#7
Göknil Kalayci, Cagri Binici, Julia Tünsmeyer, Silke Stein, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Kerstin Müller, Leo Brunnberg
This case study presents two female dwarf zebu calves with permanent bilateral flexion of the stifle joint secondary to bilateral congenital lateral patellar luxation. The patella could be manually repositioned bilaterally in the first calf (14 days old), but re-luxated immediately with release of manual pressure (luxation grade III). In the second calf (28 days old) both patellae were permanently luxated laterally (grade IV). The right and left stifles of each calf were operated in a staged procedure with approximately 14 days between surgery of the two sides...
January 11, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073950/differential-coupling-of-gibberellin-responses-by-rht-b1c-suppressor-alleles-and-rht-b1b-in-wheat-highlights-a-unique-role-for-the-della-n-terminus-in-dormancy
#8
Karel Van De Velde, Peter Michael Chandler, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Antje Rohde
During the Green Revolution, substantial increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields were realized, at least in part, through the introduction of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1b and Rht-D1b semi-dwarfing alleles. In contrast to Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, the Rht-B1c allele is characterized by extreme dwarfism and exceptionally strong dormancy. Recently, 35 intragenic Rht-B1c suppressor alleles were created in the spring wheat cultivar Maringá, and termed overgrowth (ovg) alleles. Here, 14 ovg alleles with agronomically relevant plant heights were reproducibly classified into nine tall and five semi-dwarf alleles...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069545/small-organ-size-1-and-small-organ-size-2-dwarf-and-low-tillering-form-a-complex-to-integrate-auxin-and-brassinosteroid-signaling-in-rice
#9
Ko Hirano, Hideki Yoshida, Koichiro Aya, Mayuko Kawamura, Makoto Hayashi, Tokunori Hobo, Kanna Sato-Izawa, Hidemi Kitano, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Makoto Matsuoka
Although auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) synergistically control various plant responses, the underlying molecular mechanism of auxin-BR crosstalk is not well understood. We previously identified SMOS1, an auxin-regulated APETALA2-type transcription factor (TF), as the causal gene of the small organ size 1 (smos1) mutant that is characterized by a decreased final size of various organs. In this study we identified another smos mutant, smos2, which shows a phenotype indistinguishable from smos1. SMOS2 was identical to the previously reported DWARF AND LOW-TILLERING (DLT), which encodes a GRAS protein involved in BR signaling...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068433/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-gr2-r1-event-based-backcross-derived-lines-of-golden-rice-in-the-genetic-background-of-a-mega-rice-variety-swarna
#10
Haritha Bollinedi, Gopala Krishnan S, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Sushma Mishra, Jitendra P Khurana, Ashok Kumar Singh
Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067229/tubules-of-plant-reoviruses-exploit-tropomodulin-to-regulate-actin-based-tubule-motility-in-insect-vector
#11
Qian Chen, Linghua Zhang, Yanshuang Zhang, Qianzhuo Mao, Taiyun Wei
Plant reoviruses are known to exploit virion-packaging tubules formed by virus-encoding non-structural proteins for viral spread in insect vectors. Tubules are propelled by actin-based tubule motility (ABTM) to overcome membrane or tissue barriers in insect vectors. To further understand which insect factors mediate ABTM, we utilized yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to test interactions between tubule protein Pns10 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, and proteins of its insect vector, the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061864/identification-of-brassinosteroid-genes-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Claudia Corvalán, Sunghwa Choe
BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that are involved in diverse physiological processes and affect many important traits, such as plant stature, stress tolerance, leaf angle, fertility, and grain filling. BR signaling and biosynthetic pathways have been studied in various plants, such as the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana; however, relatively little is known about these pathways in monocots. RESULTS: To characterize BR-related processes in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, we studied the response of these plants to the specific BR biosynthesis inhibitor, propiconazole (Pcz)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057895/gibberellin-signaling-requires-chromatin-remodeler-pickle-to-promote-vegetative-growth-and-phase-transitions
#13
Jeongmoo Park, Dong-Ha Oh, Maheshi Dassanayake, Khoa Thi Nguyen, Joe Ogas, Giltsu Choi, Tai-Ping Sun
PICKLE (PKL) is an ATP-dependent Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA-binding domain (CHD3) chromatin remodeling enzyme in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies showed that PKL promotes embryonic-to-vegetative transition by inhibiting expression of seed-specific genes during seed germination. The pkl mutants display a low penetrance of the 'pickle root' phenotype with a thick and green primary root that retains embryonic characteristics. The penetrance of this pickle root phenotype in pkl is dramatically increased in GA-deficient conditions...
January 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052390/peatland-plant-communities-under-global-change-negative-feedback-loops-counteract-shifts-in-species-composition
#14
Per-Ola Hedwall, Jörg Brunet, Håkan Rydin
Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially sensitive to nitrogen deposition and climate change. The role of mires in the global carbon cycle, and the delivery of different ecosystem services can be considerably altered by changes in the vegetation, which has a strong impact on peat-formation and hydrology. Mire ecosystems are commonly open with limited canopy cover but both nitrogen deposition and increased temperatures may increase the woody vegetation component...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046124/changes-of-ovarian-microrna-profile-in-long-living-ames-dwarf-mice-during-aging
#15
Augusto Schneider, Scot J Matkovich, Berta Victoria, Lina Spinel, Andrzej Bartke, Pawel Golusinski, Michal M Masternak
The Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have extended longevity and can preserve the ovarian reserve longer than Normal (N) mice. Based on this, the aim of our study was to evaluate the ovarian microRNA (miRNA) profile in young and aged df/df and N mice. Ovarian tissue was collected at 5-6 months and at 21-22 months of age for miRNA sequencing. We detected a total of 404 miRNAs in the ovarian samples, from which the abundance of 22 and 33 miRNAs changed with age in N and df/df mice, respectively. Of these, only three miRNAs were commonly regulated with age between N and df/df mice, indicating a very divergent miRNA profile between genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040779/forward-genetics-by-sequencing-ems-variation-induced-inbred-lines
#16
Charles Addo-Quaye, Elizabeth Buescher, Norman Best, Vijay Chaikam, Ivan Baxter, Brian P Dilkes
In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of EMS mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequence in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families...
December 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035870/identification-of-a-new-cotton-disease-caused-by-an-atypical-cotton-leafroll-dwarf-virus-in-argentina
#17
Yamila C Agrofoglio, Verónica C Delfosse, María F Casse, Horacio E Hopp, Iván Bonacic Kresic, Ana J Distéfano
An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%...
December 30, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031807/spatial-patterns-of-an-endemic-mediterranean-palm-recolonizing-old-fields
#18
Miguel E Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand, José M Fedriani
Throughout Europe, increased levels of land abandonment lead to (re)colonization of old lands by forests and shrublands. Very little is known about the spatial pattern of plants recolonizing such old fields. We mapped in two 21-22-ha plots, located in the Doñana National Park (Spain), all adult individuals of the endozoochorous dwarf palm Chamaerops humilisL. and determined their sex and sizes. We used techniques of spatial point pattern analysis (SPPA) to precisely quantify the spatial structure of these C...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031076/assessment-of-lifetime-performance-of-small-ruminants-under-different-feeding-systems
#19
T A Amole, M Zijlstra, K Descheemaeker, A A Ayantunde, A J Duncan
Evaluation of lifetime productivity of individual animals in response to various interventions allows assessment of long-term investment opportunities for farmers. In order to gain a better understanding of promising feed interventions for improvement of small ruminant production in Southwestern Nigeria, a dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of different feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Modifications were made to the current version of Livestock Simulator developed for cattle production to simulate goat production systems particularly for WAD goats...
December 29, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013174/dwarf-and-short-grain-1-encoding-a-putative-u-box-protein-regulates-cell-division-and-elongation-in-rice
#20
Nan Wang, Yadi Xing, Qijin Lou, Ping Feng, Song Liu, Meidan Zhu, Wuzhong Yin, Shunran Fang, Yan Lin, Tianquan Zhang, Xianchun Sang, Guanghua He
Plant hormones coordinate a plant's responses to environmental stimuli and the endogenous developmental programs for cell division and elongation. Brassinosteroids are among the most important of these hormones in plant development. Recently, the ubiquitin-26S-proteasome system was identified to play a key role in hormone biology. In this study, we analyzed the function of a rice (Oryza sativa) gene, DSG1, which encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. In the dsg1 mutant (an allelic mutant of tud1), the lengths of the roots, internodes, panicles, and seeds were shorter than that in the wild-type, which was due to defects in cell division and elongation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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