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Andrea Raponi, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Alessandro Frigeri, Eleonora Ammannito, Mauro Ciarniello, Michelangelo Formisano, Jean-Philippe Combe, Gianfranco Magni, Federico Tosi, Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Sergio Fonte, Marco Giardino, Steven P Joy, Carol A Polanskey, Marc D Rayman, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Andrea Longobardo, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
The dwarf planet Ceres is known to host a considerable amount of water in its interior, and areas of water ice were detected by the Dawn spacecraft on its surface. Moreover, sporadic water and hydroxyl emissions have been observed from space telescopes. We report the detection of water ice in a mid-latitude crater and its unexpected variation with time. The Dawn spectrometer data show a change of water ice signatures over a period of 6 months, which is well modeled as ~2-km2 increase of water ice. The observed increase, coupled with Ceres' orbital parameters, points to an ongoing process that seems correlated with solar flux...
March 2018: Science Advances
Brett Ford, Eloise Foo, Robert E Sharwood, Miroslava Karafiatova, Jan Vrána, Colleen MacMillan, David S Nichols, Burkhard Steuernagel, Cristobal Uauy, Jaroslav Doležel, Peter Chandler, Wolfgang Spielmeyer
Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to major yield increases in crop species by reducing height, improving lodging resistance, and partitioning more assimilates to grain growth. In wheat, the Rht18 semi-dwarfing gene was identified and deployed in durum wheat before it was transferred into bread wheat where it was shown to have agronomic potential. Rht18, a dominant and gibberellin (GA) responsive mutant, is genetically and functionally distinct from the widely used GA insensitive semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b...
March 15, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maelle Sevellec, Nicolas Derome, Louis Bernatchez
BACKGROUND: It is well established that symbionts have considerable impact on their host, yet the investigation of the possible role of the holobiont in the host's speciation process is still in its infancy. In this study, we compared the intestinal microbiota among five sympatric pairs of dwarf (limnetic) and normal (benthic) lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis representing a continuum in the early stage of ecological speciation. We sequenced the 16s rRNA gene V3-V4 regions of the intestinal microbiota present in a total of 108 wild sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish as well as the water bacterial community from five lakes to (i) test for differences between the whitefish intestinal microbiota and the water bacterial community and (ii) test for parallelism in the intestinal microbiota of dwarf and normal whitefish...
March 14, 2018: Microbiome
Taraka Ramji Moturu, Sravan Kumar Thula, Ravi Kumar Singh, Tomasz Nodzynski, Radka Svobodová Vareková, Jirí Friml, Sibu Simon
Strigolactones (SLs) are relatively recent addition to plant hormones that reported to control different aspects of plant development. SL signalling is perceived by an α/β hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14). A close homologue of D14, KARRIKIN INSENSTIVE2 (KAI2) involved in perception of an uncharacterized molecule called Karrikin (KR). Recent studies identified the SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) and SMXL7 in Arabidopsis to be potential SCF-MAX2 complex mediated proteasome targets of KAI2 and D14 respectively. Genetic studies on SMXL7 and SMAX1 demonstrated distinct developmental roles of each but very little sequence features are known about these repressors...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lindsay G Carlson, Karen H Beard, Peter B Adler
Both the direct effects of warming on a species' vital rates and indirect effects of warming caused by interactions with neighboring species can influence plant populations. Furthermore, herbivory mediates the effects of warming on plant community composition in many systems. Thus, determining the importance of direct and indirect effects of warming, while considering the role of herbivory, can help predict long-term plant community dynamics. We conducted a field experiment in the coastal wetlands of western Alaska to investigate how warming and herbivory influence the interactions and abundances of two common plant species, a sedge, Carex ramenskii , and a dwarf shrub, Salix ovalifolia ...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M T Harper, A Melgar, J Oh, K Nedelkov, G Sanchez, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yongyao Xie, Yaling Zhang, Jingluan Han, Jikai Luo, Gousi Li, Jianle Huang, Haibin Wu, Qingwei Tian, Qinlong Zhu, Yuanling Chen, Yoji Kawano, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Plant height has a major effect on grain yield in crops such as rice (Oryza sativa), and the hormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates many developmental processes that feed into plant height. Rice ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE 1 (Eui1) encodes a GA-deactivating enzyme governing elongation of uppermost internode. The expression of Eui1 is finely tuned, thereby maintaining homeostasis of endogenous bioactive GA and producing plants of normal plant height. Here, we identified a dominant dwarf mutant, dEui1, caused by the deletion of an RY motif-containing cis silencing element (SE1) in the intron of Eui1...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Plant
Fan Peng, Chao Wang, Jianshu Zhu, Jian Zeng, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou, Yi Wang
TpRNAMP5 is mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of roots and basal stems. It functions as a metal transporter for Cd, Mn and Co accumulation. Numerous natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs) have been functionally identified in various plant species, including Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and tobacco, but no information is available on NRAMP genes in wheat. In this study, we isolated a TpNRAMP5 from dwarf Polish wheat (DPW, Triticum polonicum L.), a species with high tolerance to Cd and Zn...
March 9, 2018: Planta
T Guillot, Y Miguel, B Militzer, W B Hubbard, Y Kaspi, E Galanti, H Cao, R Helled, S M Wahl, L Iess, W M Folkner, D J Stevenson, J I Lunine, D R Reese, A Biekman, M Parisi, D Durante, J E P Connerney, S M Levin, S J Bolton
Jupiter's atmosphere is rotating differentially, with zones and belts rotating at speeds that differ by up to 100 metres per second. Whether this is also true of the gas giant's interior has been unknown, limiting our ability to probe the structure and composition of the planet. The discovery by the Juno spacecraft that Jupiter's gravity field is north-south asymmetric and the determination of its non-zero odd gravitational harmonics J3 , J5 , J7 and J9 demonstrates that the observed zonal cloud flow must persist to a depth of about 3,000 kilometres from the cloud tops...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Yi Xu, Ho Jung Ju, S DeBlasio, Elizabeth J Carino, R Johnson, M MacCoss, M Cilia Heck, W Allen Miller, S M Gray
Translational readthrough of the stop codon of the capsid protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF) is used by members of the Luteoviridae to produce their minor capsid protein as a readthrough protein (RTP). The elements regulating RTP expression are not well understood, but involve long-distance interactions between RNA domains. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, glutamine and tyrosine were identified as the primary amino acids inserted at the stop codon of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) CP ORF. We characterized the contributions of a cytidine-rich domain immediately downstream, and a branched stem-loop structure 600-700 nucleotides downstream of the CP stop codon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Emilia Okragla, Milena Chraniuk, Lidia Wolska
Herbs can be used preventatively, to aid treatment and to ease the symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Traditional medicine uses herbal infusions such as: lingonberry leaf (Vitis idaeae folium), birch leaf (Betulaefolium) wild thyme extract (Serpylli herba), dwarf everlast flower (Helichrysi inflorescentia), goldenrod (Virgauneae herba, also called Solidaginis herba), restharrow root (Ononidis radix), agrimony (Agrimoniae herba), rowanberry (Sorbi aucupariae fructus), black elderberry (Sambuci fructus), and juniper berry (Juniperifrictus)...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Jianqiang Yang, Ning Yi, Junhui Zhang, Wen He, Di He, Wanwan Wu, Shuyang Xu, Feng Li, Guoping Fan, Xianmin Zhu, Zhigang Xue, Wensheng Zhou
Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, is important for thyroid development and growth. In several cases, frameshift and/or nonsense mutations in TSHR were found in the patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH), however they have not been functionally studied in an animal model. In the present work, we generated a unique TshrDf/Df rat model that recapitulates the phenotypes in TSHR Y444X patient by CRISPR/Cas genome editing technology. In this rat model, TSHR is truncated at the second transmembrane domain, leading to CH phenotypes as what was observed in the patients, including dwarf, thyroid aplasia, infertility, TSH resistant as well as low serum thyroid hormone levels...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne K Korn, Natali Bauer, Andreas Moritz, Georg Erhardt
BACKGROUND: Literature regarding the impact of age and breed size on clinical biochemical measurands in rabbits is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish clinical biochemical measurand RIs for rabbits bred and kept under standard conditions and to evaluate the impact of gender, age, and breed size on the results using a Nova CRT8 analyzer (Nova Biomedical GmbH) and an ABX Pentra 400 analyzer (ABX Horiba, Axonlab). METHODS: Serum samples were available from 122 adult rabbits (56 males, 66 females) of 10 different breeds and crossbreds with a mean age of 264 ± 21 days...
March 5, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Song Zhang, Pan Shen, Min Li, Xin Tian, Changyong Zhou, Mengji Cao
Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and PCR amplification with two pairs of back-to-back primers, followed by cloning and sequencing, allowed identification of a novel geminivirus isolate provisionally named camellia chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CaCDaV). The complete genome sequence of CaCDaV comprises 3,687 nucleotides (nts) and six open reading frames (ORFs). The genome and putative proteins of CaCDaV were most closely related to those of two unclassified geminiviruses: citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV, 3,640 nt) and mulberry mosaic dwarf-associated virus (MMDaV, 2,952 nt)...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Xin Wang, Justin Darcy, Chuan Cai, Junfei Jin, Andrzej Bartke, Deliang Cao
Hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate advantages of longevity, but little is known of their colon development and intestinal immunity. Herein we found that Ames dwarf mice have shorter colon and colonic crypts, but larger ratio of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) over body weight than age-matched wild type (WT) mice. In the colonic lamina propria (cLP) of juvenile Ames mice, more inflammatory neutrophils (Ā: 0.15% vs. 0.03% in WT mice) and monocytes (Ā: 7.97% vs. 5.15%) infiltrated, and antigen presenting cells CD11c+ dendritic cells (Ā: 1...
March 2, 2018: Aging
Suvimol Somwongin, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Wantida Chaiyana
Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Antony Colombo, Menno Hoogland, Hélène Coqueugniot, Olivier Dutour, Andrea Waters-Rist
A 66 year-old woman with a disproportionate dwarfism and who bore seven children was discovered at the Middenbeemster archaeological site (The Netherlands). Three are perinates and show no macroscopic or radiological evidence for a FGFR3 mutation causing hypo-or achondroplasia. This mutation induces dysfunction of the growth cartilage, leading to abnormalities in the development of trabecular bone. Because the mutation is autosomal dominant, these perinates have a 50% risk of having been affected. This study determines whether trabecular bone microarchitecture (TBMA) analysis is useful for detecting genetic dwarfism...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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