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Xia Zhang, Heping Li
Sterols play important roles in plant growth, including embryogenesis, cell expansion, vascular differentiation, male fertility, and endocytosis. Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. There are two distinct sterol C-4-methyl oxidase (SMO) families in higher plants, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, involving in the removal of the first and second C4 methyl groups during sterols biosynthesis. In a recent study we showed that single smo2-1 and smo2-2 mutants displayed no significant phenotype, while smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yan Zou, Rong-Hua Zhang, Shi-Chang Xia, Li-Chun Huang, Yue-Qiang Fang, Jia Meng, Jiang Chen, He-Xiang Zhang, Biao Zhou, Gang-Qiang Ding
There is growing concern over the double burden of over- and under-nutrition in individuals, especially in children and adolescents, which could dwarf their growth and development. This study aims to explore the rural-urban difference in BMI and anemia among children and adolescents. A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. Dietary data were collected through interviews, and anthropometric values were measured. There were 1534 children and adolescents who participated in this study, including 775 male and 759 female participants...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jimmy A Irwin, W Peter Maksym, Gregory R Sivakoff, Aaron J Romanowsky, Dacheng Lin, Tyler Speegle, Ian Prado, David Mildebrath, Jay Strader, Jifeng Liu, Jon M Miller
A flaring X-ray source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697 (ref. 1). Two brief flares were seen, separated by four years. During each flare, the flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. There is no associated optical source at the position of the flares, but if the source was at the distance of NGC 4697, then the luminosities of the flares were greater than 10(39) erg per second. Here we report the results of a search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies looking for similar flares...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Dongsheng Jia, Yu Han, Xiang Sun, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhenguo Du, Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
BACKGROUND: Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) are two closely related fijiviruses transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), respectively. SRBSDV has a latent period 4 days shorter than that of RBSDV, implying a more efficient spread in insect vector. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this higher efficiency are poorly understood. However, our recent studies have implicated a role of virus induced tubular structures in the dissemination of fijiiruses within their insect vectors...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Pei Li, Fei Li, Yongqiang Han, Lang Yang, Xiaolan Liao, Maolin Hou
Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S...
2016: PloS One
Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Chandra Thammina, Rania El-Tanbouly, Huseyin Yer, Emily Merewitz, Karl Guillard, John Inguagiato, Richard J McAvoy, Zongrang Liu, Yi Li
When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bastian Minkenberg, Kabin Xie, Yinong Yang
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system depends on a guide RNA (gRNA) to specify its target. By efficiently co-expressing multiple gRNAs that target different genomic sites, the polycistronic tRNA-gRNA gene (PTG) strategy enables multiplex gene editing in the family of closely related rice mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) genes. In this study, we identified MPK1 and MPK6 (Arabidopsis AtMPK6 and AtMPK4 orthologues, respectively) as essential genes for rice development by finding the preservation of MPK functional alleles and normal phenotypes in CRISPR-edited mutants...
October 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wenjun Hu, Lin Chen, Xiaoyun Qiu, Hongling Lu, Jia Wei, Yueqing Bai, Ningjia He, Rongbin Hu, Li Sun, Hong Zhang, Guoxin Shen
Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juan Carlos Vaca-Vaca, Emerson Clovis Carrasco-Lozano, Karina López-López
The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil...
October 14, 2016: Archives of Virology
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Mohammed Sherif, Eva-Maria Becker, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner, Petr Karlovsky, Richard Splivallo
Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
José Vargas-Asencio, Klaudia Wojciechowska, Maia Baskerville, Annika L Gomez, Keith L Perry, Jeremy R Thompson
In analyzing grapevine clones infected with grapevine red blotch associated virus, we identified a small number of isometric particles of approximately 30nm in diameter from an enriched fraction of leaf extract. A dominant protein of 25kDa was isolated from this fraction using SDS-PAGE and was identified by mass spectrometry as belonging to grapevine asteroid mosaic associated virus (GAMaV). Using a combination of three methods RNA-Seq, sRNA-Seq, and Sanger sequencing of RT- and RACE-PCR products, we obtained a full-length genome sequence consisting of 6719 nucleotides without the poly(A) tail...
October 5, 2016: Virus Research
Chatree Saensuk, Samart Wanchana, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Sugunya Wongpornchai, Tippaya Kraithong, Wachiraya Imsabai, Ekawat Chaichoompu, Vinitchan Ruanjaichon, Theerayut Toojinda, Apichart Vanavichit, Siwaret Arikit
Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Nete Kodahl, Renate Müller, Henrik Lütken
Plant transformation with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a promising method for breeding of compact plants and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, knowledge concerning the isolated functions of single genes and ORFs from the plasmid is limited. The rolB and ORF13 oncogenes of A. rhizogenes show considerable promise in plant breeding, but have not been comprehensively studied. Detailed information regarding the morphological impact of specific genes of the Ri plasmid will allow for optimized targeted breeding of plants transformed with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yonglin Wang, Xuewu Li, Weifen Zhou, Tao Li, Chengming Tian
BACKGROUND: The parasitic flowering plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) is one of the most destructive forest pests, posing a major threat to numerous conifer species worldwide. Arceuthobium sichuanense (spruce dwarf mistletoe, SDM) infects Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) and causes severe damage to spruce forests in Northwest China. SDM is a Chinese native parasitic plant and acquires carbohydrates and mineral nutrition from its hosts. However, underlying molecular basis of the physiological development is largely unknown...
October 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
Thomas D Brekke, Lindy A Henry, Jeffrey M Good
The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Li Zhang, Shudai Lin, Lilong An, Jinge Ma, Fengfang Qiu, Rumin Jia, Qinghua Nie, Dexiang Zhang, Qingbin Luo, Ting Li, Zhang Wang, Xiquan Zhang
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) played key roles in human and animal growth. Both human laron type dwarfism and sex linked dwarf chicken were caused by the mutation of GHR gene. In this study, we identified an endogenously expressed long non-coding natural antisense transcript, GHR-AS, which overlapped with the GHR mRNA (GHR-S) in a tail to tail manner. Spatial and temporal expression analyses indicated that GHR-AS were highly expressed in chicken liver and displayed ascending with the development of chicken from E10 to 3 w of age...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
L Shi, X J Wei, Y M N Adedze, Z H Sheng, S Q Tang, P S Hu, J L Wang
The dwarf and narrow-leaf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant dnl3 was isolated from the Japonica cultivar Zhonghua 11 (wild-type). dnl3 exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects. The narrow-leaf phenotype resulted from a marked reduction in the number of vascular bundles, while the dwarf stature was caused by the formation of foreshortened internodes and a reduced number of parenchyma cells. The suggestion that cell division is impaired in the mutant was consistent with the transcriptional behavior of various genes associated with cell division...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
D L Buczkowski, B E Schmidt, D A Williams, S C Mest, J E C Scully, A I Ermakov, F Preusker, P Schenk, K A Otto, H Hiesinger, D O'Brien, S Marchi, H Sizemore, K Hughson, H Chilton, M Bland, S Byrne, N Schorghofer, T Platz, R Jaumann, T Roatsch, M V Sykes, A Nathues, M C De Sanctis, C A Raymond, C T Russell
Analysis of Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera image data allows evaluation of the topography and geomorphology of features on the surface of Ceres. The dwarf planet is dominated by numerous craters, but other features are also common. Linear structures include both those associated with impact craters and those that do not appear to have any correlation to an impact event. Abundant lobate flows are identified, and numerous domical features are found at a range of scales. Features suggestive of near-surface ice, cryomagmatism, and cryovolcanism have been identified...
September 2, 2016: Science
O Ruesch, T Platz, P Schenk, L A McFadden, J C Castillo-Rogez, L C Quick, S Byrne, F Preusker, D P O'Brien, N Schmedemann, D A Williams, J-Y Li, M T Bland, H Hiesinger, T Kneissl, A Neesemann, M Schaefer, J H Pasckert, B E Schmidt, D L Buczkowski, M V Sykes, A Nathues, T Roatsch, M Hoffmann, C A Raymond, C T Russell
Volcanic edifices are abundant on rocky bodies of the inner solar system. In the cold outer solar system, volcanism can occur on solid bodies with a water-ice shell, but derived cryovolcanic constructs have proved elusive. We report the discovery, using Dawn Framing Camera images, of a landform on dwarf planet Ceres that we argue represents a viscous cryovolcanic dome. Parent material of the cryomagma is a mixture of secondary minerals, including salts and water ice. Absolute model ages from impact craters reveal that extrusion of the dome has occurred recently...
September 2, 2016: Science
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