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Sunita Arora, Manju Saini
Background: Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell (Molluginaceae), recently has moved to Lophiocarpaceae as per angiospermic plant group (APG) III system, is an annual or short-lived, dwarf, glabrous subshrub, prefers to grow on rocky places and on sand-stones in dry, hot areas of Rajasthan. This is the potential plant with medicinal properties. Vegetative organs under study show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antinociception activity. Objective: This study was carried out to identify the phytoconstituents present in the methanolic and ethyl-acetate extract of root and stem of C...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Takahiko Koizumi, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are indispensable for the establishment of host trees, yet available information of ECM symbiosis in alpine forests is scarce. Pinus pumila is a typical ice age relict tree species in Japan and often forms monodominant dwarf vegetation above the tree line in mountains. We studied ECM fungi colonizing P. pumila on Mt. Norikura, Japan, with reference to host developmental stages, i.e., from current-year seedlings to mature trees. ECM fungal species were identified based on rDNA ITS sequences...
January 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
D Michilli, A Seymour, J W T Hessels, L G Spitler, V Gajjar, A M Archibald, G C Bower, S Chatterjee, J M Cordes, K Gourdji, G H Heald, V M Kaspi, C J Law, C Sobey, E A K Adams, C G Bassa, S Bogdanov, C Brinkman, P Demorest, F Fernandez, G Hellbourg, T J W Lazio, R S Lynch, N Maddox, B Marcote, M A McLaughlin, Z Paragi, S M Ransom, P Scholz, A P V Siemion, S P Tendulkar, P Van Rooy, R S Wharton, D Whitlow
Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration, extragalactic radio flashes of unknown physical origin. The only known repeating fast radio burst source-FRB 121102-has been localized to a star-forming region in a dwarf galaxy at redshift 0.193 and is spatially coincident with a compact, persistent radio source. The origin of the bursts, the nature of the persistent source and the properties of the local environment are still unclear. Here we report observations of FRB 121102 that show almost 100 per cent linearly polarized emission at a very high and variable Faraday rotation measure in the source frame (varying from +1...
January 10, 2018: Nature
Sheena L Faherty, José Luis Villanueva-Cañas, Marina B Blanco, Mar M Albà, Anne D Yoder
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy some mammals use to survive highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. We present the first investigation on the transcriptomics of hibernation in a natural population of primate hibernators: Crossley's dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus crossleyi). Using capture-mark-recapture techniques to track the same animals over a period of seven months in Madagascar, we used RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue (WAT) during three distinct physiological states...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
N Giammichele, S Charpinet, G Fontaine, P Brassard, E M Green, V Van Grootel, P Bergeron, W Zong, M-A Dupret
White-dwarf stars are the end product of stellar evolution for most stars in the Universe. Their interiors bear the imprint of fundamental mechanisms that occur during stellar evolution. Moreover, they are important chronometers for dating galactic stellar populations, and their mergers with other white dwarfs now appear to be responsible for producing the type Ia supernovae that are used as standard cosmological candles. However, the internal structure of white-dwarf stars-in particular their oxygen content and the stratification of their cores-is still poorly known, because of remaining uncertainties in the physics involved in stellar modelling codes...
January 8, 2018: Nature
Victor J T Loehr
Ectotherms have various means of dealing with low environmental temperatures, but relatively few species have been rigorously investigated. Consequently, we have little information to predict how ectotherm populations might respond to global temperature changes. Tortoises from temperate and subtropical regions often overcome periodically cool conditions by hibernation, but speckled dwarf tortoises (Chersobius signatus) need to remain active to exploit ephemeral resources in their arid winter-rainfall habitat...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Jin Ma, Jun Chen, Min Wang, Yulong Ren, Shuai Wang, Cailin Lei, Zhijun Cheng, Sodmergen
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved octameric protein complex involved in exocytosis, has been reported to be involved in diverse aspects of morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, the molecular functions of such exocytotic molecules in rice are poorly understood. Here, we examined the molecular function of OsSEC3A, an important subunit of the exocyst complex in rice. The OsSEC3A gene is expressed in various organs, and OsSEC3A has the potential ability to participate in the exocyst complex by interacting with several other exocyst subunits...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
M E Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand, José M Fedriani
Background and Aims: Nursery pollination is a highly specialized interaction in which pollinators breed inside plant reproductive structures. Pollinator occupancy of host plants often depends on plant location, flowering synchrony and sex. The nursery pollination system between the dioecious dwarf palm Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae) and the host-specific palm flower weevil Derelomus chamaeropsis was investigated. For the first time, sex, flowering synchrony and spatial distribution of plants was related to the occupancy probability and the abundance of D...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Pilar Escalante-Minakata, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Victoria García-Ibáñez, José J Virgen-Ortíz, Apolinar González-Potes, Jaime D Pérez-Martínez, Mario Orozco-Santos
This work presents a novel method to associate the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the peroxidase (POD) activities with the ripening-mediated color changes in banana peel and pulp by computational image analysis. The method was used to follow up the de-greening of peel and browning of homogenized pulp from 'Giant Dwarf' (GD: Musa AAA, subgroup Cavendish) and FHIA-23 (tetraploid hybrid, AAAA) banana cultivars. In both cultivars, the color changes of peel during the ripening process clearly showed four stages, which were used to group the fruit into ripening stages...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
M N Bemji, A M Isa, E M Ibeagha-Awemu, M Wheto
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene is considered a candidate gene for litter size due to its critical role in regulating the activities of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis which synthesizes and releases gonadotropins. This study was designed to identify mutations within the caprine GnRHR gene and investigate their association with litter size at various parities. Polymorphisms scanning and genotyping of GnRHR gene in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats (n = 226) revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one mutation (g...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
Ivan De Martino, Tom Broadhurst, S-H Henry Tye, Tzihong Chiueh, Hsi-Yu Schive, Ruth Lazkoz
Light axionic dark matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the "no weakly interacting massive particle era". Galaxy formation is suppressed below a Jeans scale of ≃10^{8}  M_{⊙} by setting the axion mass to m_{B}∼10^{-22}  eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de Broglie scale. This is persuasive, but detection of the inherent scalar field oscillation at the Compton frequency ω_{B}=(2.5  months)^{-1}(m_{B}/10^{-22}  eV) would be definitive...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Chuanfei Dong, Meng Jin, Manasvi Lingam, Vladimir S Airapetian, Yingjuan Ma, Bart van der Holst
The presence of an atmosphere over sufficiently long timescales is widely perceived as one of the most prominent criteria associated with planetary surface habitability. We address the crucial question of whether the seven Earth-sized planets transiting the recently discovered ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 are capable of retaining their atmospheres. To this effect, we carry out numerical simulations to characterize the stellar wind of TRAPPIST-1 and the atmospheric ion escape rates for all of the seven planets...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bi Wu, Wei Hu, Mohammed Ayaad, Hongbo Liu, Yongzhong Xing
Intragenic recombination is one of the most important sources of genetic variability. In our previous study, RI92 a tall line (160 cm of plant height) was observed in the cross progeny between two semi-dwarf indica cultivars Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. Genome-wide genotyping and sequencing indicated that the genome constitution of RI92 was completely from both parents. Bulk segregant analysis in a BC3F2 population revealed that "green revolution gene" semi-dwarf 1 (sd1) was most likely the gene controlling the tall plant height in RI92...
2017: PloS One
Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, Carmen Benítez-Benítez, Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Santiago Martín-Bravo
Plants growing in high-mountain environments may share common morphological features through convergent evolution resulting from an adaptative response to similar ecological conditions. The Carex flava species complex (sect. Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae) includes four dwarf morphotypes from Circum-Mediterranean mountains whose taxonomic status has remained obscure due to their apparent morphological resemblance. In this study we investigate whether these dwarf mountain morphotypes result from convergent evolution or common ancestry, and whether there are ecological differences promoting differentiation between the dwarf morphotypes and their taxonomically related large, well-developed counterparts...
2017: PloS One
Liwei Zheng, Juanjuan Ma, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Dong Zhang, Caiping Zhao, Mingyu Han
Brassinosteroid is identified as an important hormone. However, information about brassinosteroid has not been fully elucidated, and few studies concerned its role in apple. The aim of this work was to study the role of brassinosteroid for apple tree growth. In our study, the effect of brassinosteroid on apple nursery tree was analyzed. The biomass, cell size and xylem content of apple nursery tree were obviously evaluated by brassinosteroid treatment; mineral elements contents, photosynthesis indexes, carbohydrate level and hormone contents were significantly high in brassinosteroid treated trees...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Matthias Karadar, Gilbert Neuner, Ilse Kranner, Andreas Holzinger, Othmar Buchner
In the 20th century, annual mean temperatures in the European Alps rose by almost 1 K and are predicted to rise further, increasing the impact of temperature on alpine plants. The role of light in the heat hardening of plants is still not fully understood. Here, the alpine dwarf shrub Vaccinium gaultherioides was exposed in situ to controlled short-term heat spells (150 min with leaf temperatures 43-49°C) and long-term heat waves (7 d, 30°C) under different irradiation intensities. Lethal leaf temperatures (LT50 ) were calculated...
December 22, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
M S Spitzer, S Schnichels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Simeon Thibeaux, Shaila Siddiqi, Olga Zhelyabovska, Faisal Moinuddin, Michal M Masternak, Shadab A Siddiqi
Synthesis and secretion of hepatic triglycerides (TAG) associated with very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) play a major role in maintaining overall lipid homeostasis. This study aims to identify factors affecting synthesis and secretion of VLDL-TAG using the growth hormone-deficient Ames dwarf mouse model, which has reduced serum TAG. Proteomic analysis coupled with a bioinformatics driven approach revealed that these mice express greater amounts of hepatic cathepsin B and lower amounts of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), than their wild type littermates...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vincent Bourrier, Christophe Lovis, Hervé Beust, David Ehrenreich, Gregory W Henry, Nicola Astudillo-Defru, Romain Allart, Xavier Bonfils, Damien Ségransan, Xavier Delfosse, Heather M Cegla, Aurélien Wyttenbach, Kevin Heng, Baptiste Lavie, Francesco Pepe
The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin-orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet...
December 18, 2017: Nature
C Paladini, F Baron, A Jorissen, J-B Le Bouquin, B Freytag, S Van Eck, M Wittkowski, J Hron, A Chiavassa, J-P Berger, C Siopis, A Mayer, G Sadowski, K Kravchenko, S Shetye, F Kerschbaum, J Kluska, S Ramstedt
Convection plays a major part in many astrophysical processes, including energy transport, pulsation, dynamos and winds on evolved stars, in dust clouds and on brown dwarfs. Most of our knowledge about stellar convection has come from studying the Sun: about two million convective cells with typical sizes of around 2,000 kilometres across are present on the surface of the Sun-a phenomenon known as granulation. But on the surfaces of giant and supergiant stars there should be only a few large (several tens of thousands of times larger than those on the Sun) convective cells, owing to low surface gravity...
December 20, 2017: Nature
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