keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Dwarf

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426003/a-temperate-rocky-super-earth-transiting-a-nearby-cool-star
#1
Jason A Dittmann, Jonathan M Irwin, David Charbonneau, Xavier Bonfils, Nicola Astudillo-Defru, Raphaëlle D Haywood, Zachory K Berta-Thompson, Elisabeth R Newton, Joseph E Rodriguez, Jennifer G Winters, Thiam-Guan Tan, Jose-Manuel Almenara, François Bouchy, Xavier Delfosse, Thierry Forveille, Christophe Lovis, Felipe Murgas, Francesco Pepe, Nuno C Santos, Stephane Udry, Anaël Wünsche, Gilbert A Esquerdo, David W Latham, Courtney D Dressing
M dwarf stars, which have masses less than 60 per cent that of the Sun, make up 75 per cent of the population of the stars in the Galaxy. The atmospheres of orbiting Earth-sized planets are observationally accessible via transmission spectroscopy when the planets pass in front of these stars. Statistical results suggest that the nearest transiting Earth-sized planet in the liquid-water, habitable zone of an M dwarf star is probably around 10.5 parsecs away. A temperate planet has been discovered orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest M dwarf, but it probably does not transit and its true mass is unknown...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425851/altered-structure-and-function-of-adipose-tissue-in-long-lived-mice-with-growth-hormone-related-mutations
#2
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Andrzej Bartke
A major focus of biogerontology is elucidating the role(s) of the endocrine system in aging and the accumulation of age-related diseases. Endocrine control of mammalian longevity was first reported in Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) mice, which are long-lived due to a recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Following this report, several other GH-related mutants with altered longevity have been described including long-lived Snell dwarf and growth hormone receptor knockout mice, and short-lived GH overexpressing transgenic mice...
March 21, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421106/the-synergistic-responses-of-different-photoprotective-pathways-in-dwarf-bamboo-fargesia-rufa-to-drought-and-subsequent-rewatering
#3
Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Kaiwen Pan, Qingwei Wang, Jin Liang, Yanqiang Jin, Akash Tariq
Dwarf bamboo-dominated forests are often subjected to temporary periods of drought due to rising air temperature and decreasing rainfall. Nevertheless, the relationship among CO2 assimilation, photoprotective pathways and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains unexplored in bamboo species. Changes in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, energy partitioning, antioxidative system and compounds related to ROS metabolism in Fargesia rufa plants subjected to drought and subsequent rewatering were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#4
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414734/micrornas-as-reference-genes-for-quantitative-pcr-in-cotton
#5
Anna Karoline Silva Fausto, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Elisson Romanel, Maite F S Vaslin
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the most important non-food plant in the world. Studies concerning the fiber quality and plant fitness of cotton at molecular level depend on high sensitive and reproducible gene-expression assays. However, only a few reports have described genes suitable for normalizing gene expression data. In this study, we report for the first time that microRNAs (miRNAs) are reliable reference genes (RGs) for cotton gene expression normalization in quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413198/engineering-the-lodging-resistance-mechanism-of-post-green-revolution-rice-to-meet-future-demands
#6
REVIEW
Ko Hirano, Reynante Lacsamana Ordonio, Makoto Matsuoka
Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. Dwarfism lowers the "center of gravity" of the plant body, which increases resistance against lodging and enables plants to support high grain yield. Although this approach was successful in latter half of the 20th century in rice and wheat breeding, this may no longer be enough to sustain rice with even higher yields. This is because relying solely on the semi-dwarf trait is subject to certain limitations, making it necessary to use other important traits to reinforce it...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412605/brachytic-1-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-encodes-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-heterotrimeric-g-protein
#7
Ai Ito, Ayumi Yasuda, Kosuke Yamaoka, Minase Ueda, Akira Nakayama, Suguru Takatsuto, Ichiro Honda
Physiological and molecular biological analysis of the dwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant brachytic 1 (brh1) was conducted. The root responses of brh1 to brassinolide were weaker than those of wild type, but the responses of leaf segments of dark-grown plants were not. Responses of brh1 to gibberellin A3 were similar to or slightly stronger than those of wild type. Endogenous levels of these hormones in young seedlings were not clearly different between brh1 and wild type. Skotomorphogeneses of brh1 were similar to those of wild type...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400495/constitutively-active-arabidopsis-map-kinase-3-triggers-defense-responses-involving-salicylic-acid-and-summ2-resistance-protein
#8
Baptiste Genot, Julien Lang, Souha Berriri, Marie Garmier, Françoise Gilard, Stéphanie Pateyron, Katrien Haustraete, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Heribert Hirt, Jean Colcombet
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important regulators of plant immunity. Most of the knowledge about the function of these pathways is derived from loss-of-function approaches. Using a gain-of-function approach, we investigated the responses controlled by a constitutively active (CA) MPK3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarfed and display a massive de-repression of defense genes associated with spontaneous cell death as well as accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phytoalexins and the stress-related hormones ethylene and salicylic acid (SA)...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399297/two-new-species-of-sucking-lice-phthiraptera-anoplura-polyplacidae-from-endangered-hibernating-lemurs-primates-cheirogaleidae
#9
Lance A Durden, Marina B Blanco, Matthew H Seabolt
Lemurpediculus robbinsi sp. nov. is described from Crossley's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus crossleyi A. Grandidier, and Lemurpediculus claytoni sp. nov. is described from Sibree's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus sibreei Forsyth Major, from Madagascar. Both sexes of each new louse species are illustrated and distinguished from the two previously known species of Lemurpediculus: L. verruculosus (Ward) and L. petterorum Paulian. With the addition of two new species to the genus, an amended description of Lemurpediculus is provided...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397551/biological-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-dwarf-elder-sambucus-ebulus-l-a-review
#10
Marzie Jabbari, Babak Daneshfard, Majid Emtiazy, Ali Khiveh, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur
Dwarf elder ( Sambucus ebulus L) is one of the best known medicinal herbs since ancient times. In view of its benefits as a widely applicable phytomedicine, it is still used in folk medicine of different parts of the world. In addition to its nutritional values, dwarf elder contains different phytochemicals among which flavonoids and lectins are responsible for most of its therapeutic effects. Dwarf elder has been used for different ailments including: joint pains, cold, wounds, and infections. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed its potentials for making attempts at treating cancer and metabolic disorders...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396284/identification-of-a-nanovirus-alphasatellite-complex-in-sophora-alopecuroides
#11
Jahangir Heydarnejad, Mehdi Kamali, Hossain Massumi, Anders Kvarnheden, Maketalena F Male, Simona Kraberger, Daisy Stainton, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani
Viruses in the genus Nanovirus of the family Nanoviridae generally have eight individually encapsidated circular genome components and have been predominantly found infecting Fabaceae plants in Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. For over a decade Sophora alopecuroides L. (Fabaceae) plants have been observed across Iran displaying dwarfing, yellowing, stunted leaves and yellow vein banding. Using a high-throughput sequencing approach, sequences were identified within one such plant that had similarities to nanovirus genome components...
April 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396075/tidal-fluctuations-influence-e-coli-concentrations-in-urban-estuaries
#12
Dusan Jovanovic, Rhys Coleman, Ana Deletic, David T McCarthy
This study investigated the influence of water level and velocity on Escherichia coli levels over multiple tidal cycles in an urban microtidal estuary in Melbourne, Australia. Over 3,500 E. coli samples and high resolution water level and velocity measurements from two locations within the estuary were used for the analysis. E. coli negatively correlated with water level in the upper estuary which was proposed to be linked to increased resuspension of estuarine sediments during low tide. No relationship was found in the lower estuary, likely due to wet weather inputs dwarfing subtler tidal-related processes...
April 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394310/gw5-acts-in-the-brassinosteroid-signalling-pathway-to-regulate-grain-width-and-weight-in-rice
#13
Jiafan Liu, Jun Chen, Xiaoming Zheng, Fuqing Wu, Qibing Lin, Yueqin Heng, Peng Tian, ZhiJun Cheng, Xiaowen Yu, Kunneng Zhou, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Jiulin Wang, Haiyang Wang, Jianmin Wan
Grain size is a major determinant of grain yield in cereal crops. qSW5/GW5, which exerts the greatest effect on rice grain width and weight, was fine-mapped to a 2,263-bp/21-kb genomic region containing a 1,212-bp deletion, respectively. Here, we show that a gene encoding a calmodulin binding protein, located ∼5 kb downstream of the 1,212-bp deletion, corresponds to qSW5/GW5. GW5 is expressed in various rice organs, with highest expression level detected in young panicles. We provide evidence that the 1,212-bp deletion affects grain width most likely through influencing the expression levels of GW5...
April 10, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386650/complete-genomic-characterization-of-milk-vetch-dwarf-virus-isolates-from-cowpea-and-broad-bean-in-anhui-province-china
#14
Chenhua Zhang, Hongying Zheng, Dankan Yan, Kelei Han, Xijiao Song, Yong Liu, Dongfang Zhang, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386232/transcriptomic-profiles-reveal-the-interactions-of-cd-zn-in-dwarf-polish-wheat-triticum-polonicum-l-roots
#15
Yi Wang, Xiaolu Wang, Chao Wang, Fan Peng, Ruijiao Wang, Xue Xiao, Jian Zeng, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Haiqin Zhang, Yonghong Zhou
Different intra- or interspecific wheat show different interactions of Cd/Zn. Normally, Zn has been/being widely utilized to reduce the Cd toxicity. In the present study, the DPW seedlings exhibited strong Cd tolerance. Zn and Cd mutually inhibited their uptake in the roots, showed antagonistic Cd/Zn interactions. However, Zn promoted the Cd transport from the roots to shoots, showed synergistic. In order to discover the interactive molecular responses, a transcriptome, including 123,300 unigenes, was constructed using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382854/lymphoma-classification-in-goats
#16
Patti K Kiser, Christiane V Löhr
Lymphoma has been described in individual cases for goats but not systematically characterized in a larger cohort. This study aimed to subtype caprine lymphoma based on topographic and subgross distribution, immunophenotype, and cellular morphology following the World Health Organization classification system for hematopoietic tumors in domestic animals. Fifteen caprine lymphoma cases were assessed with 6 submitted as biopsy and 9 for postmortem examination. Goats were predominantly young adult (median 3 years) and dwarf breeds (Pygmy and Pygora)...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382031/virus-induced-tubules-a-vehicle-for-spread-of-virions-into-ovary-oocyte-cells-of-an-insect-vector
#17
Zhenfeng Liao, Qianzhuo Mao, Jiajia Li, Chengcong Lu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many arthropod-borne viruses are persistently propagated and transovarially transmitted by female insect vectors through eggs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Insect oocytes are surrounded by a layer of follicular cells, which are connected to the oocyte through actin-based microvilli. Here, we demonstrate that a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of viral non-structural protein Pns11 to pass through actin-based junctions between follicular cells or through actin-based microvilli from follicular cells into oocyte of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis, thus overcoming transovarial transmission barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381575/filamentous-structures-induced-by-a-phytoreovirus-mediate-viral-release-from-salivary-glands-in-its-insect-vector
#18
Qianzhuo Mao, Zhengfeng Liao, Jiajia Li, Yuyan Liu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Numerous viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. These viruses circulate in the vector body, enter the salivary gland, and then are released into the apical plasmalemma-lined cavities where saliva is stored. The cavity plasmalemma of vector salivary glands thus represents the last membrane barrier for viral transmission. Here, we report a novel mechanism used by a persistent virus to overcome this essential barrier. We observed that the infection by rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), a species of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, induced to form virus-associated filaments constructed by viral nonstructural protein Pns11 within the salivary glands of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis Such filaments attached to actin-based apical plasmalemma and induced an exocytosis-like process for viral release into vector salivary gland cavities, through a direct interaction of Pns11 of RGDV and actin of R...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374224/effects-of-insect-herbivory-on-bilberry-production-and-removal-of-berries-by-frugivores
#19
Tuuli-Marjaana Koski, Marika Kalpio, Toni Laaksonen, Päivi M Sirkiä, Heikki P Kallio, Baoru Yang, Kaisa M Linderborg, Tero Klemola
The evolutionary purpose of a fleshy fruit is to attract seed dispersers and get the seeds dispersed by frugivorous animals. For this reason, fruits should be highly rewarding to these mutualists. However, insect herbivory can alter plant reproductive success e.g. by decreasing fruit yield or affecting the attractiveness of the fruits to mutualistic seed dispersers. Under natural conditions, we tested the effects of experimental larval-defoliation on berry ripening and consumption of a non-cultivated dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370633/silencing-a-phloretin-specific-glycosyltransferase-perturbs-both-general-phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis-and-plant-development
#20
Andrew P Dare, Yar-Khing Yauk, Sumathi Tomes, Tony K McGhie, Ria S Rebstock, Janine M Cooney, Ross G Atkinson
The polyphenol profile of apple (Malus x domestica) is dominated by the dihydrochalcone glycoside phloridzin, however, its physiological role is yet to be elucidated. Biosynthesis of phloridzin occurs as a side-branch of the main phenylpropanoid pathway with the final step mediated by the phloretin-specific glycosyltransferase UGT88F1. Unexpectedly, given that UGTs are sometimes viewed as 'decorating enzymes', UGT88F1 knockdown lines were severely dwarfed with greatly reduced internode lengths, narrow lanceolate leaves, and changes in leaf and fruit cellular morphology...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
keyword
keyword
17452
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"