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Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Giulia Castorina, Martina Persico, Massimo Zilio, Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Gabriella Consonni
Background and Aims: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones involved in many developmental processes as well as in plant-environment interactions. Their role was investigated in this study through the analysis of lilliputian1-1 (lil1-1), a dwarf mutant impaired in BR biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays). Methods: We isolated lil1-1 through transposon tagging in maize. The action of lil1 was investigated through morphological and genetic analysis. Moreover, by comparing lil1-1 mutant and wild-type individuals grown under drought stress, the effect of BR reduction on the response to drought stress was examined...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Botany
Qiqi Yan, Lixiang Wang, Xia Li
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth, and BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors integrate a variety of plant signaling pathways. Despite the fact that BRs inhibit nodulation in leguminous plants, how BRs modulate rhizobia-host interactions and nodule morphogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that GmBEHL1, a soybean homolog of Arabidopsis BES1/BZR1 homolog 1 (BEH1), is an interacting partner of Nodule Number Control 1, a transcriptional repressor that mediates soybean nodulation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew S Leslie, Phillip A Morin
Little is known about global patterns of genetic connectivity in pelagic dolphins, including how circumtropical pelagic dolphins spread globally following the rapid and recent radiation of the subfamily delphininae. In this study, we tested phylogeographic hypotheses for two circumtropical species, the spinner dolphin ( Stenella longirostris ) and the pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ), using more than 3000 nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each species. Analyses for population structure indicated significant genetic differentiation between almost all subspecies and populations in both species...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Huawei Liu, Liping Wu, Ekaterina Nikolaeva, Kari Peter, Zongrang Liu, Dimitre Mollov, Mengji Cao, Ruhui Li
BACKGROUND: 'Rapid Apple Decline' (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the Northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, cracking and canker before collapse in summer. In this study, we discovered and characterized a new luteovirus from apple trees in RAD-affected orchards using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and subsequent Sanger sequencing. METHODS: Illumina NextSeq sequencing was applied to total RNAs prepared from three diseased apple trees...
May 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Fang Wang, Xia Zhao, Qing Dong, Benguo Zhou, Zhengliang Gao
Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV2 (MYDV-RMV2) causes dwarfing and yellowing symptoms on leaves in field-grown maize plants in Anhui province in China. Herein, we evaluated the RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity of the P0 protein from MYDV-RMV2 by co-infiltration assays using wild-type and GFP-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (line 16C). The P0 of MYDV-RMV2 exhibited RSS activity and inhibited RNA silencing both locally and systemically. MYDV-RMV2 P0 acts as an F-box-like motif, and mutations to Ala at positions 67, 68, and 81 in the F-box-like motif (67LPxx81P) abolished the RSS activity of P0...
May 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Laramy Enders, Trevor Hefley, John Girvin, Robert Whitworth, Charles Smith
Several aphid species transmit barley yellow dwarf, a globally destructive disease caused by viruses that infect cereal grain crops. Data from >400 samples collected across Kansas wheat fields in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop spatio-temporal models predicting the extent to which landcover, temperature and precipitation affect spring aphid vector abundance and presence of individuals carrying Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The distribution of Rhopalosiphum padi abundance was not correlated with climate or landcover, but Sitobion avenae abundance was positively correlated to fall temperature and negatively correlated to spring temperature and precipitation...
May 11, 2018: Phytopathology
Shudai Lin, Congjun Li, Charles Li, Xiquan Zhang
Growth hormone (GH) promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs) at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lu Liu, Chunying Li, Shiyong Song, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Lisha Shen, Yanwen Wang, David Jackson, Hao Yu
Organogenesis in higher plants occurs in the shoot meristem, which contains pluripotent stem cells. Here, we show that two multiple C2 domain and transmembrane region proteins, FT INTERACTING PROTEIN 3 (FTIP3) and FTIP4, play an essential role in mediating proliferation and differentiation of shoot stem cells in Arabidopsis. FTIP3/4 prevent intracellular trafficking of a key regulator, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), to the plasma membrane in cells in the peripheral shoot meristem region. This facilitates STM recycling to the nucleus to maintain stem cells...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Mayuko Otsubo, Chikako Ikoma, Mariko Ueda, Yumi Ishii, Noriaki Tamura
The functional role of a lipid-associated soluble protein, fibrillin5 (FBN5), was determined with the Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous fbn5-knockout mutant line (SALK_064597) that carries a T-DNA insertion within the FBN5 gene. The fbn5 mutant remained alive, displaying a slow growth and a severe dwarf phenotype. The mutant grown even under growth light conditions at 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 showed a drastic decrease in electron transfer activities around PSII, with little change in electron transfer activities around PSI, a phenomenon which was exaggerated under high light stress...
May 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Qian Chen, Ning Ding, Ling Peng, Shun Feng Ge, Yuan Mao Jiang
Seven-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M26 /M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and 15 N trace technique were used to explore the characteristics of 15 N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality under different nitrogen application rates (N100 , N200 and N300 ). The main results were as follows: the plant growth, 15 N absorption, utilization and loss differed significantly under different treatments. The plant leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (Pn ), total N content of leaves and the biomass, as well as the root-shoot ratio of N200 treatment were obviously higher than the N100 and N300 treatments...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Qian Chen, Ning Ding, Zhan Ling Zhu, Ling Peng, Shun Feng Ge, Yuan Mao Jiang
Two-year-old potted Fuji 3 apple trees on different rootstocks [Fuji 3/M. micromalus Makin (joe), Fuji 3/M7 (semi-dwarf) and Fuji 3/M26/M. micromalus Makin (dwarf)] were used to study leaf morphology and photosynthesis and the characteristics of distribution and utilization of 13 C and 15 N at different nitrogen supply levels (0N, 25%N and 100%N, the N content in 100% N treatment was the same as that in Hoagland complete nutrient solution) under sand culture condition. The main results were as follows: At shoot growth cessation stage in autumn, the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic rate were found the highest in Fuji 3/M...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Weibo Ren, Jihong Xie, Xiangyang Hou, Xiliang Li, Huiqin Guo, Ningning Hu, Lingqi Kong, Jize Zhang, Chun Chang, Zinian Wu
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to reveal potential molecular mechanisms of long-term overgrazing-induced dwarfism in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). METHODS: An electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry system was used to generate proteomic data of dwarf sheepgrass from a long-term overgrazed rangeland and normal sheepgrass from a long-term enclosed rangeland. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between dwarf and normal sheepgrass were identified, after which their potential functions and interactions with each other were predicted...
May 8, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
A Karun, K K Sajini, K S Muralikrishna, M K Rajesh, F Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation opens new avenues in the field of genetic resource conservation, especially in recalcitrant seeded palms such as arecanut for which field genebanks are exposed to pest and disease attacks and natural calamities. It is only through cryopreservation that the safety of the conserved germplasm can be assured at a relatively low cost for extended periods. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to standardize various aspects of arecanut pollen cryopreservation, viz...
November 2017: Cryo Letters
Jun Zhao, Xueqin Tang, Charlene P Wight, Nicholas A Tinker, Yunfeng Jiang, Honghai Yan, Jian Ma, Xiu-Jin Lan, Yu-Ming Wei, Changzhong Ren, Guoyue Chen, Yuanying Peng
Short straw is a desired trait in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.) for some production environments. Marker-assisted selection, a key tool for achieving this objective, is limited by a lack of mapping data and available markers. Here, bulked-segregant analysis was used to identify PCR-based markers associated with a dwarfing gene. Genetic analysis identified a monogenic dominant inheritance of one dwarfing gene from WAOAT2132, temporarily designated DwWA. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (AME117) that was already available and a new codominant PCR-based marker (bi17) developed by homologous cloning in the present study were both associated with the dwarfing gene...
May 7, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Samira Samarfard, Nicolas E Bejerman, Ralf G Dietzgen
In 2010, a novel cytorhabdovirus named alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV) was detected for the first time in lucerne crops in Argentina showing dwarfism, in mixed infections with several other viruses. ADV appears to be endemic to Argentina and has not been reported elsewhere. In this study, we have investigated the genetic variability of ADV based on the complete nucleoprotein (N) gene of 13 isolates from different lucerne-growing regions in Argentina. Phylogenetic and sequence identity analyses showed that all ADV isolates are closely related and have not diverged more than 1% in the N gene despite geographical separation...
May 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Marta A Skowron Volponi, Donald James McLean, Paolo Volponi, Robert Dudley
Clearwing moths are known for their physical resemblance to hymenopterans, but the extent of their behavioural mimicry is unknown. We describe zigzag flights of sesiid bee mimics that are nearly indistinguishable from those of sympatric bees, whereas sesiid wasp mimics display faster, straighter flights more akin to those of wasps. In particular, the flight of the sesiids Heterosphecia pahangensis , Aschistophleps argentifasciata and Pyrophleps cruentata resembles both Tetragonilla collina and T. atripes stingless bees and, to a lesser extent, dwarf honeybees Apis andreniformis , whereas the sesiid Pyrophleps sp...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Derick N Forbanka
Needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) and fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) are specialist gummivores inhabiting the forests of Cameroon and Madagascar, respectively. They share a suite of adaptations related to their foraging behavior, but are distantly related. I compared structural characteristics of the natural vegetation in which these strepsirrhines occurred using 10 m × 10 m (100 m2 ) quadrats established in forest areas selected on the grounds of observations of animals during nocturnal surveys...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Ruishi He, Yongjing Ni, Junchang Li, Zhixin Jiao, Xinxin Zhu, Yumei Jiang, Qiaoyun Li, Jishan Niu
Tiller number is an important agronomic trait for grain yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). A dwarf-monoculm wheat mutant ( dmc ) was obtained from cultivar Guomai 301 (wild type, WT). Here, we explored the molecular basis for the restrained tiller development of the mutant dmc . Two bulked samples of the mutant dmc (T1, T2 and T3) and WT (T4, T5 and T6) with three biological replicates were comparatively analyzed at the transcriptional level by bulked RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 68.8 Gb data and 463 million reads were generated, 80% of which were mapped to the wheat reference genome of Chinese Spring...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuan Zhang, Dan-Yang Mi, Jin Wang, Yan-Ping Luo, Xu Yang, Shi Dong, Xing-Ming Ma, Kai-Zhong Dong
Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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