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Hirokazu Arimoto, Daiki Takahashi
Nitric oxide (NO) raises the intracellular 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and, in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reacts with biomolecules to produce nitrated cGMP derivatives. 8-Nitro-cGMP was the first endogenous cGMP derivative discovered in mammalian cells (2007) and was later found in plant cells. Among the six nitrogen atoms in this molecule, the one in the nitro group (NO2) comes from NO. This chapter asserts that this newly found cGMP is undoubtedly one of the major physiological cNMPs...
February 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Alexandra Stolz, Mateusz Putyrski, Ivana Kutle, Jessica Huber, Chunxin Wang, Viktória Major, Sachdev S Sidhu, Richard J Youle, Vladimir V Rogov, Volker Dötsch, Andreas Ernst, Ivan Dikic
Autophagy is a cellular surveillance pathway that balances metabolic and energy resources and transports specific cargos, including damaged mitochondria, other broken organelles, or pathogens for degradation to the lysosome. Central components of autophagosomal biogenesis are six members of the LC3 and GABARAP family of ubiquitin-like proteins (mATG8s). We used phage display to isolate peptides that possess bona fide LIR (LC3-interacting region) properties and are selective for individual mATG8 isoforms. Sensitivity of the developed sensors was optimized by multiplication, charge distribution, and fusion with a membrane recruitment (FYVE) or an oligomerization (PB1) domain...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
Kai Mao, Daniel J Klionsky
In eukaryotes, xenophagy is defined as a type of selective macroautophagy/autophagy that is used for eliminating invading pathogens. In contrast to other types of selective autophagy, such as mitophagy, pexophagy and ribophagy, xenophagy is used by eukaryotes for targeting microbes-hence the prefix "xeno" meaning "other" or "foreign"-that have infected a host cell, leading to their lysosomal degradation. This unique characteristic links xenophagy to antibacterial and antiviral defenses, as well as the immune response...
February 2017: Autophagy
Xinbing Sui, Xiao Liang, Liuxi Chen, Chunming Guo, Weidong Han, Hongming Pan, Xue Li
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved catabolic process through which cellular excessive or dysfunctional proteins and organelles are transported to the lysosome for terminal degradation and recycling. Over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested that autophagy is not only a simple metabolite recycling mechanism, but also plays a critical role in the removal of intracellular pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. When autophagy engulfs intracellular pathogens, the pathway is called 'xenophagy' because it leads to the elimination of foreign microbes...
February 2017: Autophagy
Jennifer Scheidel, Leonie Amstein, Jörg Ackermann, Ivan Dikic, Ina Koch
The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Robert J Heath, Gautam Goel, Leigh A Baxt, Jason S Rush, Vishnu Mohanan, Geraldine L C Paulus, Vijay Jani, Kara G Lassen, Ramnik J Xavier
Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that involves the targeting and elimination of intracellular pathogens through several recognition, recruitment, and ubiquitination events. E3 ubiquitin ligases control substrate selectivity in the ubiquitination cascade; however, systematic approaches to map the role of E3 ligases in antibacterial autophagy have been lacking. We screened more than 600 putative human E3 ligases, identifying E3 ligases that are required for adaptor protein recruitment and LC3-bacteria colocalization, critical steps in antibacterial autophagy...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Christina L Stallings
Research in recent years has focused significantly on the role of selective macroautophagy in targeting intracellular pathogens for lysosomal degradation, a process termed xenophagy. In this review we evaluate the proposed roles for xenophagy in controlling bacterial infection, highlighting the concept that successful pathogens have evolved ways to subvert or exploit this defense, minimizing the actual effectiveness of xenophagy in innate immunity. Instead, studies in animal models have revealed that autophagy-associated proteins often function outside of xenophagy to influence bacterial pathogenesis...
December 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Takashi Nozawa, Atsuko Minowa-Nozawa, Chihiro Aikawa, Ichiro Nakagawa
Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a critical role in immunity by directly degrading invading pathogens such as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), through a process that has been named xenophagy. We previously demonstrated that autophagic vacuoles directed against GAS, termed GAS-containing autophagosome-like vacuoles (GcAVs), use recycling endosomes (REs) as a membrane source. However, the precise molecular mechanism that facilitates the fusion between GcAVs and REs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that STX6 (syntaxin 6) is recruited to GcAVs and forms a complex with VTI1B and VAMP3 to regulate the GcAV-RE fusion that is required for xenophagy...
January 2, 2017: Autophagy
Noelia López-Montero, Estel Ramos-Marquès, Cristina Risco, Francisco García-Del Portillo
Xenophagy has been studied in epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Distinct autophagy receptors target this pathogen to degradation after interacting with ubiquitin on the surface of cytosolic bacteria, and the phagophore- and autophagosome-associated protein MAP1LC3/LC3. Glycans exposed in damaged phagosomal membranes and diacylglycerol accumulation in the phagosomal membrane also trigger S. Typhimurium xenophagy. How these responses control intraphagosomal and cytosolic bacteria remains poorly understood...
October 2, 2016: Autophagy
Tihana Bionda, Christian Behrends
Ubiquitination plays a critical role in the activation of host immune responses to infection and serves as a signal for pathogen delivery to phagophores along the xenophagy pathway. We recently performed systematic ubiquitination site profiling of epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings specifically highlight components of the NFKB, membrane trafficking pathways and RHO GTPase systems as ubiquitination hubs during infection. In addition, a broad spectrum of bacterial effectors and several outer membrane proteins are ubiquitinated in infected cells...
September 2016: Autophagy
Cheryl Miller, Jean Celli
Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal recycling process, which maintains cellular homeostasis during stress and starvation conditions by degrading and recycling proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, ultimately increasing nutrient availability in eukaryotes. An additional function of autophagy, termed xenophagy, is to detect, capture, and destroy invading microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, providing autophagy with a role in innate immunity. Many intracellular pathogens have, however, developed mechanisms to avoid xenophagy and have evolved strategies to take advantage of select autophagic processes to undergo their intracellular life cycle...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Gustav van Niekerk, Ashwin W Isaacs, Theo Nell, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
During an infection, expansion of immune cells, assembly of antibodies, and the induction of a febrile response collectively place continual metabolic strain on the host. These considerations also provide a rationale for nutritional support in critically ill patients. Yet, results from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that aggressive nutritional support does not always benefit patients and may occasionally be detrimental. Moreover, both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit a decrease in appetite during an infection, indicating that such sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) is evolutionarily conserved...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Erin M Buckingham, Keith W Jarosinski, Wallen Jackson, John E Carpenter, Charles Grose
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely cell-associated herpesvirus with limited egress of viral particles. The induction of autophagy in VZV-infected monolayers is easily detectable; inhibition of autophagy leads to decreased VZV glycoprotein biosynthesis and diminished viral titers. To explain how autophagic flux could exert a proviral effect on the VZV infectious cycle, we postulated that the VZV exocytosis pathway following secondary envelopment may converge with the autophagy pathway...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ashley J Dittmar, Allison A Drozda, Ira J Blader
The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of <5 µM. A significant number of these compounds are established inhibitors of dopamine or estrogen signaling...
March 2016: MSphere
Bor Luen Tang
Rab GTPases' subversion by intracellular pathogens during infection has been extensively documented. Recent findings have implicated a key intracellular bacterial restriction/containment function for Rab32/38 in Salmonella species in macrophages and Listeria monocytogenes in dendritic cells. Rab32/38 aids the phagolysosome maturation, and mediates a parallel xenophagy mechanism by engaging prohibitins.
May 30, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Danielle Pilla-Moffett, Matthew F Barber, Gregory A Taylor, Jörn Coers
Cell-autonomous immunity is essential for host organisms to defend themselves against invasive microbes. In vertebrates, both the adaptive and the innate branches of the immune system operate cell-autonomous defenses as key effector mechanisms that are induced by pro-inflammatory interferons (IFNs). IFNs can activate cell-intrinsic host defenses in virtually any cell type ranging from professional phagocytes to mucosal epithelial cells. Much of this IFN-induced host resistance program is dependent on four families of IFN-inducible GTPases: the myxovirus resistance proteins, the immunity-related GTPases, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), and the very large IFN-inducible GTPases...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Mireille Ouimet, Stefan Koster, Erik Sakowski, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Coen van Solingen, Scott Oldebeken, Denuja Karunakaran, Cynthia Portal-Celhay, Frederick J Sheedy, Tathagat Dutta Ray, Katharine Cecchini, Philip D Zamore, Katey J Rayner, Yves L Marcel, Jennifer A Philips, Kathryn J Moore
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives in macrophages by evading delivery to the lysosome and promoting the accumulation of lipid bodies, which serve as a bacterial source of nutrients. We found that by inducing the microRNA (miRNA) miR-33 and its passenger strand miR-33*, Mtb inhibited integrated pathways involved in autophagy, lysosomal function and fatty acid oxidation to support bacterial replication. Silencing of miR-33 and miR-33* by genetic or pharmacological means promoted autophagy flux through derepression of key autophagy effectors (such as ATG5, ATG12, LC3B and LAMP1) and AMPK-dependent activation of the transcription factors FOXO3 and TFEB, which enhanced lipid catabolism and Mtb xenophagy...
June 2016: Nature Immunology
Pallavi Chandra, Dhiraj Kumar
Induction of autophagy has been reported as a potential means to eliminate intracellular pathogens. Corroborating that, many studies report inhibition of autophagy as a survival strategy of bacterial pathogens. Incidentally, autophagy at the basal level is critical for survival of host cells including macrophages. We asked how a bacterial pathogen could inhibit autophagy for its survival if the inhibition resulted in cell death. In a recent study we show distinct regulation of autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected macrophages where Mtb-containing- and nonMtb-containing autophagosomes show different fates in terms of maturation...
2016: Autophagy
Gabriel Muciño, Susana Castro-Obregón, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Gabriel Del Rio
The emergence of complex diseases is promoting a change from one-target to multitarget drugs and peptides are ideal molecules to fulfill this polypharmacologic role. Here we review current status in the design of polypharmacological peptides aimed to treat complex diseases, focusing on tuberculosis. In this sense, combining multiple activities in single molecules is a two-sided sword, as both positive and negative side effects might arise. These polypharmacologic compounds may be directed to regulate autophagy, a catabolic process that enables cells to eliminate intracellular microbes (xenophagy), such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT)...
April 2016: IUBMB Life
Xuefeng Li, Sisi He, Xikun Zhou, Yan Ye, Shirui Tan, Shuang Zhang, Rongpeng Li, Min Yu, Michael C Jundt, Alec Hidebrand, Yongsheng Wang, Guoping Li, Canhua Huang, Min Wu
Extracellular bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have been reported to induce autophagy; however, the role and machinery of infection-induced autophagy remain elusive. We show that the pleiotropic Src kinase Lyn mediates phagocytosis and autophagosome maturation in alveolar macrophages (AM), which facilitates eventual bacterial eradication. We report that Lyn is required for bacterial infection-induced recruitment of autophagic components to pathogen-containing phagosomes. When we blocked autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or by depleting Lyn, we observed less phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial clearance by AM...
January 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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